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From the College of Fhyftcians^ 
OB. 5. 1 700. 

Mr. Smith, 

I Have Read the Book 
you fent me, which, for 
the great Difcoveries con- 
tain’d therein, is juftly En- 
titled, SThe Adyjleries of O- 
pium Reveal’d: It has no 
need of Mine, nor of any 
other Approbation : For fuch 
Extraordiiiary Performances, 
as this is, -are more fecure of 
a Kind Reception ifi the 
World by their own great 
Worth, and Ufefulnefs to 
the Publick, than by any 
otherRecommendatibn what- 


Thomas Burwell. 

16156 ,- 


- 4 ^ A, 




Moft Excellent Majefty, 

' May itpleafe TourMajefiyi, 

H Aving no Means to attone 
for my bold Ejfay toexpreis 
Your MAJESTY’S gh- 
rious A^Sy and Virtues upon a jmaU 
fiUavy (as much too narrow to con- 
tain, as my ?en was too fhor.t to 
reach them ) but by th)s Poor Sacri- 
fice, making o«e Prefumption tht 
Advocate of the other , (as if Offences 
bore no Proportion to Your ROYAL 
Notice, and Clemency without accu- 
mulating them^ I humbly implore 

A 4 com 

William 111. 



god’s Reprefentative in Mercy, as 
well as Potper, to be a Saviour in 
pardonivg, as well as prejerving. I 
confefs my Attempt as daring and 
a fuming, as that of the Arro- 
gant, and Sturdy Giants to fcale 
Heaven, being too great a Task^ 
for a general Confult of the moft 
exalted Wits on Earth, if not of 
Angels, and refin d feparate Souls, 
of whofe Number mine, by fre- 
quent Ecftafies of Thanks,2Lnd Praifes, 
for the Wonders Your M A J E S T Y 
has wrought for us, feems as it 
were ambitious to be one 5 as well 
knowing, that fuch miraculous Ex- 
ploits far tranfcend the Conceptions, 
and higheft Flights of thofe that are 
clog’d with Bodies-, which had quite 
balk’d my Endeavours to defcribe 
them, but that thok uncontrollable 
Raptures ufed Violence upon my Mo- 
de fiy, and a long defeated Expectation 
of better Pens render’d my Impatience 
Ohtragious, to find Men filent, where 


they cannot be loud enough j as if the 
Jmfrabiicablenefs of adequate Thanks 
had pall’d their Sprits 5 Or the vafl: 
Catara£lso£ BleffingsToxxc MAJESTY 
pour’d upon us had overwhelm’d j 
Or the confequent Eafe^znd Security 
lull’d them afleep 3 Or our exuberant 
Profperity overgrown the Memory 
of its brave, and generous Author : 
The Thoughts of Ingratitude, 

what Loyal, ot Moral Heart can bear 
without the highefl: Indignation ? 
The Fret,2.nd. Ferment whereof would 
have even burfted its Vefel without 
the Vent I gave it in exprefling my' 
Thoughts upon that Pillar 5 to mind 
the forgetful, excite the Lethargickj 
and give all a Model by my Papr- 
huilding to ereift more fumpuous and 
permanent Monument s o{ what GOD, 
and Your MAJESTY’S unparallel’d 
Magnanimity, Courage, and ConduB, 
have done for us. 

Since that was my Befign, Grati- 
tude my Motive, Deeds and Quali- 



ficatigns, that have no commenfu- 
rate Words, my Theme 5 I hope Ife- 
feUs in Exprejfion.wAX not intercept 
a gr adorn Afped. 

If the Book, affords any Thing new, 
or ufeful. Tour MAJESTY is the Au- 
thor, as Preserver of our Lives, and 
Efiablijher of the neceflary Tranquil- 
lity for Thoughtful Studies, and In- 
ventions -y therefore I humbly prefent 
it to Your moft Sacred MAJESTY, 
as yien do Oblations to the DEITY 
from whom they receiv’d them 5 
making it (as far as in me lies) 
4oubly Yours, as is, 


Tour M A J E S T Y’s 
<iHumble, ^Subjeft, 

Ij/IoJi Wbedient, ^ And 


Becmfe I could not Attend the Correftion of 
me Word in the whole Book, fome Er- 
rours have efcaped the Prefs, you have a. 
Liji of the main^ and may correB^ or pajs 
by the Reft. 


Note, That d jignifes dele (or hlot out) and al. fignifes 
always, the firft Figure Jlgnifies the Page, the fe- 
cond the Line. 

P Age 2, 7, d. and ; 6, 33, B/pj/a/©- ; 7, ult. Smyrna al. 

II, II, Sort ; i6y iefs bitter ; 20, 27, Hehnontians * 
21, 6y Bauhin al. 23, jj,fenfie; 23, i Dilatation 24, 
3 5’, Monardes ; 26’, 15, ^aUiative al. 27, i, Leipihymies al. 
27, 33, Conjiriciion 31, 6 ^ except ; 37, ^ , hindering ; 41, 
21, wholely z\. 20, 61, j 'vaporous ; 

68, 30, contejl ; 72, 2^ , nutritius 74, ir, or; 76, I3,£- 
•metteks y 76, 18, Vomitive \ 84, '^1, Helmontians ; 88, ult. 

Laxity; 91, 5, genus; 16, Narcotick ; 92, 
lOy defiitute ; 95, i^yrejinous al. 98, i 5 , d. /»• ; 109, 3, ; 

109, 2b, ContraEiions ; 112,6, Vigilative ; i io,'^o,efpecially - 
123, 27, ttAhop/ ; 124, 27, refraBs ; i2j,6,Dy^ 

fenteries ; ii%2i,rude; 12^, ^6, d. that ; 1 4^8, 28, gaudet ; 
152,13, Jphrodiftacks al. 1 54 , 1 6, defending ; 158,5, ObjeBs ; 

22, ineptitude ; I'^opyyvoluntary ; i']6,i$yGrtW ; 177,12, 
^afach; 178, 35, Afarahacca ; 187, 26, (pet^fxaiK , i.adij'o- 
’rout ; 1 9 1, 9, falaciom ; 198, 26, tartareus ; 201, 12, 

208, 5 , mollifying; 208, 12, Mafach ; 216,1^, eon- 
tent; 22S, I, Palfes ; 2’^^, 11, which is ; 268,21, Plat erus ; 
273, 23, TorrefaBion ; 2 7 4, 3 4, parenchymate ; 2 7 8 , 2 , y J'wp 3 
285, 30 Sc 35, ; 289, 19, 5- 291, 6 Sc Phi- 

hnium ; 293, d. firfi 7 Lines.,; 294, ly gt ; 297,13, 

tedious ;- 2^"], 30, Preparations; 305, 21, Centaury ; 312, 
21, d. or ; 316, 30, Luxations; ^28, 22, gradually ; 329, 
19, Jealoujies. 

Nate, That a and », / and t, i and (in Words Ends) 

I and n and x, are fometimes Printed one for the 


0 F 


Reveal d. 

C H A P* L 

Shms how Opium had Its Name^ how Uh 
made^ whence it comes ^ 8cCo 

H E Opium ^ that was in Ufc in Ancknt 
Timas ^ v/as niade thus : 

When the Poppy (which was gene- 
rally the and (ow’d then only 

in Gardens, and fmall indofures) was come to 
its full giowch, and moft turgid of Alllky Juke ^ 
which was in the hoc Cooncries \n May and Junei 
they did, as foon*: as the Dew was up in the 
mornings, make fcveral Incihons tranfverny or 
ivthicart the Heads of the Pop pies , yet not di-- 
re^ftly horirj)ntd^ but fomewhat oblkytely^ taking 


2 The Myjleries 

care not to make them quite through into the 
cavity thereof; holding the Knife y or Infirument^ 
with which the Incifiom were made^ with its Edge 
floaping upward, while it wounded the Heads, 
and conveniently placing certain Shells to receive 
the Milky DropSy that inued out of the Incijlons ^ 
and went backward among the Poppies^ as they 
proceeded in this Work, 

1. They chofe the Time when the Poppy Heads were 
mofi turgid of Milk, to take it in the beft Condi- 
lion for their Purpole ; for if they gathered k 
(boner, it was not fo Mature, and if afterward, 
(bme of its Tertue expired ; and the quantity of 
the Juice was lels, becaufe .dry’d up in Ibme 
meafiire, if not taken timely. 

2 . They made fever al Incifions in every Poppy'^s 
Heady to have the greater Plenty of Juice. 

3. They made them immediately after the Dew 
was upy to prevent its being tainted with any of 
the Dew ; and becaufe the great Heat of the Dayy 
in thofe Countreys y would much diminifh the Quan- 
tity of the Milky Juicey and fo thicken it, that 
it would not run out as freely as in the Morn* 

4. They made the Incifions tranfverfiyy thereby to 
cut and lay open more of the Milky VelTels. 

5. They made them fomewhat obliquely y that the 
Drops might the better follow, and overtake one 
the other, and thereby coalefce, and grow more 
confidsrable in Bulky and that the oblique Wound 
might the better condud them into the feme part 
of the Shells ; that they might find all together 
in a mafsy when it was fufficiently dried or infpifi 
feted by the Heat of the Sun. 

6. They did not make the Incifions quite through^ 
fif they could avoid it) left any of the Juice 
fhould run into the Cavity of the Heady and ifb be 
ioft among the Seeds contain’d therein. 

7 . They 

(^O'^wmReveaVJ. 5 

7. They Jloafed the Edge of the Knife^ or Infiru- 
fjient^ upwards y as they made the IncifionSy that the 
Juice might the eafier Aide outwardly ; efpecially 
in cafe they happened to make the Indfions quite 
through^ which *they could not always avoid, 
notwithftanding all the Care they ufed. 

8. They went backward, as they did it, to avoid 
going by the Shells, and incifed Heads ; left they 
ftiould diforder, or dilcompofe, or throw them 
down, or- wipe off any of the Juice with their 

This being done, they left the Milky Juke in 
the SheUs,^o^\n^ip\^ztQ by the Heat of the Sun 
into a Vilular Confifience. I have been the more 
particular, to fliew Men how to make Opium of 
Englijh Poppies y which you’ll find of good ufe. 

The Milky Juice, as it dry'd or thickened, did 
gradually change its colour from white to a kind of 
a reddifi yellow (or tawny) colour, not unlike, 
that of a Lyon*s Hak, which colour you may ft ill 
obferve on the infide of our common Opium^ 
when rudely torn hy force, if taken notice of uppn 
the tearing j for the dir does foon blacken it. 

This fort of Opium gathered in Shells, &c, (as 
is aforeiaid) the Grecians (our Mafiers in Fhyfck, 
from whom we derive the Names of many of 
our Medicaments, Difeafes, &cf) called 
which fignifies the Juice, by way of Emimrice \ 
as we call the Jefuits Bark (the Bark) becaufe 
moft ufeful, and excellent. 

The Latims, who had allb their Learning, and 
Words of Art, from the Grecians, called it Opium 
from it being ufual with them in very 

many Cafes, particularly an things made out of 
other Matter (as Opium is made out of 
the Juice) to change os to um or ium, lb that 
(or Opoj) was by them call’d Opium. 

4 The Myfieries 

The Latines becoming Mafiers of the World, 
and of every Thing that was good and excel- 
lent \ and all People obferving their Manmrsy 
FaJljtom^ Ufagejy d^c. fome of the Eaftern People 
got the Ufe and Name of Opium from the Latines^ 
which they in Procefs of Time called Ofium^ by 
changing m (or pi) into fi ; which is very com- 
mon in all Nations^ becaule the natural Pursuit 
of Eafoy and PleafurCy in the Run of Difcourfe^ 
changes the harder ^ and harflier founds, into fuch 
as are eajier^ and fveeter, when they are like in 
(bund, as pi and fi are. The Sound of t (or pi) is 
harder than that of / } i . Becaule it quite flops the 
Breathy which the found of /does not. 2. Be- 
caule the found of t (or p) requires the motion 
of the Loiver Lip upward, againfl its natural 
gravity, and the motion of the whole Lower Jaw 
upward, by conlent, to help that of the Lip^ 
whereas in forming the found of f the Lower 
Lip moves only horix^ontaUy which is the cafieft 
of Motions, except the Natural motion of weighty 
Things downward, or light Things upwards yet 
are both thole Sounds like in thtiv formation in fo- 
veral other refpeUs \ as i . Becaufe both are non. 
^ocalix^ed Sounds. 2. Both are labial. 3. The 
Longue lies ftill in its Natural Pcfition in forming 
both. 4. The Uvula Valve, which Ihuts up the 
Paffage of the Breath through the Nofe, is fhut in 
forming both ^ all which lliews, that the found 
of rr (or p) 7 n ( ox pi) IS much harder CO be form'd 
than that of / (or / ) and yet confiderably like | 
which is the true Caufe why all Nations are apt 
to change the harder found of pt into the eafer and 
like Sound of / (or of p into that f): I put 
pi and fi for Infiance, becaufe the Likenefs ap- 
pears better in them by having the fame Vowel 
after both ; whereas when you lay p (or pee) f (ox ef) 
the Vifierence of the Vowels added, and Che found 


of Opium EeveaPd. 5 

of ee put after and of e before (to help 
the Confbnants to (bund) makes them (eem 
Rnlike^ by realbn of the different Vowels ^ (b dif- 
ferently placed ; whereas fi and fi, having the 
fame Vowel alike placed after them, do truly 
(hew their Ukenefs without confufion. It is by Rea- 
(bn of this Ukenefs^ 


That is Tranflated Troph^um (or Tro^ 

Befides, that the Arabians did and do very 
commonly change p tofy 

And this Ukenefs of the Sound of p and f, is the 
Reafon why pk is written for fy becaufe h lignifics 
the found of Breath expired, which if you ufc 
upon founding it will be the (bund of / ^ fo 
that/ is a kind of a breathing py that is ph. 

Of which Matter, the Curious in fuch Things 
may find more to their (atisfadion in my Phonor 
graphjy when publifhed, which, 1 hope, will be 
(uddenly, if not before this Book. 

They call it, in (bme of the Eafiern Countries, 
Affiumy or Affion, inftead of Ofiumy it being ufua! 
in all Countries to change the harder y and barfser 
found of Oy to that of a. Which is like it, but 
^ajter and fweeter. It is hence. 

B 3 



The Myfteries 

Carat y r Carat, 

,Fagaty ? 

That we are apt to tsiy^Flagan^V ox ^Flagon, 

' W ^gank 2 Wagon, 

&'c, y cl 
Changing the Sound of o to that of a ; be- 
caufe the Sound of a is eafier, and not 
unlike that of (as was faid.) 

Some in thofe Parts call it Amphion^ (or Am^ 
pion) for like Reafonsy all (doubtlefi) deriving the 
Names y that I have mentioned^ from the Greek 
Word "'O'irQ-y the Latines faying Opiumy ( whence 
we have it) the Arabians Ofiumy and (bme other 
Eafiern People Afiamy or Affitsmy and others Am- 

phioTSy dt'c. 

The bell Opiumy that was in Vfe in thole ancient 
Times y was had from the Chief (or 

City) of the Country of Thehais in Egypt y (not 
Thebes in Bxotiuy or Cicilia ) which is now called 
The'ves ; Becaufe, as /> is apt to take the found of 
fy lb p and b are much more apt to take the found 
of 'Uy which is (as it were) a fweeter fort of f 
with which it exadly agrees in its format ion y but 
that the found of 'v is vocalizedy (which fweetens 
it) and that of f is not. It is from the aptitude of 
the found of b and p, to change into the moll 
fweet found of 'u^ 

f i. ‘ That Children lay, Marvel for Marble^ &c, 

f Ebury 1 T Ivory, ^ 

j GubernOy I Govern. 

I Act/S/cT, Is tran* | David, 

^ That ^ or ^\ti^ ^d<la>y J> Hated to«i Fado. 

: I B/f /tAsQ-y » ^ in * Virgilius. 

I Jidppiayy 1 , j Farro. 

J iFita. 

' J. That 

of opium Reveal’d. 7 

^ Safor^ 1 Is tran- r Sawur, 

in ^Vapilio^ ^flatedto-J 

LVrafojitus^^ 'V in cFrovofi, 

Which changing of h and p to muft 
doubdefi happen in other Languagss^ 
as well as thofe I mentioned^ becaufe 
, the found of 'u is fo much eafievy and 
fweeter^ than either j yet like them in 

But the found of h is more like that of 'Vy be- 
caule the Ibi^d of both are vocaliz>edy which that 
of p (as has been (aid) is not ; fo that ^ and v 
agree exadly as p and f; This makes the 
ptians fay The'ves for ThAos^ as the Arahiam lay 
Ofum for Opium, 

Who knows, but this may be the eaufe why P 
is a kind of Ihut F, and F a kind of an open P ; 
for fiippofe P opened at the round part, to fignifie 
that the Lips are not clofed in founding F, and 
that the lower ftroak or part be left Ihorter, to 
fignifie that the lower Lip is drawn inward in 
founding F, the P becomes a perfect F, 

The Reafons why the Oplumy that came from 
Ththes,y (now called Theves) was, and is the bed, 
are, i . That Thebes (or Theves) being in Egypt j 
lies in a hotter Country, that is, nearer the Line 
(or Equator) than any of the Countries on the 
North-fide of the Mediterranean ; for it is obforved, 
that the Beat of Climates contributes very much 
to the Strength of Opium ^ which is weaker if 
you make it in England or Germany^ than in 
France; in the Northern Parts of than in 

Languedoc y which borders upon the Mediterranean; 
and weaker there than in Smirnay Natolia^ Aleppo ^ 

B 4 


$ The Myfleries 

and Apulia y which are more Southern and 
weaker in thofe Places than in Ihehat^s in Eg^pt : 
Fpr which c^iulc we may judge^, that the Optu&t 
which comes to England frQm the Eaft lnJiei^ that 
is yet hotter than Egypt ^ being much worfe than 
that of Thebes y (or The'yesym\i\\ in all probability 
be adulterated^ or made of the Leagues and Stems 
of the Eoppyy (as fbme fay ) otherwife it would 
be rather better, as coming from the hotter Coun- 
try. 2 . That of Thebes may be betfer, becaufe 
the Heat of Egypt is more conftant, and uniform, 
than in NatoUay AleppOy SmlrnOy d^c. 

The Quantity ot Opium which was gathered 
by the Milky Juice of the Poppy s Heads, dropping 
into Shells opt of the hdfions aforefaid, being but 
fiiiall ; and the Ufe of this moft noble, pleafing, 
and generous of Cordiahy and Medicaments, daily 
increafing, by the confiant and infallible Benefit 
they found thereby ; Men, partly to avoid the 
tedioufnefs of gathering it by Drops, and partly out 
of necefifity, but mainly (’cis to be doubted) out 
of covetoufhefisy began to bruife and pound the 
Toppy^s Heads, and to fqueeze out the Juice, tor 
Expedition and Quantities fake ; which bruifing, 
and fqueefing, caufed it to look blackifii. 

This the Greeks, for Diftindlion’s fake, called 
My.Wyyc.?, from the Word Unw, which fignifics 
Poppy ; fiill calling the better fort, which was ga- 
thered in Shells out of the fneifions of the Poppfis 

Thus have you the true Original of and 
Mvnudyissy, which the Lames (and we from them) 
call Qpiuff7,yLnd Meconiufn : Tho’ (as it happens' in 
moll Things in Merchandifc> to recommend thp 
Goods'^ we now call tbs Meconium , Opium, by the 
better Name, as they ido m another cafe (out of 
abundance of abfurd Civility) call every Quack a 

of Opium ReveaVd. ^ 

Afterward (its life growing more and more) 
they added the Leaves to the Poppfs Heads in the 
poiHiding 9 bruizing , and expreffing the Juice^ 
boiling it for fpeed’s fake to the confiftence of a 
Cotfs^ion ; which cooling, comes to the conli* 
ftence that we have it in (I mean the frefter and 
fofter fort that we have)whieh by the forcible poun- 
ding, fqueezing, and boiling, contra< 5 ts a blackUh 
Colour like that of Horfe- Aloes on the out-fide, to 
which Colour the Air does very much contribute, 
and preffing the Superficies clofe together; for if 
you rudely tear a piece of that we have (which is 
all of this laft kind) it looks at firft (as was laid) 
of a reUi^ Tellow *, but the Air^ elpecially if moift, 
or any Moipure^ and handling of it, and clofing 
the Superficies together, foon makes it lookblackim 
again. * This (as was intimated) is that we now 
call Opium^ and have in common Ufe. 

Which being alfo in common Ufe among the 
Grecians when the Turks Conquer’d them, was by 
the Grecians themfelves called Pou$ ( or Vos with 
the 0 mouthed widely) which came doiibtlefly 
from ’'O'T©- ^ the Meconium at laft gaining the bet- 
ter Name of ( or Vous or Vos ) after the 

manner aforelaid to recommend it (as all Opium 
is now call’d Thehan) and the O in the beginning 
of ’ paffed over in the Run of Difcourfe, 
which is not uncommon with Vowels ^ becaufe of 
their flat Sound^ which is (b by reafon of the wide 
Paflage that the Breath has between the Tongue and 
the Valate in the Formation thereof; for Widenefs 
of Paffage js the caufe of Flatnefs ^ Narrownefs 
(in Birds^ Children^ &c.) is the caufo of Sbarpnefs of 
Sound* therefore the Sound of Vowels being 
fadings and confequently not as much milfod as 
flsarper Sounds ^ we often oihit Vowels ^ particularly 
in the be^ning of Words, for Eafe and ShortneB 
fake. Thus it comes to pafij, ' 


10 The Myfteries 

' Fothecary 

That Men fay^ 

1 Larum 

I Light 
[^Pos for j 

r Apothecary^ 
I Apprentice* 

I p_<Abuttals. 

^ I Alarum. 

I Alight. 

And as "'O'tQ- came to be founded Pof^ fo Paj 
fas naturally) to be founded P»f (or Pem) becaufe 
it is eafier to found u after o in this and fome other 
cafes j than to omit it, as it is eafier to found p 
between ?n and t &c. than not; as in tempt ^ 
crumpty limpt^ &c. which are more eafily lb found- 
ed, tbanjf the found of p were left oui^ which 
1 call Eajtnefs of Confequence, Hence it is 

That <? 

J Hold 


Toll &C. 




I Sould. 

Are founded |Kf 

I Joul. 
tToul. &c. 

Changing the o into as the Grecians did 
Pos to Pous, For this and liich reafons it is, 
that the National Greek can hardly be un- 
derftood by Scholars^ when fpoken by the 

It is for the fame Reafon, that the Greeks write 
Greeks ( as we do Englijh^ and the French do their 
Language ) different from what they fpeak; fo 
that if any Man fhould learn French, or Englijh, 
and always found it as it is writ, or printed, he 
would very hardly underftand them, as they are 
vulgarly jpoken ^ which is the very Cafe of foch 
as learn Greek by Book, who always found every 
^ Letter, 

of Opium Reveatd. i i 

Letter , whereas the Native Greeks do ( what all 
Nations do more or lels) (horten, and alter the 
Sound of Wotds in the Common Rm of DiC 
courle by a natural Propenfity unto, and Purluit 
of Eafej Pleafurej and Speedy which by degrees 
very much alters the Sound of Words. 

The J^urks having been uled to call the better 
Sort, that dropt out of the Incifions made in the 
Po'^y Heads, Majlack, continued that Name to that 
Sort after they Conquer’d Greece, and call’d the 
other Sorf, which they found in Ufe among the 
Grecians by the Name that th^Grecians gave it, viz,, 
Pous; and ftch as commonly, ufe it they call Pou^ 
by way ^ Contempt, as if we fhould lay 
Small heer-Dnnkers^ in comparifotl of Wine-Drinks 

You may eafily perceive by what has been laid. 
Why oxxv Opium hath lb much Filth in it. 

Why it taftes fometimes of an Empyreum, or 
Burning, in not ftirring it well while it is boiling 
into a Confidence, and not giving it only a gentle 
Heat when it begins to thicken, gradually leflen- 
ing the Fire, or letting it conveniently decay, 
and go out of it lelf ; which is a very good Way 
for liich as have not other Conveniences; for as 
the Matter thickens, the Heat declines, and lb be- 
comes lafe from a Tafte of Burning, if the Fire 
be duly proportion’d : But all this Trouble is avoid- 
ed by infpiliating by the Heat of the Sun, which 
is ufed in fome Countries. 

Note, That the Poppy of which Opium is made, 
in all Turky, Egypt, Thebes, &c. is the great White 
Poppy, which grows very freely in thole Parts, 
and (as I am inform’d) without any manuring of 
the Ground in lome Places ; certain it is, that 
they now have whole Fields of that White Poppy, 
out of which they make the Opium^ as is aforefeid, 
by pounding, preffing, boiling, 5cc. 


The Myfteries 


Of the EleSion Choice) of Opium. 

A ll Opium being made in ancient Times by 
the Milky Drops that fell out of the Incifions 
mention’d in the laft Chapter, which being a na- 
tural and fimplc way, made no difference in the 
Opium, but what Nature it (elf did; all their 
Knowledge of the beft confilied in diftin- 
guiftiing the Tkeban from other Opium, which was 
qot naturally fo good. 

I. Theban Opium was of a lighter Reddips Telloiv 
than other (brts, therefore fome call’d it Pf^ite 
Opium, not that it was abjolutely white, but only 
relatively (iich in comparifbn with other kinds of 
Opium ; as we (ay Pf^hite Rofin, in refpe^t of other 
^fin, tho it is not vsbite, but only lighter colour- 
ed than other Kopns, 

2. Theban Opium was moft hot, bitter, and 
biting in talie, from whence you may infer, that 
the Opium which has thofe qualities in the higheft. 
degree is the be(f . 

5. It fmelled rankly, and vehemently of the 
Toppy, which gives you another good fign to judge 
of Opium, 

4. It burnt with a clearer Flame than any 

' Some (ay, that it was weightier than other 
Ibrti Notwithftanding all which Differences, 
^ey did in time find ways to adulterate it, which 

I. They adulterated it with Juice of 
(spx: Apple oi L^e*) 


of Opium ReveaFd. 13 

This was dilcemable by the Tellow 
that it gave to WattVy and other 
whereas the Theban^ and all true Of turn gives a R<sd 

2. It was counterfeited with njinom "things. 

This Cheat was difcoverable by its not being 
uniform, nor Ib diflblvabrc in Waur as good 

g. It was mix’d with Juice of LaBuca Sylvefirss^ 
or Wild Endive leav'd Lettuce, 

This made it of a duller colour^ and not to fmell 
(b perfe( 5 lly and rankly of the Poppy. 

4. It was Sometimes mix’d with the Milky Juice. 
of Spurge^ which being hof^ bitter^ and hiting,^ was 
hardly difcernable, but by its purging and difturb- 
ing quality, and fbmewhat k\s and different. 

You may be (lire, that and all the other 
Mixtures lenen’d its k^ertue as an Opiate^ if conli- 
dered in the fame quantity, becaufe they mud 
take up room in the Mafs-^ but La£iuca Sylvedrts 
being of the nature of Opiumy made the lols of 
its Virtue lels difcernable. 

It is true, that we have none of the Opium that 
was gathered by the milky Drops out of the 
fions ; and therefore what is laid, doth not much 
concern us as to that fbrt ; however thefe Objerva^ 
tions will enlighten us as to the Opium that we now 

Of which I cannot find, that there is much 
^Adulteration ufed, becaufe ("Iliippolc) that it is 
now grown coniiderably cheaper, by realbn of 
the vah quantities that is made, with lb much eafe^ 
that it is not worth while to counterfeit it, there 
being now great Fields of Poppy in Turky ; lb that 
our bufmefs will be rather to diftinguifh the Sort^ 
than the Adulteration •y thb this fhall not pals unre- 
garded^ as far as it may concern us. 


14 The Myfteries 

There are two forts brought over to us ; om 
from Ferjia and the Eafi-Indies; the other from 
Turky^ as from Lejjer jjia^ ( or Natolia ) Smyrna^ 
jileppOy &C. 

I. That which is brought from EafiJndia^ Perjia, 
Surat^ &C. is (as 1 am inform’d) made of the 
Leaves and Stems of the Poppy ^ and is^ 

1. More full of within it, (for the outfide 
is not fo much to be regarded, becaufe of Accu 

2. It is not fo uniform^ fmooth^ and fiffple^ but 
harih and rugged. 

j. It is not fo readily diffolvable in Water. 

4. The Indian is brought over in larger Pieces. 

y. It is not brought fo wrapt in Leaves as the 

Turky Opium is. 

Bontius lays, that they make it of the Stems and 
Leaves^ if fo, ic muft be much worfo than the 
Turky Opium, that is made of the Heads and 

IL Among thole forts that are brought out of 
Turky, (and indeed any forts of Opium) 

1. That is bed that is moft bitter, hot, and 

2. The lighter, whiter, and clearer its Flame is, 
when it burns, the better ic is. 

5. The more even, fmooth, tough, yield* 

ing, and complying it is to be wrought, or brought 
to SLtiy form, the better it is. 

4. The more it gives, upon, or agatnfi moifl Wea^ 
ther^ or in a moift Air of any kind, and the bet- 
ter, Ipeedier, freer, and more perfectly ic dilTplves 
in Water, the better it is. 

y. "Phe redder the TinBure is that it gives in Wa» 
ter. Spirit of Wine, or any Menfruum, the better 
it is; and ’tis never good if ic gives only yellow 


of Opium ReveaPd. 1 5 

But Note^ That even the beft Opium ^ if 
you take but a very flight Tin^ure^ thereof, will 
appear yellowifh , elpecially in a v/hlte VeJJel. 
Therefore my meaning is, that^ the redder Tin- 
ifture Opium caufes in Water ^ quantity for quantity, 
the better it is. 

6 . It jhould ha'ue no tafte or fmell of an Empyreum, 
or Burning *, for that gives it a naufeous tafte, and 
in fome meafure flgnifies a lofi of its Vertue by 
burning, tho this may be inconfiderable. 

7. The lefs Filth it has on the injide^ the better it 

8. The more it fparkles when cut^ and afterward 
breathed uporTthree or four times, the truer is the 
Opium ^ for thofo fparkling f articles are its noble 
Volatile Salt^ (or SaUVolatile*okofum ) and notits 
refimus Parts ^ as Wedelcus^ and others affirm. 
I. Becaufe when the Rojin and Volatile Salt are 
feparated, that fparkling follows the Volatile Parts 
and not the Rofn^ wherein they do not appear in 
the leaft. 2. Becaufe I find that they are the 
Parts that are moft apt to diflblve in Water ^ which 
the Rofin is not. 5. Becaufe they are much altered 
by a warm and moift Breathy which the refinous 
Part is not. 4. How could that Opium be the 
beft ('as ’tis found to be) that has moft of them, 
if it were the Rofn^ which is the worft Part of 
Opium ^ But ’tis highly conlbnant to Experience, 
that they fliould be the Volatile, or heft Parts of 
Opium, which is fo much the better, the more it 
abounds with them. 

9. J^t yields any other TinBure than Red, it is not 
right •,^d the duller'or paler the Red is, thz worfe 
or weaker it is. 

I o. The beft is heavier in proportion to' its Bulk, 
which you may foon experiment thus: 


The Myfteries 

Weigh an Ounce of each in the Air, then weigh 
them Ouft as they are) in the Brals Scales in 
ter^ and the heavier will out-weigh the other in 
ff^ater ; for the heavier any thing is, the left 
ter takes from its U^eight in proportion to its Bulk ; 
this is an infallible, and moft ready way to know 
the Weight of any thing in proportion to its Bulk, 
Note , That my Difcourfe is moft particularly 
concerning the beft fort of Crude Turky Opium ^ 
that is the beft that we have in common Ufe^ and 
that its EffeBs and not thofe of any Preparation 
thereof, arc fet down in the following Chapters, 


. CHAP. 

of Opium Keveafd. 1 7 


Ihe EffeUs of Opium ufed externdly. 

O VIUM xjXcd externally has two (brts of Ef- 
feds upon a Humane Body : i . As, an 
Opiate to caufe Sleep, take away Pain, 

2. As an Alterative of the Parcs ic is applied 


1. As an^plate: It is of very uncertain and 
mQVQn EffcBsy when applied externally ; for fbme- 
times it caufes Sleep , takes away Pain ^ but ic 
often fails .; therefore it is generally much better, 
ftfer, more certain, and effedual, to ufe it inter- 
■nally. 1 do Icarce know the cafe wherein ’cis bet-- 
•ter to ufe it externally than internally, unlels it be 
to fmell to in fome cafes : JBut of thefe Things, 
;more particularly, when we come to the Ufe of 
.Opium in Curing, Preventings or Paliating Dif 
eafes ; for here we only lay down FffeBs, in order 
to a Dif^uifition of the Caufe of the Operation of 
Opium, to which its rnternd Efftfls will mainly 
concrit3uce; however, ic may be very ufeful to 
that end, to lay down its alterative Effdh ; for 
'thereby we (hall in good meafere know the Prin 
ciples by which it operates. 

II. Its external Eff'efts, as an Alterative.^ are 
:thefe5 viz. ■ ' • ^ 

J. It meiJes, refolves, and difcujfet. 

2. It relaxes and mollifies. 

3 . Ic maturates and fuppurates. 

4, It exulcer ate s, or caufes Eli firs,, if it be very 
ftrong, and applied to Perfons of ^ fine Texture, 

C ' where 

1 8 The Myfteries 

where the Skin is tender ; but this EffeB belongs 
morQ properly totho Mafiacky or true’'Oir^, that 
drops from the Incifions made in the Heads of the 
Poppies , efpecially the Jleban , which afibrds a 
very powerful Juice. Hence you may obfcrvc, 
that the more it exukeratesy or blifters, the better 
is the Opiumy vice verfd, 

y. Itu a Pfilothericky for it prevents Hair to 
grow, and caufes the ftiedding thereof. 

6 . It is hurtful to the Eyes and Ears, 

7. It excites Itchwgs , applied (in a moderate 
^ manner) to the Skin. 

8. It excites Venery^ applied to the Perwaum. 


if Opium R€ve 0 p d. i ^ 


Th Ejfe^s bf Dpiudi ujed IfjUrmUjf^ m 4 
moderate Dofe^ 

i. H E moderate Dofe in ordinary Xlfe^ to pro- 
X duce the following Effe^s^ is from one to 
three Grains^ (more or lefs) according to the 
Circumfl;^e^ Condition^ Cafe^ Confiitution^ 
of the Peribri who takes iu 

2 . It operates generally in a Jhort t/we after ft 
is in the Stomachy that is, in about half an. 

( more or left) if taken in a U^md Form ; and ia 
about an Hour (rhore orJefs) if in a lbli4 Form, 
drinking a Draught of Water^ or iqfbc Liquor^ af- 
ter it^ otheriviie jt^thay be fomedmes near an 
Hour and a half before it has its full But 

the time of its Operation has a confiderable 
tude^ according to the DifpoiiitiDn of the Stomachy 
and ocher Circuniftances, as th^FekkU it is taken 

i6 The Myfteriei 

The confiakt EffeSs of Opium, ufed internally 

in d moderate Doje. 

1 . It caufes a mofi agrieahle^ f leaf ant ^ and charming 
Senfation about the Region of the Stomachy which if 
one lies^ or fits ft ill, diffufc it felf in a kind of 
inch finite manner^ (eizing one not unlike the gentlej 
fweet Dellqulum that we find upon our entrance 
into a nioft agreeable Slumber^ which, upon yiel- 
ding to it , generally ends in Skef : But if the 
Perfon keeps hirnlelf in jiBloH^ Dlfcourfe^ or Bufi. 
•fiefs ^ it feenis (efpecially when given in a Morn^ 
flings after a moderate Reft at Night) like a moft 
delicious and extraordinary Refrejhment of the 
Spirits upon very good News, or any other great 
caufe of J&j, as the fight of a dearly beloved Per- 
fon, .&.C. thought to have been loft at Sea^ or the 
li=ke,^caufing fuch a pleafant Ovation of the Spirit 
Serenity j &c, as we find after a competent Mea- 
Ihre of generotts Wine ad Hllaritatem^(3iS Men ufe tO 

it is indeed fo unexpreffibly fide and fweet a 
Tkafirey that it is very difficult for me to delcribe, 
or any to conceive it, but fuch as aiftually feel it $ 
for ’tis as if a Good Genius pdiTefted, or informed a 
Man; therefore People do cornmonly call it a 
heavenly Condition^ as if no Tvorldly Vleafure was to 
be compar’d with it i Helmontianm would doubt» 
lefs exprefs it by the Archeus in his very beft 

It has been compafd ( not without goodcaufe) 
to a permanent gentle Degree of that Pleafure, 
which Modefty forbids the naming of ; and ’tis 
wxll worth a Remark, that both are Pleafures o-f 
the fame Senfe, viz, that of Feeling *, for it cannot 
be a Pleafure of any other Senfe,^ fines it is inter- 


of O^iM'CtiReveaPd. 


2 , It caufes a brish^gay ^and good Humour: Nor do. 
I doubt but it has this E upon fleeping Perfbns, 
as far as their Condition is capable of oblerving 
it ; for you (hall have them often tell of pleafa7it 
breams after it^ when they remember them, and 
fpeak of any. See Bauchm, and the Authors men- 
tioned below under the 4 th EffeEl of Opium. 

it caufes Prompt itudey Serenity y Alacrity j and 
Expeditenefs in Difpatching and Mapagingof JBufinef% 
To which endy and that of a good and gay Hu- 
mour f which arc near of it. is commonly 
taken in the Morning iri the EaBern Countries^ with 
liloft certain EffcEl. 

The tmth of which. Wedelks is forced to con- 
fefi, th^gh quite contrary to his Hypothecs of 
Opium^S fixing and coagulating the Spirits* giving an 
inftance of a certain ferene Perfon ^ Tvho whm fiie 
had any Affair of great moment to difpatchy dtd ( be^ 
fore-hand) take Opium 'with great advantage ; for 
ffe thereby found her feff every way better difpofed- 
for Bufinefsy and more enabled to bear the Fatigue 
thereof. Which is the SubJIance of what he writes 
in Latin. 

Many other Authors confirm the Truth of thefe 
EffeSls* but (above all) the Conflant Experience 
of the Eafiern Nations y puts it out of all doubt. 

4. It caufes AffurancCy Ovation of the Spirits^ 
Courage yContempt of Danger y and Magnanimity ^ muclV 
after the manner that generous Wine does ; inffead 
of which, the Turks) &c. ufe Opium before End 
gagementsy defperate Attacks^ &c. (as is, moff no- 
torious ) to make them Courageous, which it ceiv 
tainly does ; For your iatisfaction as to this, and 
othzv EffeSis of Opium y not fo commonly obferved 
with us, for Reafons' given in Chap. VIIL See BeL 
loniuSy 1 . ^.c„ I ^,p, 1 79. Erafius Difp, de Sapor. p^ 6 ^^ 
Georg. Andrea Itenerar^Ind. L 2. c. p, ii.Cameraro 
Oyer^ Subcif I, i. c. 93. Erafius Difp. de Narr 

C I eot^ 


The Myfteriei 


cot, Oherndorf^ Hiftorians allb add, That whe^ 
the Great Turk makes a confiderablc War , this 
Soldiers buy up all or moft of the Qpum *, which 
may be worth a Merchanfi Ofefervation » for it 
thereupon grows dear, and is much cheaper iq 
times Peace, 

y. It prevents and takes away Griefs Fear^ Anxu 
ctieSy Peevijimefsy Fretftdnefsy C^c, Thefe are neceP 
fei y Conleqiiences of the former EffeBs, 

6, It caufes Eupberjy or eafie\ undergoing of all La- 
hour yjourney 5 c .zr\d that far beyond all Wines and 
hot Cordials^ or Spirits ; therefore it is very much 
ulsd in Turky and the Eafiern Countries^ in labo- 
rious Undertakings, great Journeys y &c, which 
Men perform by the help of Opium, after a prodil 
gious and almoft incredible manner : But the Mat» 
ter of Fall is fo common and ufual, that there is 
po place ol doubt I befidcsi that fonie who tried it 
among us, have found it (b. 

7. It lulls y fooths^ and (as it were ) charms the 
Mind with SatisfaBiony Acquiefc'ence , Contentationy 
E<juanimityy &c. How fhouid it fail to caufe thefe 
I^ffeBs, fince it caufes all the former gayy pleafanfy 
znd brave Humours? 

Dr. Willlsy and others, haying no true Experience, 
or Knowledge, of Opium, imagined that it caufed 
Courage, Bravery, Equanimity, C^c, by ftupifying 
the Stnfes, Brain, &c. making People inadvertent, 
dull, and inappreKenfive ; which is a great 
and a groundlefs Conceit ; for it is a moft certain 
Truth (which millions can affirmj that it produ- 
ces thole EfeSls by an Qvation and Pleafure of thq 
fenfitive Soul and Spirits, as generous Wme does be- ' 
fore Men are fuddled, or overcome with it ; How 
clfe could they at the lame time be more ferene, and 
apt for the Management of any Bufinels, and neat 
t)ifpatch ol kSArs, it is moft certain they are? 
Thele fundamental Miftakes 'about Opium, hav^ 

o/ Opium Reveal' J. 2 3 

been (as you’ll find hereafter ) one great caufe vdiy 
its Operations have puzzled and quite baffled all Ew- 

8 , It quiets ^allaySy and cempofes all Verturhations and 
Commotions of the Spirits^ (or fenfitive Soul) Bloudy 
Humour Sy &c. as in Hyfterical Cafes, Diary Fever s^ 
that proceed from Paffions ; as^ Anger ^ Grief, Ter- 
roursy from violent Mot ion y Labour y Heat y four- 
neysy ConvulJionSy &c, or from Vain ; and f^ops Bleed- 
ings that proceed from (iich Commotions. 

9, It caufes a Relaxation of all the fenfhle Farts of 
the Bodyy as the Membranous and Nervous: This 
is notorious by its EffeBsy as caufing Ferfpiration, 
SweatyReldxation olSphinBersyVilatationoHhQ Pupil 
of the Eycy Relaxation olthQ Cornea, . and all other 
Efeth pf Relaxation y as you’ll jind more particular- 
ly hereafter. 

I o. It caufes IndolencCy or exemption from Vainy ( as 
all know and allow) and that when Sleep does nor 

11. It ftopSymoderatesy curesy or paliates aU Fluxes y 
excepting thofe by the Voresy or luch as depend 
( as that does) upon Relaxation^ as when SphinBers 
are weak, or paralytical^ but thefe la(i are unna-* 
tural Accidents. 

1 2. It mightily promotes infenfihle FerfpiratfOf^, 

13. It prevents Shiverings in Ague-Fits, and fuch* 
like Cafes y if given in due time and quantity y which 
fliallbe fliown in the Curative fart. 

1 4* It prevents and cures Colds. 

1^. It caufes a larger and flower Fulfe, fuppofing 
no accidental C««yc to the contrary. 

16. It caufes Drinefs in the Mouth, 

17. It has mofl Effehl in warm and moiH IVea- 

1 8. It has more EffeB upon lax and fine textured 
Terfonsy as Women y Children y &c. therefore Wo- 
mf n feidom ufe it in Turky, and the other Eadem 

C 4 CoUTU 

24 The ivlyfterih 

Ccunfries • where it is commonly uied by the.' 


■ 19. It cauffs m Efflorefcence of the Skln^ barring, 
Accidents of CcU., &c, 

20. It is ohfer^ed hy ally that- it mainly affeEls the 
Genus Nervofum, a?id avimal Spirits, and not the. 
Blond and Humors, 

21. It increafes Seed in fame meafure. 

22. It caufes a great promptitude to Venery, Ere- . 
BionSy Sec. efpeciaUy if the Dofe he larger i^n ordi- 
nary - which 1 would have Men believe without 
experimenting it; not that I fear to be confuted, 
but lelt any Ihould injure themielves by too great 

. . . 

Ihis is one great Caufe ("if not the chiefj why . 

the Infidels oITurky, ^nd -tht Eaflern Nations (efpe- 
cially where FoUgamy is, allowM ^ as among the 
Turks, &c.) ufe Opium fo much, it never failing to 
produce this Effcd: in hale and healthy People, if the 
Dofe be fufficient ; as is too notorious in all ( or 
nioflj Countries from Greece to Japan inclufively^ 
who ufe Opium for that end. 

But as to the Truth of this Effe(5l of Opiums not 
only Authors, and all the People of chofe Eafiern 
Nations, but feveral Merchants, FuBors, and Tra- 
'vellers, now living in London, cm attefi, Thr.t it 
is uicd, for that purpofe, in thole Countries with 
yea, feme in our own Nation, that ufe 
Opium in large Dofes, can attefh the ianoe, upors-, 
• Expcrlestce in their own Bodiet. Thofe who defirs 
to be fatished, may alfo read Joh. Jacob. Saar, his 
Itinerar, Ind. p, 1 1. Olear jus's Itinerar, Psrfic, 1 . j,.' 
c.i^,& 18, B. D. D. Sacks, Tom. ii. Epher, Qer^^ 
man. Ohfi. 69. p. 1 26. Bauchin, p, 450. Cardanus, Sea- 
Ilger, Nich, Monordei, Fogdiusde Turcarum Nepenthe, 
Bellonitis^ and others ; whofe Words i do not re- 
peat^ partly for Modefifs, partly for Brevity'' s fakeo 

of Opinm Reveal'd. 25 

It does fl confels ) look like a Riddle^ that a 
moft relaxing and Itupifying Medicament^ which 
takes away much of the Senfe of Feelings f and con- 
iequently Irritations to Venery^ as one would think) 
fhould notwithftanding irritate thereunto, caufe 
EreEtions^ &c. however, it is moft certain, tho* 
a feeming ContradlBion^ of which fort you have 
many more among the EfeBs of Opium, 

%)fHal and frequent (t ho not confianf) 

Opium, ufed internaU^ in a moderate 

; I. Sldf, which is fo far from being a con^ant 
Effed of Opium^ that it will in me, and many 
other Perlbns, prevent Sleeping^ even when others 
wife inclin’d to it. 

2. V leaf ant Dreams, 

3. Stopping of Vomitings, 

4. Stilling the Hiccough, 

5. Taking off Conuulfions and ContraBions, 

6. Caufing Meat to ft ay long at Stomach, 

7. Moderation y and prevention of Hunger. " 

8. Sweat, 

9. The Flowing of the MenfeSy tho’ not oblerved 

by vulgar Phyficians. ' 

10. The Flowing of the Lochia ^ which is as little 

1 1 . Voiding of the Stone, 

1 2. Delivery of Women, 

I ^ . Deadnefs of the Eyes , as you fee in Drun^ 

14. Dilatation of the Vupih 

15. Growth of the Breajts,^ Penis y and Increafepf 

Milk, \ ‘ ' 

16. Venereal Dreams. 

ij, Nodur ml Pollutions, 


* 26 The Myjletjes P 

1 8. Itching! in the Skin» 

Ip, Much Urine i 

20. Naufea, 

21. Swimmings in the Head, ! 

22. Watching, 

25 . A kind of dubious State^ between flee fing and 

24. It flops Hemorrhages in many cafes. 

Many more Infiances of this kind might be 
given of its frequent and ufual EffeBs in Difeafes ; 
but it would be endlefi and needlefi^ fince we have 
mentioned the Prime , General ^ and Fundamental 
EffeBs^ upon which all luch do depend , and 
chat the particular Enumeration of its Effells in Difl 
taftSy belongs to its curative and faliative Virtue^ 
which will be handled hereafter, 

TU rare EffeSs (?/ Opium, iahgn in a mode* 
rale Dofe^ 

I. Temporary PalfieSy as of the Bladdery and Ibme- 
times of other Parts, tho* very rarely. 

2.. Faltring of the Tongue, 

Loofnefi of the lower JaWy as in the Drowfle, 
TTrunkardsy &c. 

4. Prevention of Sweaty in fuch as Ivvcat too 
much for want of Perfpiration, 

j. Abortion, 

6. Prevention of Abortion in (bme Cafes. 

7. Intumefcence of the Lips, 

8. Curing of the Dropfie , of which Dr. WiUk 
gives an Infiance, 

Curing of Stupors of (bme forts y aS thofe froHl 
Colds y d^C, 

XO. Anxieties and Difirejfes. 

I I. Vomitings and Hiccoughs, 

X2, Convulflms, 

of Opium Reveatd. ay ‘ 

13. Syncopes y Leipothlmiesy and Famtin^s, 

14. Deathy tho* very rarely, and that in very 
weak People. 

1 5’. Purgings 

1 6, Raifing and reviving fom Per fens that arejufi 

A long ft ay thereof at Stomach fometimes. 

18. Stoppage of Urine. 

I p. It fometimes proves danger offs after Hemorrba^ 
ges and large Evacuations. 

1. NotCy That the fir ft Claft of EfeBs being the 

inoft con ft ant aie the moft proper, genuinCy and 
principal EffeBsy upon which all other EffeBs de- 
pend, untefi they are It muft therefore 

be, that tbefe Ihould bell: guide us in the Diftfui- 
fition of the Caufe of the Operation of Opium. 

2. NotCy That the fecond Clafsy tho* not (b con^ 
ft ant, are natural EffeBs of Opiumy and will be allb 
good Guide for the lame purpofe* 

3. JVofe, That there is but little to betaken 

of the rare EffeBs for that purpofe, becau^ moft 

The Effe&s efthe going off (or declination) 

of the Operation i?/ Opium, ftikgn internaUjf 

in a moderate Doje. 

I . A general return of all the Difeafes and DifoT 
fters that Opium paliated during its Operation • unf 
left it happens that fome are cured thereby ; which 
(if tfiey bej is generally by the Benefit of Sweat, 
or itifenfible Perjpiratton ; as Colds y Pain from Wsnd^ 
or Humour Sy that fliould have palled by the Pores • 
as in Coughs y Tooth-achJSHc. from Conftrudion of the 
pores ; or by compofingthe Fury of the Spirits,ot Bloud^ 
which it very often ( yea, generally jcures with one 
fingle Dofe : But of thefe things, more in the Cura» 
five Part^ - • ^ > z.Sweat, 

a8 7%e Myfierm 

3. eho’ not coiAanriy. 

3 . FFequent making of Water /iomtAmtSp 

4. A Loofnefs (fometimes) even when there was 
none before the giving of the Opium. 

5. Difeafesy feeming worfe than before the taking 
ef it. 

6* A melancholy and fad DepreJ/im of Spirits. ' 

7. A narrow Pulfe. 

S. Itching of the Skin, 


of opium Reward. 


The Effe&i of Opium takgn in an ExceJRm 

I. A Heat at Stomach. 

. 2. A fenfe of Weight at Stomach flbtn^ 


3. Gait^of Humour at firfi. 

4. Sardo^kk Laughter afterward. | 
y. Laxity y and DebiUty of all h 


6. Alienation of the Mind^ 

7. Lofs of % Memory , , 

8. ' Darknefs of the Eyes. 

9. Laxity of the Cornea. 

I o. Appearance of divers Co« 

1 1 . Deadnefs of the Eyes to the ^ 

12. Faltring of the Tongue. 

1$. A Sopor. 

1^. A floWy and wide Vulfe, 
jy. A high Colour^ 

1 5 ; Loofenefs of the JaWy and 

As after Drink- 
ing a Sttit 
Quantitjr <£ 
Wine ^ in ^ 


17. Intumefcence of the Lips 9 

18. Difficulty of Breathing. 

19. Furyy and Madnefs. J 

20. Venereal Fury. 

2 1 . Vriapifms. 

22. Violent Itchings. 

23. Nauj'eds, 

24. Swimmings in the Head, 
aj. Vertigo's, 

z6. Vq^ 

5 ® The t/Iyfieries 

z 6 . Vomitings^ 

^ 27 . Hiccoughs, “ 

28. A turbulent Fulfe, 

29 . Convulfions^ and Cdld Sweats, 

30. Paintings and Leipothymies, 

Cold Breath, ^ 

32^ Death. 

Such as etcape it generally have; 

33 . Flentifid F urging, 

34, Sweats that jmell cf the Opium. 

3y, Violent Itchings in the Skin. 

1. Note^ That all thefe do not happen 
to all, but fomc to one, and feme to others. 

2. That thefe EffeBi are greatery or lefs, ac- 
Q^rding to the Dofe^ Confikution of the Perlbn, 
and other Circumfiances. 

3. That they are raofl: endanger’d thereby, 
that have a Lax^ and fine Texture^ and a weak 

4. That a Loofenefs upon it is a good fign. 

y. That it affcfls Ibme by making them Furi- 
ous, (as fVme does) and others Stupid ; Generally 
the Furious are moft (afe from danger of -Death : 
But of thefe Things more hereafter ' (by 


of Opium ReveaPJ. 

CHAP. yi. 

T%e Effelfs of a long^ and lavijb %)fi of 
Crude Opium. 

I. TJ Elaxation^ and Weahtefs of all Farts^ 

J\. a. Inbability^ or Lifilefnefs to do any things 
exept it be while the Opium Operates. 

3. Inhahilityy or Lifilefnefs to get up in the Motn^ 


4. A duUy mapipij and heavy Diffafition^ (^as itl 
old Drunkards ) except it be during the Operation of 

y. Diminution of Appetite* 

6 , Weaknefj of Digefiion* 

7. Dropfies. 

As is obier- 
^ vable in old 

11, Early Decrepitenefs, 

12. Shortnefs of Life, _ | 

I g. Acrimony of Blood, 

14. Inclinations to Venery* 

I Frequent Inclinations to make Water* 
16k Friapifmsy and frequent Erosions „ 

1 7. No^urnal ToUutions, 


52 The Myfteries 

The EffeBs of fitdden Leaving o]f the Z)fe 
of Opium, after a long^ and Uvifi ZJfi 


1. Great y and even intoleralle D'tfrejfes^ Anxk^ 
ties ^ and Defrejfions of Spirits, which in few dap 
commonly end in a raoft miferable Death, at- 
tended with frange' Agonies, unlels Men return 
to die Ufe of Opium • which loon raifes them a- 
gain, and certainly reftores them ; if it has time 
to operate, before they die ; which it fbon does 
fn a liquid Form. Or, if they have not Opium, 
or will not take it, they muft ufe tVine very plenr 
tifully, and often, as a [uhltime to the Opium, tho’’ 
it doth not perform half as well as Opium. 

2. A return of ail Difeafes, Fains, and Difafiers, 
that were palliated hy the taking of Opium. 

3 . Dangerous Loofene jjes. 

4. Death follows the leaving it off, after a very 
long, and lavifh ufe thereof. 

The Inconveniences of leaving off the Vfe of 
Opium, do bear a certain Vroportion to the Time, 
and Quantity, that it has been ufed in. 

1. Fdote, That the Turks do drink Ibme Water 
always after the taking of Opium, as being xhe 
beft Menjlruum to diffolve it. 

2. Note, That it is ufcial with them to take a 
Drachm in the Morning, and fo much in the After^ 
noons, and fo may we, as well as they, if ufed' 
to it I and ’tis a very filly faying, that you’ll find 
in * Authors, That they are better able to bear ir^ 
becaufe of the Clirhate, &c. whereas the more 
Northern Perfons are better able to take it, than 
the Southern, as will hereafter appear mpft plainly. 


Ounces a Day. 

3. Note^ That among the EfeBs of Opium may 
be obferved many feemw^ ConiradiBiofts^ yet is 
there nothing more certain than the feveral dif- 
ferent Matters of FaB which (rio doubt) has 
been a great Caufe to puzzle the Ti^orld about it, and 
to run Men into ftrange Abfurditks concerning its 
Operation ; and all to deviate fo far from the 
Truth, that nothing in can be farther, uti- 
lefi you’ll fay^ that Heat cools ^ or what pleafes the 
fenfttive Soul^ is at the fame time abhort^d by It. . 

Now,becatife thefe feeming ContradiBions in the 
EffeBs o{ Opium, are the greateft Rubs to be met 
with, and that the Reader may take the better 
Eftimate of the Undertakings ' ” 

of its EffeBsy when I come 

to enumerate them diftindly, (tho’ they will make 
the ftratigeft Catalogue of Riddles ^that ever was feen) 
trufting in Him, that created this wonderful Me^ 
dicament^ th^t he will enable me. to explain all its 

34 Myfleries 

^he feming ContradiBions in the EjfeBs of 


1. It caufes Sleeping, and IVatching, 

2. It caufes, 2 Lt\d prevents Sweat, 

3. It relaxes, and ftops Loofenejjest 

4. It fiops Fluxes, and caufes that of Sweat, &c. 
f. It fiupifies the Senfi of Feeling, yet Irritates by 

that Senfe to Fenery. 

6 . It caufes Stupidity, and Promptitude in Bufi* 
nefs; Cloudinefs, and Serenity Mfnd. 

7* It excites the Spirits, and quiets them. 

8. It is very hot, yet cools in Fevers. 

9. It is hot,^ and hitter } yet lejjens Jppetlte, even 
in Cold Stomachs, 

10. \t fiops, and promotes \JxmQ. 

11. It relaxes, and weakens *, yet enables us ta 
undergo Labours,, Journeys, &;c. 

12. It caufes, and prevents Abortions. 

13. It ^ops Vomiting above all things; yet caufes 
mofi violent, tedious, and dangerous Vomitings, 

1 4. It fiops Purging in a mod eminent rhanncr 5 
yet fometimes catfes it. 

If. It is very acrimonious, yet (as all fay) oh. 
tunds Acrimony j however, it allays Pain proceed- 
ing from Acrimony, 

\ 6. It caufes a furious Madnefs ; yet compofes the 
Spirits above all things^, 

ij. It caufes Dropfies', yet Ibmetimes cures them 
^ (as lVil!/:s fays.) 

s8. It caufes Palfies ; yet have I known it to 
cure a Palfie, 

19. It caufes Drinefs in the Mouth', yet takes off 
Third in Fevers. 

20. It cures, and caufes a Hiccough. 

21 It 

of O'^mmRevearJ. 35 

ii. It Ranches Blood \ yet caufes the Blood to 
cpme outward^ (as appears by the Efflorefcence^ or 
Rednefs of the Skiti that it caufes) yet moves the 
Menfes and Lochia. 

‘22. We have many Tnftances of it fromotiTig^ 
and hindering Ctitical Motions. 

25. It rdfes very weak People^ (Vvhcn nothing 
befides will do it) yet it kills other weak People, 

24. It catifes^ and cures Convulfions. 

a 5'. It caufes Relaxation^ and ContraBion of the 
fame Parts. 

2 6. It Relaxes • yet caufes Rigidity ^ Tenjion^ and 
EreUion of the Penis ^ Priapifms.^ &C. 

Thus have I fairly, and faithfulKs laid the 
whole Onus of the O^eratwns^ Effeas^ and Con-- 
tradiBory Phenomenons of Opium.^ upon tny Shoul- 
ders ^ however I come off, and clear my felf 
bf the Intricacy.^ Maz,es^ and crofs EffeBs there- 
of, by explaining them j which none upon the 
View thereof will think poffible, and none be- 
fore me durft as much as enumerate for chat 

D 2 CHAP- 

The Myfteries 

3 ^ 


The Author contrives a Compendious Way of 
Examining all Opinions concerning the Ope* 
ration of Opium. 

H Aving, without any fly or fordid Evaflon^ or 
confiderable Omtjfion^ (which has been the 
perfidious Courfe of Authors in this Cafe) fully 
and truly enumerated the fenflble and certain Efi 
fcTts of Opium in Humane Bodies, and thereby 
empannel^d a Jufl Jury for the Trial of Hyfotbefifes^ 
which muft be Judged by the EffeBs or Pheno^ 
meneds of Opium ; I will now proceed to their Exa^ 
wination. But becaufe it would be cndlefs to take 
every one particularly into Confideration^ I will ufe 
their Stratagem^ who blow up FoundationSy to fave 
the tedious Pecking at all the Parts of the Supers 
jlrubluresy which in this Cafe would require an 
Age^ and take up all my Time in demoUfling therhy 
which may be better employ’d in ereding fomz- 
thing that may be ufeful. 

I have coTifideredy and find, That the Foundation^ 
in which all Authersy both Ancient and Modern^ 
agree, and whereupon they have hitherto endea- 
vour’d to build, (looking upon it as firm and War* 
rant able in all Ages ) is this, vi%»> 

Tnat Opium operates by dimintfmng or dlfalling 
the Spirits ( meaning the animal Spirits.) 

Tae Ancients affirming^ That it did fo by an ex^ 
treme cold Quality y And 


of Opium Reveal* c/. 5 7 

The Moderns (who obferved it to a(^, while 
St is at Stomachy by afTeding the Brain ^ Nerves^ 
Animal Spirits^ &c. and concluded no Action was 
perform’d without Contad) infePd and agreed, 
(becaufe no vifible Paffage could be found from 
the Stomach to the Head) that it mufi of abfolttte 
necefjtty aB by Fumes ^ Vapours^ Aittas^ or Effluviums 
fent up out of the Stomach to the Brain^ Nerves^ &c. 

So that all the remaining Queftion among the 
Moderns is. Which Way thofe Fumes or Vapours do 
the Feat ? all allowing the Fumes do it. 

One faying That they fluff the Fores of the 
Brain^ and fo hinder the Generation of Animal 

A Second^ That they conflringed^ and clofed the 
Fores together^ thereby hindering the faid Genera- 

A Third^ That they fix^d^ and coagulated the 
Animal Spirits ; as Wedelius^ and Others. 

A Fourth^ That they clouded the Animal Spirits. 

A Ftfth^ That they aBed as a Poifon j as Wtllss, 
and many others. 

A Sixth , That they clog^d the Animal Spirits^ by 
adhering to them^ &c. 

Not knowing, nor (I think) caring what they 
laid, lb they humour’d their own Imaginations, 
and Hypothefifes ; tho* Utterly incapable of folving 
the EffeBs of Opium, elpecially its moft conflant, 
proper, and genuine EffeBsp For, how can a cold 
J^ality, (which Opium never had) caufe a gay 
and brisk Humour, Bravery, Magnanimity, Euphory 
in Labour, Promptitude to Venus, &c. And, how 
can Clouds of Vapours hinder the Generation pf AnL 
mal Spirits, by fluffing or con^ringing thQ Pores of 
the Brain ? Poifontng, fixing, coagulating, clogging or 

P 3 clouding 

38 fhe Myfieries 

clouding the Animal Spirits^ caiife a fine Ovation, 
thereof, a Brave ^ Couragious^ and MagnanC 

mous Dlffo^tion^ Euphory^ Promptitude to Venery^ 
Serenity, Expeditenefs in Management , ^c. Which 
are (as has been faidj confi ant ssid proper Effe^ 3 

of Opium, 

Nor, indeed^ was any of thofe Authors (b fool- 
hardy as to attempt it ^ Why then did they 
write, and trouble the JVorld to perufe their 
'Books, when they were lb far from explaining the 
Properties of Opium, that they fcarce ever durft 
mention them, nor fet their Hypothejifes, and 
them, as much as in View of one another ? Was 
not this a tacit Confejjlon of the Incompetency of 
their Suppofuions ? 1 beg Pardon for calling them 
theirs, (tho’ they themielves do) for I cannot of- 
fer them a greatet Ahufe, than laying their Spu- 
rious and lame Brats at their Doors. 

Tho’' one fcarce need fay any more of them^ 
yet, left I be thought prefcmptuous, or faucy, for 
fo much as offering to fufpeSl the general Foundation^ 
of all thQ famous Authors that ever lived, (as Ga- 
len, Avicenna, among the Ancients ; EtmuU 
ler, Willis, &c. among the Moderns 

r. I •will f sew you very jufi Caufes to fufpell the 
Infujficiency of the general Foundation, vizj. 

That Opium diminiflies or difables the Spirits. 

2 . 1 will prove, Tlhat it does not do it hy a Cold\ 

5 . That it does not do it hy Vapours, Fumes, Aura^ 
or any fuch Way, 

4 . That it diminiJheSp or difahles the Spirits, hy m 
Means whatfoever. 


of Opium ReveaFJ. 3^ 


Which dlmni^ung^ or difahUng of th^ Spirits^ 
Cold Quality^ and Fumes^ ( or Aura ) comprehend 
the Foundations of all Opinions concerning Opium ^ 
that ever I read, or heard of ^ and conlequemly 
if thofe Two Fundamental Opimons be refuted, all 
the Superft ruptures that.have beep (in Cafe) 

piutf fail to the Ground. ^ 



The Myjierie$ 


The Author jhem JuJi Caujes of hk Sujpi* 
cion^ that all Authors have gone upon a 
wrong Foundation in their Difquijhions of 
the Cauje of the Operation of Opium. 

I Have fiiewn you, That the gtmrd Foundation 
of both Ancient^ and Modern Aqthors, is. 

That Opium doth dimimjh^ or difable the spirits. 

And now I will plainly fiiew Ji*fi Caufes of 
Sufpicion of its Infufficiency^ which are thele : 

I. I ohferve^ That all Learned Men are, to this 
day^ highly diffathfied as to the Caufe, and Man- 
ner of the Operation of Opium^ notwithftanding 
all char has been written concerning it ; and that • 
it is the common Cry on all Hands, that none has 
illuHrared the Operations of Opium tp any Purpoje^ 
pr given any Satisfadion therein ; and therefore 
Learned Phyfcians are Hill as much upon the En» 
qd/y^ as ever they were. 

It is much more Civil and Reafonahle^ to fufpeB 
the Foundation^ that all former Authors haye built 
upon, than a general' Failure in all the moft Judi- 
cious Mafier Builders^ that ever endeavour^ to 
build thereon ; for if all the bell Archttebls of the 
whole V/urld fail to ere<5i a firm Super frublure upon 
any one Fecundation, what can we think, but that 
the F^^^dation is infirm ? elpecially when (as in 
pur Cafe) no IVay (that Care.^ Judgment y Verfpi- 
ml/L IfF could invent, or think of) has 

of Opium ReveaPd. 41 

ibeen left uncried to build thereon ; lb that (tho* I 
modeftly call it a Caule of Sufftcion) it amounts 
almoft (if not altogether) to a Demonfiration^ that 
the Foundation that all Authors have gone upon is 
naught. Would not any confidering Man, when 
he fees all the Judicious ArchitcBs of the IVorld (ail 
to eredt . a firm Building upon a certain Foandation^ 
leek for another ? Therefore who can blame me, 
if 1 do ? and not blame them, that did not ? The 
ineanell: Bricklayer^ or Carpenter^ that ihould be 
guilty of jiich StupUity^ as to attempt to build 
upon luch a Foundation as always deceivMthe 
Builders^ would be thought too great a Blockhead 
to be craploy’^n Building. 

2 . I obferved^ That moft Men dp (potwith* 
Handing that Foundation is agreed upon) think it 
impoflible to explain the intricate, various, con- 
tradidory Fhemmenas^ and myfterious Effe^ls o( 
Opium ; fitting contented, and perfwaded, that it 
operates by an occult Quality^ wliolly unexpiicable, 
and particularly relerved from the Knowledge of 
Mankind : But Nature works Mechanically in Weighty 
Meafure^ &c. Therefore it is more than probabje, 
that it is only their being upon a wrong Bottom 
makes it feem abfolutely occult • for it is impoF* 
fible to find a thing, where it is nor j or to build 
firmly upon an infufficient Foundation ; whereas had 
it been right, anci true, it is not to be imagined, 
but fome or other would have thereupon done 
Ibmething, that would have Hood againft all 
IVtndsy and Storms ; which none have done. 

3 , I ohferved^ That none durft venture to Jay 

the wbole^ no, nor one half of the Burthen of 
l^he Vbcnomena^s^ or EffeBs of Opium, upon that 
Foundation ; forefeeing (doubtlefi) that it could not 
bear them, and that if they laid any more Weight 
fhereon, the whole would totter, and fall to the 
f?reund9 The Frojel} in every Hypothejis is to per^ 
r fwade 

42 7 he Myfteries 

fwade Meii of the Truth thereof ; and the only 
way to do it, is to fblve all Vhemmenas thereby \ for 
if it fails bat in one, it is an infallible fjgn of its 
Infufficiency : There was no Reafon to omit any 
of the Fhemmena\ty if they could have difcern’d, 
that the Hypothecs would liave born them ; there- 
fore (as has been intimated) it implies a Confef^ 
fion of its Incontpetency. 

4. I ohferved, That ancient Authors writ of O- 
before it came to be of common and 
general Ufe in the Day-time with Healthy' 
Perfbns, (as it fince is in many Nations) to 
Caufe a gay^ pleafanty and good Humour^ take 
off Sadnefsy Melancholy y and Anxiety • To caufe 
Affurancey Boldnefsy Couragey Bra'ueryy Magnani. 
ntityy Euphoryy or eafie mdergo'mg of Labour^ Jour» 
neys • Promptitude in Bufinefsy Expeditenefsy and Se- 
renity j To excite to Veneryy d^c. Which Effe< 5 l:s 
cannot be explained by that Suppofition of difabling 
the Spirits y and that they uled Opium only Medi- 
cinally for the fake of fuch other Effecls as might 
be tollerably well explicated by that Hypothefs * 
(b that they had not any Occafiony nor Inducement 
to look any farther. 

The EffeBs they gave it for was only; i. To 
caufe Sleep, 2. To take off Fain, 3. To fop Fluxes, 

4. To Compofe the Spirits. 5. To caufe Ferfpiration^ 
and Sweat, All which are not inconfiftent with 
the Hypothefs of diminijhing or difabling the Spirits y - 
as the other are, and therefore might well deceive 
them ; For, 

Firft, Sleep is cauled by diminijhing the Spirits by 
Labour^ Watchings &ct as is moft notorious over 
the whole World \ fo Other Things that diminifh 
the Spirits, as Bleedingy Vomit ingy F urging y and 
many other Caufes of diminijhing thereof, do in* 
eline us to Sleep. - Secondly, 

of Opium ReveaPcf. 45 

Secondly, Indolence^ Of Exemption from Vaih^ is 
caufed by nothing more than want of Spirits^ as 
in Taralytical Cafes^ Stupors^ Obfru5iions^ or Co?»^ 
preffions of the Ner^ues^ Syncopes^ Leipothymies^ De- 
liquiumSy Paintings after Bleeding, and Sleep • which 
(as was laid) is fb much caufed by lofs of Spi- 

ritSy &c. 

Thirdly^ Pluxes are fiopt, or modirated^ by no- 
thing better than Sleep, which generally (as was 
faid) proceeds from lofs of Spirits ; What alfo 
^ fiops^^ or moderates Fluxes, more than want of the 
Senfe of the Irritation of Humours } And what 
takes away Senfe more than want of Spirits? 
Thus want of/&nfe by the abfence of the Spirits^ 
in Paralytical Jntefiines^ flops Fluxes \ ThQs fails 
a Paralytical Bladder to exprefi the Urine. So a 
Palfie of the Membranes., that include the Glan- 
dules, muft (as in Sleep, which relaxes them) 
flop, or moderate all Defluxions, Catarrhs, dt'c. 
becaufe they are not fenfible of the Irritation of 
the Humour by Quantity, or Quality^ which 
Irritation caufes the Defluxions or Catarrhs, by ex* 
citing the Memhra7ies, to contracSl, and thereby to 
K^ueeze out the Humours, contain’d in the Glan- 

Fourthly, The Compofure of the Spirits is pro- 
cured mainly by Sleep, which all lofs of Spirits 
(as was Ihewn) inclines us to; fb Bleedings which 
diminijhes the Spirits, compofe their Fury in Fe~ 
vers. Deliriums, Madnefs, 

Fifthly, Perfpirdtioft is caufed by nothing more 
than Sleep ; for wc perfpire twice as much in 
Sleep, as when we watch, as is moft manifeftly 
demonffrable by the’ Statick Experiments of 
Weighing People ; nor is Perfpiration ever fb 
great as in Delicfuiums, Syncopes, Leipothymies, and 
fuch like deadifli Gafes, which are caufed by Wi- 
mini fling, or difabling 6f the' Spirits, nay, ’tis fb in 


44 Myjteries 

Animals^ quite dead for a little time while they 
are hot, as is evident by like Statick Demonftra^ 
fions : The true Caule of w hich is Relaxation of the 
Voresy Skhy &c, for want of Spirits xo contrary 
and con^ringe them ; as (hall be fully proved here- 
after fby Qo^^s Helf,) 

Thefe Things were (doubtlefs) the occafion 
of that Hjfpoth^Sy of dtmlmfhing or difahling the 
Spirits hy Opium • but how likely are they to err 
by eftablifhing it without any confide ration of its 
enlivening y encouraging^ and brisk Effe^^Sy as Ova-^ # 
tion of the Spirits^ Gaitjy Bravery y Magnanimity^ 
Eupborgy Promptitude to E'eneryy ^c. which can 
never be (blved by Diminution y or Difabiltty of the 
SpiritSy till Deprefjion and Elevation thereof are 
reconcilabky and eonfifient at the fame time in the 
fame fuhjeH ; which can never be till Difahling and 
Not Difahling are the fame thing ? Have not vve 
then good Reafon to fufjDedl that general Founda^ 
tion of diminijhing or difahling the Spirits hy Opium ^ 
which was laid by fuch as never confidered any 
thing of its generous and fprightly EjfeBsy which 
(as has been mewn) are its con f ant y and therefore 
moll proper and genuine EffeSls /Who can doubt 
then but they mutt err^in laying a Foundationc^iXQ 
contrary to the very Properties of Opium / 

5. I ohfervedy That all our Modern Authors y and 
pbyficiansy receiving the Knowledge of Opiumy 
its Effe&Sy and Ufesy from thofe Ancient Sy do ufe 
it only for the fame Ends and Purpofes as they did ; 
and that our Modern Authors ^ living in thefe We^ 
pern Parts of the World, very remote from the 
EaPern Countreysy where it is ufed commonly, and 
in, large Dofes^ by People in Healthy in ihtday^ 
timey to enliveny invigoratey and encourage them^ 
^nd oaufe the hravey gemrouSy and magnanimous 

of Opium Reviat d. 45 

aforementioned, Courage^ Euphory, O'c. 
and finding no Phyfician that went before them, to 
mention thefe noble ^ cor dial y and glorious EffeUs ; 
and, if they did at any time (lightly touch them, 
to do it with all imaginable Difregard, NegleSl^ and 
Contempt^ as if there was no Heed to be taken of 
them, but as idle Talesy and improbable Stories^ be- 
ing contrary, and utterly (as they thought) in- 
confiflent and irreconcilable with the daily ^ and 
moft notorious EffeBs of Opium^ obferved among 
us 5 and to the Univerl^ Opinion of all Authors^ 
who (fated Opium to be a Diminifher or Difabler cf 
the Spirits y whjch could not produce (as they con- 
cluded) fuch contradiBoryy and therefore (to them) 
utterly incredible EffeBs^ and fabulous FlamSy ari- 
fing (as they fanfied) from Ibme filly Errours^ as 
want of due Obfervation in Travellersy miftaken 
Difcourles, and the like ; lb that (as the faying 
is) they let them in at one Eavy and out at the 
other y there being no fuch contrary EffeBs of any 
one Thing to be oblerved in the whole Creation 5 
and they being well alTured of the other EffeBi 
by daily Experience^ and having never ob(erved 
thole IMy EffeBsy (for the (everal plain Realbns^ 
that you’ll meet in the following Paragraphs) had 
no caule to alter their Opiniony when all Things 
feem’d to them to make for their Hypothefs, fot 
want of a Notion of thofe brisk EffeBs, 

6. I ohfervedy That thole brisk EffeBs of Opium 
were not taken notice of by our Phyfdansy not 
indeed, (all things confidercd) do I well (ee how 
they Ihould, without getting out of the common 
Road of obferving, which is fometimes (as I have 
found) very ufeful upon fuch Occafions. For, 

Firft, Opium is feldom (if ever) given in thefe 
Wefiern Nations y but to Sick People, (as the Anu 
dents did) who are utterly incapable^ of thofe 


4 ^ The Myjieries 

hmk EffeBs^ or (at leaft) to any remarkable de^ 
grecy that might call for a particular or fpecia! 
Ad^ertency^ or Attention ; without which, they 
palTed off as they came, without any RefleBioH 
thereupon ; and fb fignified nothing, as if they 
had never happen’d.* 

Secondly; We (as the Ancients did) generally 
give Opium when People are going to Bed^ by 
yvhich means all Opportunity of Obfervation is 
loft; becaufe davkmfsy and being alone, hide, or 
hinder the fhewing of any fuch EjfeBs • and the 
Thyjician (whofe only Bufinels it is to be more 
curious in liich Matters) is gone to his own 
tho’, if he were prefent, not likely to take any 
0hfervations of fiich Matters, whereof he has leaft 
Thought Sy or Beliefs as being, in hisOpinion, contrary 
to all Reafony Senfcy Experiences^ and the of 
all Authors^ of the Stupcfacftive equality of Opmmj 
in which they all agree. 

Thirdly, Opium is (as was faid) given in thefe 
Countreys to caufe Sleeps or fuch ^eBs to which 
Sleep conduces, as compofng the Spirits^ cattfing 
IndolencCy [flopping Fluxes^ and promoting Perfpiratu 
and therefore always given with all careful 
DireBionSy and InjunBionSy that may conduce to 
that Endy as going to Bed^y lying fiiUy putting out 
kLightSy keeping Silenccy &c. which concurring with 
the Opium, caule Sleepy which is utterly incon- 
fiftent with Ihewing any of thofe lively EffeBs^ 
that belong only to a waking Verfon to do ; fd 
that all Opportunity of Obfervation is utterly pre- 

Now, (all the Premifes confidered) it cannot 
be conceiv’d, that fuch as let their mind upon con* 
tvary EjfeBs y and exped no other, much left con-^ 
trary ones, (againft which allb they are highly- 
prejudiced by their Experiences^ and Rea3~ 

of Opium ReveaVd. 47 

%ng) fhould obferve fuch brisk EffeBsy if they did 
happen ; and how can a brisk Humour^ Courage; ^ 
eajie undergoing Labour^ Fromppitude to PenuSj&'Ct, 
be obferved in Sick, and Infirm People, lying in 
Bed, alone, and in the dark, or (which renders 
it utterly impoffible) while they are afleep, and 
the Thing it felf disbelieved, and efteem’d con- 
trary to Common Sen fe, and tho Univerfal Sentu 
ment of the Learned^ and all others. There-' 

7. If (after all) any fuch brisk EffeB did ever 
happen, it muft be either not regarded, or if 
obferved, (wMch is no likely, as was fhewn) 
you may be ftife (for the many plain Reafons, and 
Caufes aforefaid) that it was not imputed to Stu- 
fifying Opum^ (as all efteem it) but to any other 
Caufe^ or Accident, rather than to a Thing w'^all 
known to have quite contrary EffeBs. For In^ 

If the Sick Perfon happen’d -to he good humour d^ 
(of which he is feldom capable, and utterly in- 
capable of all or moft of the other brisk EffeBs, as 
Euphory, Promptitude to Venus, Exertion of Courage, ^c.) 
it was either pafled by as an ordinary Thing of 
Courfe, and fo not heeded, or elfe imputed to 
Refrejlsment by Sleep, Eafe from Pain, or fome 
mendment as to the Difeafe ; or, indeed,'"' to any 
Thing, rather than Difpiriting and Stuptfying Of ium^ 
that is fo far (in all Opinion) from exciting the 
Spirits, that all affirm, conclude, and agree, that 
It diminiflses or difables them. 

The like is to be faid of any of the lively Ef 
fBps, in cafe they happen, and are obferv’d ; Tho* 
1 do not fee how they can, fo (at leaft) as any 
Stander by w'ill refer it to Opium ; befides, that as 
to fome of the brisk EffeBs^ (efpecially that of 

Veftefj ) 

48 The Myfteries 

Venery) greater Dofes are requifite, to render ft 
any thing remarkable, than are ufed in thefe 
Wefiern Farts ^ and that Modefiy would much hinder 
the difiovery of this Ej^e^. 

Is it not therefore very manifeft, that I had 
great caule to fulpe^t, that both Ancient and Mo. 
dern Phyficians confider’d things by halves^ fince 
they did not take the moft genuine Properties into 
their Confideration, and that they laid their Foun. 
dation upon the moft contrary Effetis to them ? It 
follows then. That the general Suppofition of all the 
Learned can no more (blve the true Properties cf 
Opium in any Probability, than giving the Reafbn 
why Fire hardens Clay can explain why \tfoftem 
Wax j The Reafony did I lay ! 1 Ihould have laid, 
than giving the wrong Reajbn why it hardens Clay^ 
fliews how it foftens Wax ; for it will appear in 
the following Chaptersy that they gave no right 
Reafon for any Effe^ of Opiumy even thofe they 
ever allow’d to be its EffeBs ^ nor laid any true 
Foundation to explain the leall, meanefl and plain* 
eft Effe^ thereof ; fbralmuch as all their Suppo. 
fitions are lb falle, that there never were any luch 
Things as they lay down to explain the EfFe<fts of 
Opium, viz. 

1, No fuch Thing as a Cold Quality in Opium# 

2 . No fuch Things as Fumes from O. 
pium to the Bratn, while it is at Stomach. 

3 . No fuch Thing as dimimjhingy or difahling the 
Animal Spirits by Opium, any way whatlbever^ 
Of which in their Order in the following Cbap^ 


cf Opium ReveaPcf. 4^ 


It is proved. That Opium has no Cold Sina- 
Itty to diminiji} or difable the Spirits 

H Aving Ihewn juft Caules of my Safpklon of 
that Untverfel Foundation of OpiunPs DimL 
mjhing or Difabling the Spirits^ 1 will now proceed 
to a more ftrid Exdminatkn thereof, beginning 
Wth the Opinton^f the Ahdents, who affirm’d. 

That Opium dimini^ed or difabk'd the Spirits by 
an extream Cold '^Quality. 

I confefs that much may be done towards the 
diminijhing, or difabling the Spirits by Opium, if it 
had fueh a cold Quality as the Ancients attributed 
to it \ for then it miift be Rich a Coldnefs^ as the 
toldeft Things either aEiual, or potential^ bore no 
Proportion to ; for Ice, Snojj^, &'c. bear no Propor- 
tion to it, in caufing the lame l^ffec^ts by a cold 

It was the manner of the Aments implicitly 
to believe, and fiibfcribe to what their great 
thors^ and Mafiers in Phyfick, or Philofophy, taught 
them \ whom they adored as infallible Gods^ as 
foon as their Mortality proved the contrary 5 
which was as abfiird, as afierting. That Opium^ 
which is one of the hotteft Things that Vegetables 
aflbrdt is extream cold ^ (blefled be God for our 
Light ill Religion,2Lr\d Liberty in Vhilofophy / ) There- 
fore Ibmo foch admir’d Authors, or gnat Mafier sin 
Phjficky having aflerted, that Opium adted by an 

E extream 

$6 ^^The Myfieries 

fxtream - coli Quality^ all did implicitly lubfcribe 
to it ' 

The Devit^ tt^hom they worfliip'd, could not 
(tho* a Deceiver from the Beginning) impofe more 
upon their Paith^ than in caufing them (for I 
cannot think but it Was fome fuch Evil Power) 
to believe, that Opiutn was coldy againft all the 
Evidence of Senfe and Experience • he might have 
as well told them, that HeU Fire had all the Pro» 
perries of common culinary FirCy and yet nothing 
more refrelhing by its cold Quality ^ for as many 
of ourSenfeSy^s can take notice of Heat and Coldydo 
plainly inform us, that it is very hot in it felf, and 
EffeBs, For, 

t. Its Tafie is very hitter^ ranky vehemently hoiy 
burning and biting^ all which Qualities are infallible 
Signs of great Heaty and the better the Opium is 
the more intcnle are thofe Qualities j Nay, it is 
obferved, that Its very is ftri(5fly combined 
to, or confifting mxhok Qualities y Specially Bit- 
ternefsy which if loft, the Firtue is gone, as is . 
commonly ohfervedy and eafily obfervahle^ 

It was a wife Fetch of Amatus Luftantts^ in 
Defence of its Cold Qualityy to attribute all its 
Bitternefs to Glauciumy that was mixt therewith J 
whereas Glaucium always gives a yellow TMure 
to TVatery and Opium a red ; but the Opium^ that 
gave no yellow TinBurCy was bitter alfb ^ yea, that 
was moft bitter y that gave the reddefi TinBure'^ 
How comes Theban Opiumy and indeed all other 
Opiumy to be bitter before any thing is mixt with 
it ? How inadvertently abfurd People will be to 
defend Abfurdities *, it is pretty to fee how th^ 
will expole themfelves to defend a falfe Opinion^ 


2 . Its 

of opium Reveard. 5 1 

2. Its Smelly which is very rank^ hot^ 

fuchj as Things highly impregnated with 
Volatile Salt^ and Sulfbur^ (the Two hotteft Prin- 
ciples in Nature) do afford. It is from Volatile 
Salt that Cantharides^ Vi[mire^ Spear-Worty Crowi^ 
footy &c. are fo Very hor^ as to blifter, (or exul- 
cerate ; ) and are not all hot Spirits fucht upon the 
account of their Sulphur ? as Sprits of Winsy 
Brandy y 

%. The beft and %ongefi: Opium will allb exuU 
ceratBy ( as all Authors agree ) which only FirCy or 
fuch Things, as have the Particles of Fire lodged 
in them, as Lixiviates y &c, or the hotteft Things 
in Nature y wilpdo ; as Cantbaridesy Spear^JVorty 

It is^ 

4. For the like Realbri, a Vfilothrkky or Caufer 
of Hair to fall ; which only LimCy Orpimenty and 
the hotteft Things, do caufe. 

5*. It is inflammable^ which only Sulphurecm 
Things are. 

6. It caufes a Senle of a vehement Heat at Sto- 

machy tho* taken but in the Quantity of a 
Drachm, - 

7. It caufes Drinefs of the Mouthy and Thirfiy 
tho’ taken but in the Quantity of 3 Grainsy which 
nothing does but hot Things. 

8. It difcujfes ; and all Dilcuflers are hoty for it 
is by Heat that they do difcufsy as Spirit of Winey 
Cummin-Seedy Volatile SaltSy and all Hot Spirits. 

9. It foon Operatesy and in a fmall quantitpy which 
Is an infallible Proof of the Activity of its Parts, 
which argues Heaty not Cold^ 

10. it caufes a gay y pleafanty and merry Humour ^ 
which only Wine, and hot Liquors, &Ci do ; and 
one Grain of Opium will caule them as much as 

“^feveral Glafles of Mncy which argues, that its 
Heat is much greater. 

5 2 . The Myfteries 

1 1. I wbuld fain know how ^ or fee any In fiance 
of any Cold Thingi raijing the Spirits^ caufing 
Courage j Magnanimity ^ enabling Teople to Labour^ 
"Journey^ O'c, as IVine^ hot Liquors^ and Opium 

1 2. Opium does very much open the Poret^ and 
Caule Perfpiration^ &c, which only Heat^ as that 
in Baths y Bagnios^ Hot Houfesy and Hot 'Things do i 
but Cold fiiuts the Pores^ as all know. There- 

i^. Opium cures y and prevents Colds * which is 
another Argument of its Heat, 

1 4. It is a great y^phrodifiacky or Exciter to Ve- 
neryy which Cold things chill j but Hot Things^ 

as Cantharidesy BeeSy PifmireSy OnionSy Garlicky 
Leeksy Pockety Squillsy Horfe RadiJljy Sem, Human, 
&c. do promote. 

If. Nothing caufes Indolenccy given internally, 
but IVinCy Hot Liquorsy&c, (as 1 can think of) 
and Opum caufes it much after the fetne manner 
as Wine does, firft caufing Mirthy and JoUityy 
and, upon increale of Quantity ^ very confiderable 
Indolence, ^ It is true, that Cold Vv^ill externally 
eaufe a Stupor y if it be intenfe, fo as to conftringc 
the Parts, and exclude the Spirits • but other wife 
it makes the Feeling more nice, as all know by 
Experience y becaufe every little Hurt affects us 
more when we are cold than hot : But this is not 
the Cafe of relaxing Opiumy which is lifed inter- 
nally to take away Painy as &c, 

160 Nothing takes away the EffeBs of Opium 
(or Drunkenefs J better than cold Things inter- 
nally y and externally 5 as acidsy dipping in Cold TVa- 
teVy &c, 

1 7. Opium relaxes all PartSy which Heat does j 
and Cold conftringesy as was intimated. 

18. Wedelius confeffes, (tho* it make^ againft 
what he lays) that he never obferved a Soporofe 


of Opium l^eveaFJ. 5 3 

Pt/^emper, where there was not a Fretermtural 
Heat. Opiolog. Lib. i. Se 5 t, i. Cap, 12. F. 45. 

19. If it caufes Sleep by its cold Quality then 
^ll'Things, that are cold^ would doit proporti* 
pnably ; Cummers ^ Furjlane, &c, would be io 
great Hypnotich^ that we ftiould not be able to 
eat a Drachm of them, but that they would caule 
a great Sopor ; but there is no fuch thing ; and 
hot Things are much more apt to caule Sleep,, or a 
Sopor, as lyine, hot Spirits, Onions, Garlick, and 
luch like. 

20. Opium caules a Rednefs, or Efflorefcence of 
the Skin, rnaking it lenfibly warmer, as, Heat, Wine, 
and Strong Li^ors do. 

21. It caufts allb ap Itching of the Skin, which 
only hot Things dp. 

22. Half a Drachm of Opium in Clyfters has 
cauled a violent in the Guts. 

23. It fopf Diarrheas, or Loofenejfes, which Cold 

24. It [lops Defluxions, Coughs, &c, which Cold 

25. To pin up all, its predominant Frinciplis 
appear, by Autopfle upon its Chymical Analffis, tp 
be Volatile Salt and Sulphur. 

Belides, this Opinion pf the Coldnefs of Opium is 
very much exploded, and, indeed, it is fo appa- 
rently fdfe, and abfurd, that I Ihould not have 
thought it worth while to argue againft it, but that 
it lay lb in my way, that regularly I could not 
well avoid it, without Breach of Order and. Afif?- 

I might have added, that it rcfolves, atlenuate^, 
&c. but it is needlels to fay any more. 

54 Myfterks 

It is very falfe^ and erroneous^ that it fiops Fkxei 
by incrajfating^ and bindings which are accounted 
cold Qualities'^ if lb, how fhould it flop them 
when Pounds of IncraJJatives and Binders have 
failed) tho’ the Opium was given only in the Quan. 
tity of a Grain or Two ? How fliould it flop, or 
moderate Fluxes^ even while it is yet at Stomach, 
as it moft certainly does ? It bears (as EtmuUer 
well oblerves) no Proportion to the Bloud, and 
Humours, to have any EffeB that may be re- 
markable upon them, for a Grain is but as i to 
1 1 5' 200 to the Blood of him that has 20 Pound 
of Blood, which an ordinary Man has : Befides, 
How can Altenuatives^ Refolvers^ and Dijcujjers^ 
incraffate or bind ? But, more erpedally. How 
can lb great a Relaxer of Parts, be a Cpnftringer 
thereof? That is perfebi ContradiEiton:- And how 
can a meer Sal Volatile Oleofum , in which all its 
Vertue lies, (as will plainly appear) thicken and 
bind ? 

The Truth is, that it flops Fluxes (as Sleep 
doth) by taking away the lenfe of the Irritation 
of Humours^ which Iblicite the Parts to con- 
tract, and lb to extrude and fqueefe them out; 
it promoter Ferfpiration by relaxing the Fores (as 
Sleep doth ; ) it allb (eems to thicken Rheumy (as 
Sleep doth) becaule it caufing Sleepy or ( at leaft ) 
taking away a lenfe of the Irritation of the Rheumy 
is thereby fuffered to ftay till it thickens by the 
Heat of the Body •, the Irritation alfo at Windpipe 
being left, becaufe the Flux of the Rheum is mo- 
derated for the Reafon aforelaid. But of thefe 
Things more fully when we come to explain the 
Caufe or Caufes of the Effect of Opium, 


of O^iwm Reveal'd. 55 


It is proved^ That Opium fends no Fumes^ 
&c. fi'om the Stomach to the Head., Brain, 
&c. and therefore that it does not dimi^ 
nijh , or difahle the Spirits, 8cc* bj that 

T H O’ the Opinion of the Cold of Opmm is much 
exploded, that of Fumes, Vaponrs, or Auras, 
arifing from mQ Opium at Stomach, and moun- 
ting up to the Brain, is as much received and 
embraced ; 1 know none, but fuch as think it ab- 
folutcly neceffai y, confidering that it is mofl cer- 
tain, and allow’d by all obferving Men, That 
Opium produces all, or moh: of its EffeBs, while 
it is at Stomach ; That the Genm Nerv-ofum, is 
moftly concerned in its Operation ; and that fas 
was faid) there is no Operation, or ABBwn, hut by 
Contall ; So that the Moderns, acquiefcing in the 
Neceffity of its operating that way, becaufe they 
could conceive no other, (which is no Proof, but 
a DefeB of their Conception) look upon it as invin- 
cible and unconcrolable E-vldence of Its operating 
by Detachments of Fumes, cj Effu'viAs, (ent up to 
the Brain from Stomach', which appear’d fb 
undeniably conclusive, that neither the want of a 
fenfible Eajjage, nor any other Inconvenience, figni^? 
bed any thing ( with them } to the contrary ; there- 
fore it became an eftablilhed Foundation by com- 
mon Confent ; only they differ’d (as was IhewnJ 
in the manner how thofe Fumes produced the 
EffeBsof Opium: And well they might, feeing 
there is no thing, nor poilibiiity (if they 

E 4 vverej 

5 ^ The MyfierieSi 

werej of ever explicating the various EffeBs of 
Oftum by that means, as will manifeftly ap.= 

I confefs, that if Opium operated by fuch Fumes 
paSIng from the Stomach to the Brain ^ &c. it 
wouid be eafie to conceive how it fhould dlmini^y 
or difahle^ nay, utterly ruine the animal Splnts % 
and indeed impoffible rationally to conceive how 
they could do otherwife : But then the enlivening^ 
invigorating , and encouraging FffeBs of Opium^ 
which are its confiant and moft genuine Off-^ripg^ 
would lie upon our hands, without any poffibility 
of giving an account thereof ; for certainly dull, 
heavy, unnatural, undigefted, and cloudy Fumes^ 
or Vapours^ could not advantage the animal Spi- 
ritSy caufe a Triumph, or Ovation, thereof, at their 
accej^, Courage, Serenity, Tromptitude, Magnanimity ^ 
Euphory, Incltnatign to Venery, &c, which we are 
mod obliged to regard, as being its moft natural 
md proper EffiBs. 

This Opinion of the Modertu does prefiime, or 
fuppofe, ffor they prove nothing^ 

Firft, That Fumes, or Vapours, do readily and freely 
paf from the Stornach to the Brain, becaufe the grofe 
Fumes ( as they call them) of a Grain or two of 
Opium , always operate before it is out of the 

But they never law fuch Fumes pals, nor their 
FaJJage, only fuppofe both ; and that meerly upon 
an Imagination that it muft be lb , becaule they 
(forfooth) cannot conceive any other way by which 
Opium can affc^ the Head, Nerves, &c, while it is 
at Stomach ; whereas I can, and ftall (God willing) 
Blew them another means, or way, to do itt 
that is fenfihk, and not wholly precarious, as theirs 
is, and that in the meaneft manner ; becaufe all 
their Grounds to foppofe it, is their Inability to con^ 

of Opium ReveaN. 57 

^eive^ or afpnhendy what is (as I fliall Ihew) very 
fcnfibley nay ohviom alfo. 

Secondly r They fitPpofe , That fuch l^umes 
ferve to fol^ve all the Vhoenemenas and Operations of 
Opium; whereas it is utterly impoffible they fhould- 
Iblve the enlivening and invigorating Effefts there- 
of, (as has been fliewn, and fhall be further pro- 
’oved, if God permits.^ 

It were eafie to evidence, but that it would be 
tedious and needleft, (for their Incompetency to 
Iblve the moft proper EffeBi of Opium is more 
than enough) that fcch FUmes^ or Vapours^ can 
truly folve no EffeB 6f Opium, unleis it be that of 
Death, or fotpe deadly Symptoms •, nay^ they will 
not (blve the moft likely to be caufed by Vapurs, 
vix,^ Sleep, which all Men (as JVedelius lays) al- 
Io\y to be the Effe^ of Fumes, or Vapours, (m his 
Opiologia, 11, p, 35 J Somnum naturakm (lays 

he ) omnes concedunt producer e fuaviores, & blandas 
, feu Vapores primum dt^Tij'ejiov de^ 
f ‘ mulcentes, epui cum j^iritihm animalihus mixti torpL 
^fdosquafiiUosreddunt: That is, '' All grant that 
kind and gentle Fumes do caufe natural Sleep, 
Which is moft certainly falfe ; tho’ I very much 
doubt, that this groundl^isFrefumption, which (as 
he intimates) all enrbrace, has been a great caufe 
of this airy Imagination ' of Fumes in the Cafe of 
Opium ; becaufe Men feoked upon Sleep (agreed 
upon to be caufed by Fumes) to be the prime, lea. 
ding, and mofi proper Efft^ of Opium ; which is 
zKo falfe, it being but a meer Accident, ( as has been 
Ihown) and when it happens^, generally requires 
lying , or fitting fiiU , to affift it 3 whereas the 
at ching, that is the EfftB of Opium, requires no 
help, and cannot be put off ( as Sleep can^ by 
Motion, Albion, &c.) notwitiiftanding all Endea- 
vours to the contrary. Now I would know of 


$8 The Myfteries 

any Man, which is the moft proper and natural 
Effeli of any Caufe^ That which nothing can hin- 
der, or that which every ^(^ion can? But I run 
too far upon this matter , which belongs more 
aptly to that part of this Book^ that explains all 
the Effe^s of Of mm ; and lb muft return to that 
of Fumes , which do not caufe natural Sleep , as 
manifeftly appears, 

I. Becaule that which caules natural Sleepy muft, 
in all Reafon, ( as it is always in the wife Work of 
Nature ) bear a Proportion thereto ; but Fumes 
fluppofing their Being) bear no Proportion to our 
Sleep. Certainly a working Labourer , that toils 
all the Day, muft fpend the Fumes of his Body in 
the higheft degree ; and feeding upon dry Bread 
and Qheefe^ muft breed feweft Fumes yet none 
fleeps better or fweeter than he. The like is to 
be laid of a travelling Man, a tired Perlbn, &c. 
who often fall afleep before they eat or drink to 
renew their Fumesy which they had Ipent in an 
extraordinary manner. Why Sleepy that is de- 
lign’d for Refrejhment and Recruit y Ihould depend 
upon Fumes , no Man can tell; for then our 
Refrejhment would wholly depend thereon, and 
no Man have any Recruit by Sleepy but in propor* 
tion thereunto. Who dares accufe our fPife and 
Good Maker of fuch Contrivances , who in Nature 
always proportions Things to the Exigencies there- 
of? and therefore Sleep not to Fumes y but to that 
which was impair^ in us for want thereof; which 
is always contriv'd by Mfe Nature (if you’ll ob- 
lerve it) to be the prompting Caufc to tho Recruit ; 
and then Proportion is duly obfervM , becaufe we 
are prompted exa<ftly according to the Exigence 
or Necejjity of Nature^ as becomes the PPifdom of 
our Creator and Preferver. This Rule (if duly at^ 
tended to) will eafily, fpeedily, and certainly 

of Opium ReveaPd. 

lead you to the Knowledge of the true natural 
Caufeso^ Hunger, Thirfi, Inclination to Sleeps and 
all fiich Calls for Refiauration. All which 1 could 
Ibon latisfie you in, but that it is not my Bujinep 
at prefent, and that it will too much anticipate 
my defigned TraS of Animal Mechanifm, 

Nor doth Labour it felf bear any €xa& Trofortion 
thereunto , becaufe many healthy People , that 
are idle all day, fleep long, foundly, and fweetly, 
every night, as well as Labourers : So that (in 
fliort J it muft be (bmewhat that belongs tp 
Watching as luch ; for Sleep generally bears the beft 
Vroportion to Watching, It we watch much , or 
little, our Sl^p bears ibme Vroportion thQVttO \ 
tho’ there fpay be in this, as well as in Hun^ery 
Thirfi, &c, J^cidents, that caufe the Vromptkuae to 
be more or/^/>, apd lo vary the true natural Proper- 
tion* all which h^ve the Nature of Difeafes, as 
canine Appetites, Coma^s, Caros, preternatural Thirfis, 

What it is that WatchingXiS^Sk^ to prompt us to 
Sleep , muft be Ibme Impair made thereby as 
fuch, and not the foolifh Conceit of Fumes: And 
it were eafie for me to‘ illuftrate what it is, but 
that it will require Ibme Sheets of Paper, and (as 
I laid before) anticipate my Difiourfe of Animal 
Aiecbanifm, which I hoped to have publiflied be- 
fore this Book, and would have been moft conve- 
nient, becaufe the Principles therein ftated may 
ferve to explain the Effe^s of Opium • but that the 
want of a few Experiments has (to my Grief) hi- 
therto delay’d it 5 and th^rcforel muft be put to 
much Trouble in this Work for want thereof, be» 
caufe I am relblved not to (pare my (elf, in order 
to latisfie the Reader iti this gre^t ^nd unexplkated 

6o The Myfieries. 

2. If Vapours were the caufe of natural Sleeps it 
is impoflible that the prick of a or a fliarp 
Sounds &c. ffiould awake one ten or twenty times 
in an Hour ; for either the Trick muft in an in- 
jp^ant difcufi all the Fumes in being, which is im- 
poffible to be imagined, and they as often return 
to caule Sleep again ^ or intercept their Motion 
from the Stomach to the Head^ which no Man can 
have any Conception of the Efficacy of the 
or Soundy fb to do: Or they mufl: both difcu^ and 
intercept the Fumes ^ (which indeed if the cafe were 
filch, would be neceffary to make a clear Awa- 
king) which is yet far more unconceivable. What 
paltry Trifles does the World embrace, inftead of 
Truth and Reafon ! 

Several Perfons ( whereof I am one ) do 
awake in a minute or two after they firft afleep 
in Bed at night which would be abfolutely im- 
poffible, if Fumes caufed Sleep ; for the Fumes 
would increale more and more^ and make oxiQ more 
and more remote from waking. 

4. Why fhould warm Bat hs^ Fomentations ^ Feet-. 
waJhes^Head^wajheSy warm moifi Weather^ the ATI of 
Venery^l^Q Pleafure of fweet Melody ^gentle rubbing of 
the Head in a pleafcnt manner, fcr.atching the Back 
where it itches, and all gentle Tleafures that are 
confiftent with lyingy or fitting ftill, which do all 
caufe a very free Perlpiration of Fumes at the 
Vores^ ( that are then moft certainly opened by 
all thofe Caufes, as may be proved by ftatick 
Demonftration, Magnifying Glafles, &c.) caufe 
Sleep, feeing they all caufe a fpending of the 

Fumes ? 

Ohj. Some half-witted, unthinking Caviller may 
lay, Thkt fuch Thmgs ftir up the Vapour &c» 

of Opium Reveat d. 6i 

Anfv}, What fuch mean by f^apours ftirr’d, is 
not eafily determinable j but this I know, that 
all ftir of Humours^ or any other thing, hinders 
Sleep ; and that the longer foch Caufes of open- 
ing the Pores , and conlequently of perfpiring 
Fumes dolaft, the more we are inclin’d by them 
to Sleep ; fo that the more our Fumes have beert 
Jpent, the more we are inclined to fieep; which 
is a ftrange Contradi^iony if Fumes be the caufe of 

I can but (mile to think how moft Phyficians 
come to call feveral things Vapours: Firft, they 
&y, that Sleep is from Vapours ^ then call every 
thing Vapours (^ht or wrong) that inclines us to 
fleep, by realSn of that falfe Suppofition : How 
then comes Camphire not to be a great Caufer of 
Sleep, that is fo apt to evaporate ? 

5 *. Fear^ Sorrow ^ Grief y Melancholy y DepreJJion of 
Spirits y Coldy 8cc. do moft certainly clofe the 
Pores y (as appears by fiatick Experiments) by which 
means Vapours are much crowded in the Body ; 
yet all foch Grievances do hindQt Sleep, as they al- 
fo do the EffeBs o^Opium and Drunkennef: There- 
fore they do not proceed from Fumesy as the 
World imagines 5 for then thefe things that crowd 
in the Fumes and Vapours y would promote, not 
hinder Sleep, 

6. Fumes zxQtht caufe hS Sleepy then are the 
caufe of Sleep and Vertigds (as the Vaporaniam 
allow) the lame, it follows then that we could ne^ 
ver jleep without a Vertigo. 

7. Many (as Dr. Willu (aysj eat their Meaty 
take their Drinky See. as other People, yet db 
not fleep at all for many Weeks together ; which 
were impoffible, ii the Fumes of Meat zod Vririk 
caufed Sleep \ for they, by eating and drinkjngy 

62 The Myfteries 

muft liave thole Fumes , and confequently Steeps 
as other People, if that were true. 

Thirdly, They fuppofe and take it for granted^ 
( which 1 do not, for 1 know the contrary) That 
Opium, while it is at Stomachy can affeU the Brain ^ 
&C. no other way but by Fumes j which is a moft 
groundleftSuppofition : For, 

I • How fhould a Lump of Curd at Stomachy or 
the Haft of a Knfe fwallow'*dy and many (iich 
things, which can fend no Fumes to the Head, 
caufe Convulfions Head.achs , Vertigoes , Syncopes, 
Leipothymies of the whole Man^ Manias^ Furors, 
&c. if there were not another way for things to 
aire< 5 t the HervofrmGenm^ &g. while at Stomach, 
befides fending up Vapours to do But of this 
matter^ to ihew how a thing at Stomach may at 
fed the Brainy and the whole Syfiem of the ISterves, 
&c. and how Opium does it without Fumes, the 
1% 1 8, 19, 20, &c. Chapters will fhew you at large? 
Therefore I fliall fey no more of this ztprefent,{Qv 
It is fit for us firft to overthrow that Suppoftion of 
Fumes and Vapours y before wc ehablifh our own. 
For farther Satisfa&ion then, as to that^^»^r^/ 
Suppoftion of Fumesy let us duly and fully confider 
Things j for it is not a flight matter to proceed 
againu a General Opinion y that has continued 
through all •^ges, or to wipe off the Prejudices ac- 
quired thereby. Obferve, 

1. That the Brain is a Principal Part, 

2. That it is very foft, tender, and next to i 

3. That very [mad, fine, and gentle Things do 
highly offend it, as the Effluviums of fweet, or ill- 
feented Things , caufing hyfierkk and epileptical 
Fits, Syncopes^ Paintings, &C. It is alfo notorious 


of Opium RevoaPd. ‘ ^3 

among us Phyficians^ that a little Fume^ Icarce fen- 
fible as to Quantity or Quality^ rifing from a Toe^ 
Finger^ &:c. and arriving at the Br^iw,cau(es dread- 
ful epileptical FitSy Vertigo"* Sy 

4 . That our Wife and Provident Creator ^ has 
therefore fecured and fortified all the Avenues of 
the Brainy in a more particular manner, by feve- 

ral CircumvaUationsy viZi 

Firfiy With the Pia Mater. 

SeconMyy With the Dura Mater^ called lb from 
its Hardnefsy SoUdityy and Strength, 

Thirdly y W\^2i ^rongShtlly of a round or arch- 
ed Figure, 

Fourthly y With the Pericranium, 

All which belong to it particularly, befides other 
Integuments common to it, with other Parts \ as, 
I. Skin, 7 ., Tht Cuticle, Memhrana 

Carnofa, 4 . ThQPeriofiium : All which do liir- 
round it; and aft|j|pall, it is Thatched (^as it werej 
with Hair, 

5'. That the lame Providence has taken care 
( which is very obfervable) that none of the Oh- 
jtUs of Senfationy nor ( probably ) any Particle, or 
Effluviunty that flies from them, iliould ever reach 
the Brainy but only bare Impulfesy and they not 
immediately convey’d, but by the Intervention of 
a fincy tenuious , foft , gentky and moft agreeable 
Auray viz,, the Animd Spirits^ left any Offence 
fhould be given in the leaft manner to this moft 
tender, delicate, principal Part, and Royal Seat of 
the Soul* all which Care had never been, with- 
out Neceffity* for God and Nature do nothing in 
' vain. 


^4 Myfteries 

And if you’ll duly confider the Organs of Seri- 
iation, that are near the Brain , yoii’U find that 
they are contrived as Sbuturs^ to exclude all ex- 
traneous Particles from the Brain ; for Impulfes 
might have been contrived without their Intervene 
becaufe they do not alter or improve the 
fdfes received from Objects 5 for if they did, we 
fhould not have true notice of Things : And lee» 
ing they do not alter, or improve the Impulfes^ of 
what l^ fiiould they be but to exclude extraneolis 
TaHkles'^ Fumes y Effluvia* 

For infiance : The ttemdous Motion of the Air^ 
in the cafe of Souniy would have as triily hit the 
Auditory Nerve^ or Membrane, without the 
pan ; and very often much truer without it, be- 
cauleof the leveral Faults and Diforders that it is 
liable toJ Yet lb neceflary was it thought by the 
beft of Judges^ who cannot err, that it was ra- 
ther to be placed there, with all its Inconveniences 
that might follow , than any . w ay expole the 
Brain, though to the moft gendjjfbf Bodies, viz, 
the Air, by which ( in all probability ) the 
Animal Spirits themfelves are nourifhed , or lii- 

Were it not that extraneous Particles, or Air, 
would offend the Brain^ What need is there of the 
Tympan, when we know as well by Experience, 
as by the aforelaid Reafons, that a Dog, 8cc. can 
hear as well without it, updn the firft taking it 
off, but that the Hearing will afterward decay, 
becaufe the Brain, §cc. being expofed, will bc in- 
jured i 

What is evident in the cafe of the Ear, itiay bd 
ihade lb as to the Nofe and Eyes ; for though feme 
of my Readers may not eafily conceive it, the Re- 
prefentation of Things might have been conveyed 
by Refielims and RefraUions of Light , without 


^ Opium ReveaPJ. ^5 

excluding the Air ^ but that it was more conve- 
nient and fafe for the Brain, and Optick Nerve, 
( which is much the feme matter with the Brain, 
and a Prod u<^ion, thereof j thpxth^Air fliould be 

6, INo.twithftanding all this Care to exclude 
extraneous Particles^ hpw fine foever, we do find 
that thofe very Impdfes , conveyed by the Anu 
mat Spirits themfelves, in the moft gentle manner 
imaginable , do often offend the Brain. 

Now fairly confider the great Excellency and Ufe 
of the Brain, viz,, to fcparate the Animal Spirits, to 
accommodate the Soul with a fit Seat fork; its 
Tenderne^ and S^tne^ to be next to Lic^uidity \ how 
carefully it is/^arded with about nine or ten Cir- 
cumvaUations ^ or confiderable Integuments • that 
thofe we commonly call Qrgans of Senfation, are 
contrived for Shutters out for Jsxcludersj pf the 
leaft extraneous Particles^ Effuziids, Of ^ Aura; 
that the leaft Fume that rifes from any Part, and 
arrives at the i^dnj caufes (uph terrible and dif 
flial EffeSsj and that moft gentle pouches of the 
Animal Spirits do offend it, fb as to caufe tragical 
Events, as hyfierkk F its. Vertigoes, 6cc. Is it likely, 
that notwithftafting the Confider abtenef, Tendernefi, 
Xlfcy .and Excellency of the Brain, the extraordi- 
nary Providence ufed in guarding it from Efflu^ 
via* s, or extraneous Particles, how fine fbever, and 
the apparent Mifehiefs that the leaft Fume, nay, 
bare Impulfes, prelented by the Ammal Spirits, do 
caufe ; that the ferne Providence that fo guarded 
it f which does nothing in vainj fhould, after all 
jts Care and nice Cifcumfpe<ftionfo exclude the 
leaft fume, 6cc. permit, and freely let loofc upon 
|c, and into it, whole afd even concinuai Qufis, 
^lafis, and Vdeano^s, of acid, acrimepsious, putrid, 
fiot, jinking, correfive Fumes, Fapmrs and Steams, 

66 The Myjieriei 

arifidg from glutted^ debaucPd^ and furfeited 
fhachi , containing alf imaginable Trajh^, Hodge:- 
podge ^ V ermine^ tholer ^ ^c, iuxQ it is much fitter 
quite to difcharge and rid Nature of them at 
Mouthy or rather (end them downward with their 
fit Companions ^ the fiiukivg Ordnre sSiA Excre* 
fnents , than prefer them to the Higheft ' and 
Noblefi: Eart of the Animal and Sacred Manjion df 
the Soul, 

For if there be (b ready ^ free^ open^ and coh* 
fiant a Pajfage ( fenfible,^ Or infevjible ) for the 
Fumes of Opium y which never fails of its Effe^s' 
then certainly muft the Tajfage be alike free to all 
other Fumes from the Smnachy feeing they are (b 
to thofe gro(s, venomous, and pernicious Fumes of 
Opium ^ as WilltSy and moft of the modern an-^ 
dent Phyficians do (late them to bd : Then fare- 
wel Souly Brainy Lifcy and aU ; for it is not con- 
ceivable that the Man can hold out on^ Hour 
under (uch horrid and difmal Circum (lances y ZnA 
dreadful Erublations of rude znA crude Fumesy who 
could not bear the arrival of the leafi Vapoury 
(caree (enfible in Quantity or Quality y arifing frofii 
any other Parfy Or is it a peculiar Priviledge thzt 
the Stomach has, thus to t^vri^Farts with their 
Heels upward, ( as Belching is call’d) without any 
offence, to perfume the SouVs Prefence^Chambery 
((aving your Preience however ?) Foh I for fnamel 
What (brt of Opinions are thefe ? What thick, 
jinking , and dark Clouds, Scotomies , and Stu- 
pors, mufi the Opinktors be under, by their own 
Confent ? 

7. If this were the cafe, no Part in the whole 
Body would be in (uc^ a milerable (late as the 
Chief •, for the Redum, or Colony are fitted and 
fortified by I^ature to bear fuch Things j fo is not 
the under Brain c 


of O^lumReveaVd. ,^7 

8* What Horfe^s Braijn^ much lefs Humane one, 
could bear, incelfatic Rakings^ Tenemitiom^ Stuf- 
fings of (uch unnatural , indtgefied^ heterogeneom^ 
rugged^ acid ^ acYimomms ^ fmridi ailjd imfet^otfs 
Pumes? If ‘ • 

^ Gutta cavdt L^fidfm non vi fed fepe cadendo ® 

What would become of the tender Brain^ thus 
rudely rubb’d and grated, all the days of our 
Lives, if \t could hold out any ? for it is incre- 
dible it fliould. 

9. How would the Pores of that fbfr Subliance, 
which have no leis Office ( as ’tis univerfally re- 
ceived) than/tp feparate Arnmal Spirit/^ (whicli 
are or flipuld be the fineft and moft fubtile, te- 
nuious, and principal Things in an Animal^ neic 
the Soul it felf)be dilcompo(ed,torn, dilated, ftuff- 

. ed ? What a blelfed Secretion of Animal Spirit 
(if any j would there be ! ^ 

10. It isoblerved by all,Tl)at the Brfm, thoVery 
Ibft, receives the leaft Change of any Part of the 
Body •, which could never be (confidering its teti- 
dernefs) if it were fo raked by ali y^m of Fumes \ 
for then doubtlefs fuch a Body would be moft 
changed of any in Colour^ Suhfiance, Lexturey Big^ 
rsefi^ See. What would become of Memory, and 
indeed of all the Faculties of the BrAn f Caii i 
Ibft, yielding Suhfiance, continually difeompofed, 
preferve Impreffions made thereon? If Fumes 
flow’d continually through the Braivy they rnuft 
wear out all ifnprefippny yea, and the Bran it felf, m 
a fhort time. \ 

1 1. It would be very dangerous to eat or drinJe^ 
if the Brain muft fuffer lb much by the Fumes of 
Meat, Wine, It would be hard to know whe- 
ther it was beft ,Xg eat or mt^ for both muft be 
fat ah 

V ^ ii.Wfiat 

the Myfteriei 

12. What a vaft: Difference fhould We obferve* 
as to Serenity of Mind, &c. when empty and full^ 
For in this iaft cafe, the Brain muft be all in a 
Cloud, or a Cloud in it, ov both ^ yet are Men 
much more ferene, prompt, and fit for any thing, 
after feme Glaffes oi Wine, than before, and after 
moderate Eating , than when Hungry , which 
makes them faint, peevifh , ill-hutnour’d , and 

ig. If the Vafours, or Fumes, of Ofmm, flying 
tp to the Brain, caufed all its EffeBs, it is very 
ftrange that our Fumi 'venduli had not long fince 
found out the Mount eh ank-Gambol of ftaiiding up- 
on their to prevent all Mifchief from 

taken in a great Dofe\ lot Fumes in a warm living 
Body would not deicend into the Head, I wonder 
they did not find out fuch an eafie and natural Con- 
fequence of their Hyfoihefis , if true \ they might 
then have boldly mount^ any Stage, freely taken 
Opium, in the fight of the admiring Rabble ; their 
Summtrfets, Going upon their Hands, Scc. would 
have feciired them, and turn’d Danger topfie-tur^y 
by the help of a comcal Geffure. This is indeed 
fomewhat if it (ucceisds; i^not, Ifliould 

think ’twere enough to ridicule their Hypothefis out 
of I all Credit, vi?ithout any farther Arguments, I 
dare join Iffue with them upon that Voint, that it 
will not fiicceed, though a necelTary Confe^uence 
of their Opinion, if true ; wherein they will have 
this Advantage , That they’ll confels with one 
that never did for will) try it, as being well 
afllired of the Falfity of both Hypothefis, and 
the Experiment j without liich a Trial of SkilU 

Now I think that I have laid enough, and 
Would willingly give over arguing, and (pending 
any more Time to confute an Hypothefis fo abfurd, 
that it muft needs appear fo to any regular 


of Qp'uimRevearcf. 0 

Thinker without my }idp ; but all are not fuchi 
and the Vrejudkes general and inveterate ^ and of 
feme thoufands of Years Handings having conti- 
nued through all Ages to this day j and I would 
fain quite put out this falfe Lights that (like WsU 
of the Wijp) has brought many a Man into the Vit 
of Defiruction^ or Grave ^ while Phyficians were 
guided thereby. Therefore it being no fligiit 
TVurk to undeceive many, and a very good Work 
'(if poffible) to undeceive all ; I will (left what 1 
have laid be not fuftlcient to that end) add Ibine- 
what more to the lame purpo/e ; though (I doubt) 
fbme will not be convinced till I Ihew them how 
Things while at Stomach,' rpay caufe all the Ef- 
feds of Opium y^y a fenfble Operation^ without th^ 
Help of Fumes ^ Fapo^rs^ Effluvia Aura^ or any 
any luch thing ; which have been the Affum of 
the Ihort-fighted, that could lee no other Means, 
and therefore ( as was laid ) concluded Things 
muft be as they thought, preiurning that nothing 
could be that they did not lee. A Ipecial Inf^ 
rence, and a very improving one, which muft 
caule People never to leek lor any thing ! For 
why fhould they^ that think there is nothing but 
what they fee, look any farther ? To progeecj , 
then : 

-1 4. Ir is agreed on all hands, (as! take it) That 
the Animal Spirits are not generated till there is 
an Appulje of the Blgud at the Brain : Can it there-- 
fore be imagined. That Indulgent and Wife Na- 
ture ftiould contrive 2t fp,ztd\Qt fVayiodefiroy, dL 
minijh^ or difahle the Spirits, by Fames and Vapours 
out of the Stomach, than to generate thern ? Thefe 
are not the Ways of Equal Nature, Vv^hich deftroyi^ 
and generates by the lame Road ; fo that if Ani- 
mal Spirits are generated by the Bloud, they arq 
dirniniffied by Ibme DefeB therein 5 as ’ivant of 

P 3 ■ ' Mattel 

7 ® The Myjieriei 

Matter in the Bloud for th^t furpofe •j thtBloud 
arriving at the Brain^ and the like. 

Note^ That I fpoke in the laft Paragraph of dl, 
mlmjhing^ ( or deftroying) not bare difahling the 
Spirits • for the Spirits^ ‘or fenjitive Soul^ may 
depreffed (or difabled) for Ibme time, and exci- 
ted, or elevated, by other means than that of the 
Bkiid^ as by Pleafure or Difpleafure, Joy or 
&c. Thus good News^ or the Pleafure of any of 

Senfesj enliven, invigorate, or elevate the*S/?i- 
rits^ or fenjitive Souf in a moment \ this is the way 
that God has provided for us upon fudden Exigen- 
cies^ Deliquiums^ Lepothymies^ ^C. and thus Cor^ 
dials worktofycQdi\\^ ( as you’ll find hereafter ; ) (b 
may there be z fudden beprejfion of the Spirits^ as 
by ill News^ Pain^ &c. which (if you’ll be pleafed 
to remember) will much illuftrate Things here- 

f 5. The ordinary Strainers tht Body zxz to 
ordered, that they will not admit Particles of ano- 
ther Figure , efpecially if larger than the proper 
Particles ; much more fhould it be fo with the 
Principal Strainer of the whole Body, (I mean the 
BratTi) both for itsfafety^ and of the whoky which 
depends upon the Animal Spirits^ that are Brai- 
ned, or feparated, from the Bloud in the Brain * 
therefore the Particles of Opium , which are 
efteem’d grois by all, (however are more fo than 
the moft tenulom Animal Spirits') cannot enter in- 
to the of the Brainy to diminifh or di (able 
the Animal Splits ^ in ea(e its Fume arrived 

1 6 . It was never the Method of Feature to fend 
Things crude, unprepared, and undigefted, into 
the inmoft and principal Recejjes and Parts of the 
Bodyy without paffing gradually by the (e\^era! 


of opium Reveal'd. 7 1 

culationS;, &c, preparatory thereunto ^ therefore it 
will , not permit crude and indigefted Fumes any 
accefi to the Brain, till they have (as it werej per- 
formed their Quarentine elfewhere ; nor will 
ture, which always ads confentaneous to it felf, 
provide any Pajfage for fuch rude and crude Foreign, 
ers and Strangers^ to ravage the principal fart of 
an AnimaU 

ly. They cannot pals by the Arteries, which 
carry nothing out of the Stomach , but all into 
it, or towards it, and that with a violent Mo« 
tion, which oppofes any thing that would paS 
that way, 

18. Norby^e Feins, which carry nothing in- 
to the Brain ; but if they enter’d the Feins at Sto. 
Tftach, they muft thence pafs into the Right Vent 
trick of the Heart, where being rarefied by Heat, 
they muft take up much room, and fadly difcom- 
pofe ^he Motion of the Bloud, and allb enter this 
principal Fart in a crude condition, ftho’ much better 
able to bear them than the Brain) then muft they 
pafs into the Lungs, where you may be fare they 
will be fb (aucy as to take up the uppermoft Uoo/ni 
and how they will be brought down again into 
the Left Fentrick of the Heart, ( which they muft 
vouchlafe to do j, before they can get into the 
Brain J| none can tell : There then muft they 
ftick, and caufe an AJlbma, unleft the Man has 
the good Luck to be rid of thele Rovers by Brea, 
thing, and then (Joy be with them, I as there wi 1 
be, when they are gone) they are loft, and never 
arrive at the Bmin : And if it could be conceivecb 
that they condefcended to come down from the 
Lungs, (contrary to their Levity, which is not to 
be thought) what Franks muft they play in the 
Left Fentrick the Heart, and what at Brain, 
:Confidering it cannot bear the leaf Fapown i (ej 

72 The Myfterm 

has beeh (hewn*, ) whereas in thk Cafe 
m aft be a continual Stream thereof, and confe- 
quently a difcontmuance of the Bloud^ and its Mo- 
tion. See then how little Thought they muft 
have, that alTert it is convey’d with the Blond er^ 
ther to the Veins or ^Arteries I 

19. Nor by the LymjheduBs ; for then they 
muft, contrary to their natural Levity, defccnd 
into the Receytaculum Chyliy and out of the Sub- 
clavials into the Right Ventricle of the Hearty and 
afterward run all that wild Rilque mentioned in 
the lalt Paragraph, which was (hewn to be im- 

20. Nor by the Nerves • for then they muft 
either run ujd in the Road of the jinimal Spirits^ 
or in (bme By^vay. If they paffed by the Road 
of the Spirits, then muft the Spirits be ftopp’d for 
that time^ (which is no (hort one) and we fulfer a Pa- 
ralyfis of i\\Q.Sto7nacb all that time, or be much diftur- 
bed and interrupted ; then (hould we have ConvuU 
jions, or at leaft (ome degree of a Paralyfis of the Stomacb, 

And if they pafted by (bme By-way, or Road^ 
befides that of the Animal Spirits , then muft it 
be. a full, or an empty one ; if full, that Humour 
( as fuppole a Succus Nutridus, for oncej muft be 
difturbed and difcontinued, (as the Animal Spirits 
were fhown to be ; ) and if empty, it would fol- 
I0W3 that Nature had void and ufelej^ DuBs, which 
none ever had the Folly or Confidence to affert ; 
or that Nature contrived them for that purpofe, 
which is (as has been ftiown) dire^ftly againft id 
Methods and Advantage, 

But after all, whither would you have therri 
march in this By-Road^ for they could not mix of 
communicate (as good Luck is) with the Spires 5 
' and if they did, it is impoSible it (hould, be with- 
out fuch Difturbances as I mentioned would fol- 
low, if they pallid in the Road of the Spirits j it 

cf OpivLtti Reveatcf. 

is not common Senfe, that fuch crude Bdafls fliould 
iweliorate, or enliven the Spirits^ to caule Bruknefi^ 
Bhvery^Serenityfiourage^Magnan'mity^^sOpium does* 

much lels if thofe Fumes ftoppM and crowdtd in 
the Brain , and any way hinder’d the Genera, 
tion of Animal Spirits , as the common AJfertion 

The like is to be faid of their palling betweeri 
the Fia Mater ^ and the medullary Part of the 
Nerve, (which cannot be allow’d, becaufe of its 
clofe adherence thereto^ with this addition. That 
they would conftantly eaqfe a yiotent Head-acb^ 
which Opium, and Meais^ (to which Fumes are par- 
ticularly attrib^d) do often cure. 

So it they got up tb the Head, between the Tia 
and Dura Mater, it is Head^achs, and not the Sym* 
ptoms of Opium, that they would produce ; which 
Head.achs ( as was fiid J Opium and Meals do 

21 . Laftly, If they paffed by any means quite 
bn the outfide of the Nerves and their Membranes, 
(viz,, the Fia, and Dura Mater) then muft they 
take their Lodgment (if within the Skull ) betweeii 
the Dura Mater and the SkuU, and produce no 
other Symptom but a Head-ach , which ( as wat 
faid ). Opium and Meals rather cure than produce ; 
and if without the SkuU, it is quite befide the 
^ion, and the Vaporarians own Intentum ^ for in 
all thefe laft Cafes, they could not affed the Ani. 
mal Spirits fprgood or evil. Many and very many 
things may be added, to Ihew the Impc^Mlities, 
Inconveniences, Incoherences, Abfurdities, 8cc, that at- 
tend the Fajfage of the Fumes and V apours into the 
Brain, Head, 

22.1 had forgot? mentioning the Abfurdity of its 
paffing up at GuUei, and fo to the Head, becaufe 
I could not imagine thut } any] one would be 


74 Mjffieries 

fo bcaftly aft Animates to belch up an Argument of 
that kind, confidering our very Senfes tell us^ that 
what comes up that way paffes out at Mouth or 
JSlofirilsy and becaufe, if it were fo, the Operation oT 
Opium y &c. would be in proportion to our Belching^ 
which is ridiculous, 

2 j. The greateft Contort of a Cordial is at firft, 
or foon after it is taken j but if ’its Comfort were 
by or Effluvia's^ paffing to the Bloud^ or 

any where befides, the Comfort would (as their 
Caufe of Fumes do ) increafe for a long time, and 
be more after a good while than at firft. So, 

24. If Opium operated by Fumes while at Sto- 
machy which muft gradually increafe continually, 
how comes Opium to be at the height of its Ope- 
ration in a fhort time, viz,, in about half an Hour 
after it begins lenfibly to operate, or an Hour at 
fartheft, and not increafe continually in its Opera- 
tion, as their pretended Caufe the Fumes mult do 
by continual Iteaming ? 

2j. If Opium operated by fending Fumes by 
Tajfagesy &c. from the Stomach to the Brain , | 
Ihould think that when it has got out of the Sto. 
machy as into the Intefiinesy laffeal Veins ^ &c. there 
fhould be a kind of Interval of its Operationy 
Tf which is never obferv’dj till it got into the Bloud 
again *, therefore it does not operate by Fumes, 
for the Pylorus is always Ihut, but when fomewhac 
is fent downward, which would hinder the mount- 
ing of the Vapours into the Stomach, in order topaft 
to the Brain. 

26. If Vapours were the caufe of Sleep after Meals, 
then fhould we be more fleepy two or three Hours 
after Mealsy becaufe of the abundance of the Fumes 
that would be crowded into the Brain by that 
time^ but we are more fleepy prefently after 
Meals, and if we indulge it but for a quarter of an 
Hour , we are refrefhed , and far from JleepineJS 


of Opium Reveatd. 75 

afterward, tho’ the Fumes fif that Hyfothefis were 
true ) would be much more at Brain two or thre^ 
Hours after the Meal : So it is in the cafe of Wine^ 
if one take a fliort Nap after fome Glafes, he may 
drink a great many afterward without being flee- 
py •, which plainly proves, that it is not the Fumes 
of the ^Fine is the caiile of the Sleeps becaufe he 
is not at all pepy , when there muft be n^ore 

27. All allow, that hot Fumes alTaulting the 
Brain caufe Vhrenfies • if that be true , then the 
Fumes of IVine and Opium (which are both very 
hot) muft always do lb ; but Opium and Wine allo 
do often caufe ^mpefure. Good Humour^ Sleep &C. 
Which are contrary to Fhrenjles ; therefore they 
do not operate by Fumes, 

25 . If Sleep (lays Helmont, the only Man that 

I have read who is againft Vapours) is caufed by 
Vapours afcending from the Stomach to the Head^ 
ohfiruSling apd intercepting all the FaJJages of Sen^ 
fat ion ^ Motion^ Speech ^ Judgment {as th^ 
Schools fay ) then a Difeafe would have been be- 
fore the Fall of Adam, becaufe Skep would have 
been a Difeafe , that is, a flatulent and vaporous 
‘f Falfle. 

29. All allow Vomitives and Furgers to operate 
by Irritation, or sl grievous Senfation of the Mem- 
branes of the Stomach • Why not Wine^ Cordials, 
Opium, &C. by a pleafant Senfation ? Cujus efi Dolor 
faut Gravamen) ejufdem efl Voluptas • and as a 
grievous Senfation (or Pain) caufes Melancholy, De- 
pre0on of Spirits, Fretfulnefl, Laffitude, &C. lb a 
pleafant Senfation caufes Comfort, Elevation of the 
Spirit's, Euphofy, 8cc, But we have not cleared 
the lufficiently for thefe Matters yet, which 
will in due time be Iblcmnly confidered. 

‘J.i the Myfierm 

Obj, It may be (aid. That both l^omkivts and 
purgatives takelbme time before they operate, un- 
lels a Naufea upon Averfion caufes them to work 
fooner ; for Things muft have time to infinuate 
themfelves (or foak) through the Crufia Carmfa of 
the Stomach , and afterwards to affedt its fe?9jile 
Coat ; which argues that Mne and Cordials^ which 
operate immediately, 4® not operate that -way^ but 
by Fumes (or Effluviums ) pafllng into the Bratn^ 
or Bloud. 

Aftfw, I doubt indeed, that this Difference may 
be an occafion of referring the Effedsof Cordials^ 
and thofe of Emitticks and Cathartkks^ to different 
Caufes ^ but it is very ftrange, that they fhould go 
lb far as the B/oua, or Brain 4 to (eek for the 
Caufe of the Operation of Cordials , which operate 
in a Moment^ and go no farther than the Stomach 
for the Caufe of the Operation of Vomatives and 
Purgatives^ which take more time to operate j 
elpecially feeing the Bloud and Brain have no 
Senfation^ and that all fenfitive Comforts happen 
by that means, 1 think it were much more pro- 
per, firfl*, to confider the immediate Part upon 
which they infift, fwhen at Stomach) efpecially 
feeing it is fo very fenjible , before we run roving 
I know not whither, to feek for the Caufe of a 
Thing that works, pleafes, and comforts the Sto^ 
machy as foon as it is down. I take my felf run- 
ning off the proper SubjeSl Matter of this Chapter ^ 
and anticipating that of another \ therefore I will 
be foort, and deliver my Opinion in this Cafe by 
way of Pofition, with a familiar Inftance to illu- 
ff rate it, which may in fomemeafiire prepare you 
for the Proof of it, and what is to be laid thereof 
more at large hereafter 


e/ Opium RevtaPd. 77 

I fay then, thzthot ^-itmus Cordials^ (for iuch 
indeed all frofer Cordials are) as Brandy^ Dr. Ste^ 
phenss Water , and fuch4ike , having fidfhttreous 
Particles fo prepared and dilpofed towards Heat, 
or Fire^ that they are as it were in fotentia fro^ 
xima (or next Dijpofition) thereto; are mighty 
apt to contra(5t a Heat, as you find by Spirit of 
Wine^ or Brandy y kept the leaft time in a warm 
Place ^ or (to come clofer to the matter) in your 
Mouth* wherein being actuated by its Heat, they 
will as in an infant grow fo hot and adive, that 
you can hardly bear them , becaufo Particles of 
Hea which penetrate any Metal, Qlaf, &c. im- 
mediately as foon as applied thereto, will much 
more eafily and fooner penetrate our foft Pm$ 
at Mouth , or the Crufia Carnofa at Stomach, 
and fo reach the moft fenfile Coat thereof, pleajing, 
comforting, and exciting the Spititus injitos as in a 
moment by their fiiritmus Heat^ which we a^u- 
ally feel and fenfibly find to pleafe and comfort 
the Stomach, 

But if fome Purging TinSlure had been put into 
the Cordial, or Brandy, this would not have foaked 
through the Crufa Carnofa under fome time, and 
confequently not operated till it had. This may 
be mofi manifeftly illuftrated by fome hot Brandy, 
or indeed any hot Liquid put into a porous Difli 
fet upon one’s Hand, which prelently warms it ; 
but if the Liquid be tinged with any thing, that 
TinBure will not reach the Hand) till the Li- 
quor, which is its Vehicle, foaks through, which 
may be in an Hour ( more or lef ) according 
to the Poroficy of the Wood, which Tindure is 
to be compared to the Purgativel^t Stomach. 

Hence it follows. That all Cordials (hould be a 
Liquid, if intended for fudden Refiejhment, 
which Experience has taught, and be given actual- 
ly warm'd, if a very nimble Comfort be required; 


The MyJleri'eS 

tiho’ the great Heat of the Stomaeh^ above th^t of 
thQ Mouth ^ will generally be fufficient. Thas 
may the Stomach be pleafed and comforted, grie- 
ved and purged, with the fame Draught ; but Gra. 
cious Providence has given the fiart to , the Cordial^ 
which immediately comforts us as a Heater. 

30. If Ofium operated by fuch Fumes ^ it would 
(at leaft in a liamd Form) begin its Operation as 
foon as it is at Stomach ; for it would begin tt> 
(end up Fumes as foon as it began to be warm, 
which is prefently, and be at a very confiderable 
Height fuming^ and confequently of Operation.^ 
in one minute.^ which is about the fpaceoffeventy 
ordinary Pulles ; but we do not find it begin to 
operate in that Form , under twenty , thirty, 
or forty Minutes, which is much about the 
time that a more agreeable, and notnauleated 
Vomitive^ or Purger , begin to afFe< 5 fc the fenjile 
Goat of the Stomachy and give intimation of their 
(b doing. All which, and the Senfe of Pleafure 
that we adually then feel at Stomach.^ makes it 
probable that it operates by affeding the Stomach 
pleafantly and comfortably, (after the manner of 
generous iVine ) as Purger s and Vomatives do by aP* 

grievoujly.^ all of them (except the PPine^ 
that pleafes and comforts fooner becaufe of its 
Particles of Heat gain'd by Fermentation) opera- 
ting much in the fame time^ becaufe they take 
like leilure to foak through the Crufia Carnofa to 
the fenfile Coat of the ^Stomach. 

31. All lenfitive Comfort^ &c. are re- 

ceived by the Senfes *, and though any Part were 
fome way benefited, that has no Senfe^ no Com. 
fort would be perceived ; without Perception^ none 
could fay that he is comforted : What fitter Part 
Is there to be pleafed, and comforted by Senfa^ 
tioHy than the Stomach ? which has fuch exquilite 
Senfe, that it can difgern the vomitory Particles in 

of opium BfvedPd. 

hfujton of the Cncm^ov Reguks of Antimony^^hioh 
no Senjation but that at Stomach can difcern ; and 
lb finall, that a thoufand Vomitories made thereof 
by Infufion, do not fenfibly diminifh the Crocm^ 
or Regulus' 3iS to Weighty or Bulk ; nor can I con- 
ceive where any lenfible Corsfort can be perceiv’d 
by a fpoonful of Cordial but at Stomachy where it 
adually is, and upon whofe Coats it immediately 
infifts ; Is it not there that we feel the ComforM 
and where fhould we find it but there ? What 
would the Effluviums of a Spoonful fignifie , if 
mix^d with i ooooo times as much infetifile Bloud ? 
and what Part ( befides the Stomach ) that the 
Blmd touches, can be lenfible of it ? So that if 
Effluviums wer^granted, ’tis thither they muft re- 
turn to caufe any confiderable Pleafure^ ov Comfort; 
But what need any Return of the inconfiderable 
Effluvia^whcn the main Body of the Cordial (yea^ 
all) lies upon the Stomach already ^ 

I mufl forbear running into the Bufinelsof other 
Chapter Sy having been tedious enough upon the 
Subject of this, and the rather, becaufe it was lb 
general and lb rooted an Opinion in the Minds of 
Meny in all Agesy and in all SeBs of Vhypcians and 
Natural Thilofophersy that I could not lay too much 
to endeavour to free the World from the Slavery 
of luch an Imfoptiony and the innumerable ill Con- 
fequences of uich a fundamental and overgrowii 

Which certainly muft have been long fince ex- 
ploded, if ingenious Men had firft thought, and 
then fpoke freely *, but the Truth is, there were 
many and great Caules to the contrary, as thole 
intimated in the laft Paragraph^ and the mighty 
Ufefulnefy and ready Officioulnels of that Opinion 
of Fumes y to anfwer for all the more obfcure and 
latent Caufcs of the Maladies and Difafiers of the 


The Myfteries 

Brain and Gems Nervefum, If any enquired oir 
called for the Caufe of a Vertigo^ the Vhyfician an- 
swered (Fumes* ) of Epilepjies^ it was anfwered 
{Fumes of Scotomies^ it was Fumes* of Head- 
achs^ Megrims y Qomds^ Caros, Lethargies, ficc. it 
was FwweiV of Hyfierick Fits, Convulfions, Spafms, 
Cramps, &:c. it was Fumes *, nay, they anfwered 
as Caufes to all Difiillations, Catarrhs, Epiphord*s^ 
( or weeping Eyes) and all, even ordinary Tears ; 
all which they faid were only thefe Fumes turn’d 
into Water by the Coldnepof the Brain, as they arc 
in a StiU, or Alembkk ; (b hot Fumes accounted 
for Phrenfies^ Deliriums, Ravings, &C. So that how- 
ever other Heads were, tke Phyfidans was fluff’d 
therewith ; and all Meteors of the Microcofm^s 
Upper Region, whether.^ot or cold, were fas thofe 
in the Macrocofm) formed out of Fumes, as he ima- 

Thus you fee all the Opinions and Hypothefifes 
that have been, concerning the Operation of Opium, 
to be moft abfiird, and dircdly contrary to alt 
Senfe, Reafon, and Experience. 


d/ Opium Reveal^ J. St 

C H A P. XL 

Opiuili does not dminifi or difabte the Spirits 
by any means rohatjoever^ 

H Aving fuffidently dempnftratedj, tliat dpium 
cannot diminljh or difable. the Spirits by thd 
cold Quality of the Ancients^ or Fumes of the* Mo^ 
derns^ and that neither of them have as much a^ 
any Being * I fliall now add, that Opium does no! 
diminifl)^ or doable tBe Spirits by an) other meaM 

I would not be miftaken, when I (ay, iTha! 
Opium does not diminijh^ 6y difabte the Spirits hf^ 
any means, (for there is nothing (o good in Na^, 
ture^ but Will do it, if ufed unduely, or imtho^ 
derately, as Wine^ Breads Milk^ Honey^ 

Beer^ &c. in excels) for I intend, that it does dot 
do it when duely and moderdfely uled. 


X. That which refrefhes the Wearied, and 
highly prevents Wearinefs^ muft add to, or excitd 
the Spirits, which is dircdiy Contrary to diminijli’^ 
ingy or difabling them ; but Opium does in a mdfl 
eminent manner refrelh the Wearied, and pre« 
vent Wearinefs^ therefore it d6es not ditoinilh, ot 
difible the Spirits. 

Some have been fo fifly, and inadVetteht, a^ 
to object , that it refrelH’d the Weary only by 
Sleep ; It is Matter of FaB^ that it refrelhes therri 
whether they Sleepy or no, arid that wJthotit faiL 
Ing as often as it is ufed in that Cafe. 

82 The Myjieries 

Others (that were no Wifer) have laid, that 
it only took off the fenfe of Wearincfs by ftupify* 
ing, which happened by thQ dlmmijhirjgy or dif 
ablifjg of the Animal Spirits, Bare Infenfiblenefs 
cannot enable the Spirits to Labour with eminent 
Briiknefs and Alacrity^ as Mcn moft certainly do 
after Opium is taken^ being finely enlivened^ and 
invigorated^ as with generous IVine^* if they do not 
know this to be true^ let them fo^* lhame hold 
their Tongue s^nW they know Matter of FaB^ which 
if they will not^ they proclaim themfelves to be 
idle and imfertine7it Babblers • but if they will 
patiently and wilely abftain arguing, till they are 
latisfied as to Matter of FaBy then will they be 
paft Opinion and Hypothefis in that Gale 9 for they 
will have lenfible and certain Knowledge of the 
contrary, and the Truth of what I fay , which 
will end all Controverfy^ and precarious Squabbles 
upon falle Suppofitionsy (as the manner is) that 
cannot lead them to what is Right, but by meer 
chance, and never to a true Knowledge^ that they 
are in the Right, which makes it none in effed • 
for they can do nothing with Afurance, but only 
fiippofe, and hope they are in the Right, when 
they are as much out (to their Patient’s forrow) 
as Fhyfeiafjs have been in the cold Quality^ and 
Fumes of Opium. 

It is true, that a Grain (or Two) of Opiunsy 
will, if a Man compoles himfelf, fitting, or lying 
fill, caule a Sleepinefs, equal to that caufed by 
fpending the Spirits by a Day^s Labour:, but Ipend- 
ing of the Spirits is not the only, no, nor beft 
proportioned, or more adequate caule thereof, fas I 
have Ihewn : ) If lols of Spirit were the adequate 
caule of Sleepy how Ihould good and generous 
Wine caule Skepinefs after that eminent Rate as 
it does in moft People? How Ihould the moft 

of O'^vxmReveaVd, 83 

pleafing Mufick incline luch as //>, or fit fiiU, to 
fleep ? but if one Dances thereto, it makes him 
more lively and brisk than ordinary. The like 
exadly do JVine and Opmm, if Men //>, or Jit 
Jiill ; but otherwife, they make them much more 
brisk and lively, and able to undergo Labour^ 
ABion^ &c. Which JSfotCj that you may not any 
more wonder, that Enlivcneys and Escciters of 
the Spirits do caufe Sleeps as well as Dmmjhers 
thereof; and obferve, that they are alipieafing 
things, as Mujlck^ and Opmm^ which caufe 
VhaJ'ant Dreams^ Pleafant Watchings^ P leaf ant Hu^ 
mours^ &c, ^ped more of this Matter in the 
following Chapters^ and all by degrees^ according 
as i Judge the prejudiced IVorld will bear Things : 
For a gvQt^t Paradox (how true (bever) muft not 
be abruptly obtruded, but gently^ and gradually 
ufiiered in by infinuating Reafomngs, otherwife it 
will be entertained like a rude Stranger^ that eon- 
tradids a Multitude in Fajhhns and Cujloms that 
they have always ufed, and judged to be the very 
belt (however bUmeable.) « 

Confider, that if Opium dmlnif ed Or dif 
Med the Spirits^ proportionable to the Sleepinefs 
that it caufes, as a hard Day'^s Labour docs, then 
If Opium were given a Man after a hard Day^s 
Labour, it would be', as it were, adding another 
hard Day^s Labour to cure it, the Day'*s Labour 
^nd Opium impairing the Spirits alike ; Think 
what a mifcrable Condition the poor Man would 
be in, efi)eeially if Sleep did not make him ibme 
amends, it would be fuch as were utterly intol- 
lerable h but fo far is Opium from any fuch EfeB^ 
that it refrelhes him tho’ he Sleeps not at all after 
the hard Day^s Labour^ and not only (b, but will 
enable him to Work all the following Night with 
great AlacrPy^ if need requires it 

G 2 . > What 

84 The Myfteries 

What a Condition would thofe be in, who take a 
Drachm of it twice a day for 10, 20, or 30 years? 
Nay, how' could any poffibly do it for half 10 
days, if a Grain or Two deftroyed the Sprits 
fo much, as to caufe Sleepnefs thereby, as hard 
Labour does ? Which they muft allow, that aflert 
it caiifes Sleep by diminijhingy or difabling the 

But forpe may fay, (tho’ very inconfideratelyj 
that it only difables them for the time of its Ope- 
ration I That is ftrange, indeed, confidering that 
even during that time they are mollly enabled to 
' Work^ or Labour^ tho’ tired before > and that it* 

2. Caufes Comfort^ Refrejlment, Ovation of the 
Spirits, all thQ time oi its Operation, as iVine mo- 
derately taken does, efpecially if People keep 
themfelves in ATHon, Labour, &c, otherwife, in- 
deed, they may fall afleep upon the comfortable 
fatisfablion, content at ion of Mind, and acquie fence 
of Spirit, thatjt occafions, as Wine does. 

3. The firfiEffeTi that we find of Opium (which 
may therefore probably be a very leading, funda- 
mental, and fignificant EffeTlJ is, that it caufes a 
moft agreeable, pleafant, and charming fenfation 
about the Region of the Stomach *, which if one lies^ 
or fits fill, inclines him to Sleep, if not, it makes 
him gay, good humour d, brave, It is a Vlea^ 
fure ib fweet, and delicmfs, that tho’ I endeavour’d 
to exprefs it by the Ovation of the Spirits upon 
joy, good Genius informing a Man, or the HeL 
morfans Arckem in his beft Humour^ or a continual 
Venereal Pleafure, Wine drmk ad Hilaritatcm, 

yet (I doubt) all my Ways of expreffing it do 
come fhort of the charming Complacency that it 
caufes ; Therefore if Wine, Mufick, a good Meat, 
agreeable Frication of the Bea4 or Back, the fan d 

of Opium KemaT d. S 5 

of Waters^ &c, do incline us to Sleep by the Vlea^ 
fure thereof^ which lulls and (boths us to it, (as is 
moft certain, if we or lie fill) much mors 
mud the high Charms of Ofium caule it. 

That it is a Pleafure that afFecds by one of our 
Seijfesj namely by Feelings is indilputable ; for k 
is not a Pleafure of the Eye^ Nofe^ 'Tongue^ or Ear^ 
and it muft be fenfitive^ becaufe caufed by Matter ; 
and that Opium has (doubtlels) the like Effe^ up- 
on Brutes^ who have no other Pleafure^ but what 
is fenfitive • That it is at Stomach is alfb e'vident^ 
where we can be pleafed only by the Senfe of Feeh 
ipg ; That \tAs involuntary, and pleafes us whe- 
ther we will or no, and that the fame Particles 
excite Venery^ Itching, &c, 

^ Now all the Senfes (efpeclally Feeling, and par*^ 
ticularly that at Stomach) are given us loiWatchesy 
and Sentinels, to difcover and give notice of 
what is, or is not good and agreeable to our Anu 
mal Nature \ That upon notice of what is good, 
and agreeable, Pleafure, Comfort^ Satufa^ion, 
are conceived ; otherwife Pifpleafure, Difcomforty 
and Dijfatiffaldion, 

What diminifjes or difahles our Spirits, does us 
the greateft Evil that can be, and confequently 
Senfation would, according to its Office, give us 
liich notice thereof as would caufe Difpkafure, ^c, 
otherwife thefe Sentinels, that God and Nature 
have appointed for faithful Notice, would (inliead 
of trufty (ervlce, which is the End they are made 
for) deceive us, and confequently do us mifchief^ 
tather than good ; which i§ very Prophanp (if 
not Blafphemous) to affert, as being highly abufive 
pf God’s Goodnefs and IVifdom, to make Things 
IQ Naturcy that would not only not anfwer, but 

(5 3 

S6 The Myfteries 

ad quite contrary to their Ends ; it follows then^ 
that what caufes fuch a mighty agreeable, and 
plealant Senfation at Stomachy which is the greateft, 
and moft accurate Judge of what is, or is not 
agreeable to the Animal^ cannot be deftrndive, 
or difabling of its Spirits^ which are the moft ex- 
cellent, and ufeful Things, that belong thereto ; 
Therefore Opiums which (b mightily recommends 
it felf to, pleales, and comforts the greateft Jf^dge 
that God has given to a fenfible Creature to difcerh 
what is good and' evil for it, cannot diminish or dif 
Me our Spirits, 

One may fay, (what 1 dare not) that the Sen- 
fation at Stomach may deceive us. 

We may deceive our (elves, and fay (b, when 
that which pieafes the Stomach, does Hot pleafe 
our perverted Imagination, which makes no Ar- 
gument 5 let us therefore confider Things where 
there is no fuch vain Imagination to contradid the 
good Ends of Nature ; il the Stomach and Senfes 
in a Brute or meet' Animal, which has no other 
means to Judge of what is good or evil for it, 
fhould not Judge aright, all the Animals in the 
whole World would (bon perifh. It is the vain 
Opinion of Men that perfwadcs them that Things 
are cold, when hot, &c, as in the Ca(e of Opium, 
when the Senfes truely inform that it is hot • If 
you’ll (land to your Imaginations, and Suppofitions, 
(for fuch all muft be without the Information of 
Sen(e) againft the Vifiates of Senfation^ you muft 
inevitably err. 

But one may 'fey, Is the Senfe at Stomach (uch 
an infallible Guide always ? 


oj O'^ixxmReveard. 87 

I believe it will be very hard to give many 
fiances to the contrary, and prove it well ; how- 
ever, if we do, or may allow ibmeching of this 
Kind to a perverted Stomach at certain times^ (to 
avoid a fquabble about it) it is never to be allow’d. 
That all the Stomachs in the whole IVorld fiiould be 
pleaftd with one and the fame Thing at all times, 
and yet that this Thing fhould be fo highly perni- 
cious to the Animal as to dlminfi) or dijable its Spi^ 
rits ; Then, indeed, it would follow, that the 
moft exquifite Senie at Stomachy to dilcern what 
is or is not agreeable to the A.nlmal^ were abfo- 
lutely in 'vain^ which no Man of Reafon^ that has 
any Appreh^fion of the Wildom of God and Na-> 
ture^ can aflSrt. 

3. What is more notorious, than that Vleafure^ 
or being plealed, raiies, and Di/pleafure^ or being 
grieved, depreffes the Spirits ? Are not all People 
pleafanty gajy a 72 d good humour^ d^ brisky prompt^ 
when plealed ? Do not Men Travel, or Labour 
with more Eafe in Pleafant Company y But of 
thefe Matters, and the Reaibns thereof, more in 
the following Chapters, 

4. How can Opiumy that revives Teopk when 
they are fb difpirited that they are even .almolt 
dying, (as when Opium is wanted by fuch as ufe 
to take it in Ddiqumms and Agonies from VaWy 
C^v.) dimmifiy or difable the Spirits? it is plain 
Contradidmi-tQ fay that it Ihould. 

Next to Qpiumy nothing revives People in iiich 
Cafes better than JViney and thofs Things that 
produce the fame, or like Effeds, have like Na. 
tnre ; and who can fay chat V/inty that was made 
to glad the Heart of Man, diminfies or d fables the 
Spirits ? Or, that Opiumy wiiich produces all the 
fprightljy enliveningy and racQurag/ng EjfUfs of ge- 

88 The Myfleries 

mrom Wvne^ (in a more eminent maimer thaii 
Wine^ and in the ioQooth Part of its Quantiif^ 
and for a longer time than Wme capfes them) jkouli 
'diminish or dtfMe the Spirits ? 

For Infiavce, Wine and Opiunty in a due quantity^ 
(but Opitim^ in a far lefi quantity ^ as was (aid) caufe 
a pleafant^ gay^ and good Humour y CouragCy Bravery ^ 
'j^gnanimity y Tromptitude in Bujmefs^ 'Expeditenefs 
in Managementy Serenity y Euphorjy or eafy udergoing 
cf Labour y Journey Sy FatigueSy Both take away 
Sadnefsy Gnefy Melancholy ^ Feary DepreJJion of SpL 
fitSy &C. Both caufe Tromptitude to Venery (Sine 
Cerere & Baccho friget Venus : ) So Wine and 
Opium prevent and cure Coldy open the Toresy pro^ 
mote Terfpiration and Sweaty efpecially the following 
MjrningSy as Sir TFeodore Mayern, 'my fefy and 
others, have obferv’d of Opium y and is notorious 
as to Wine, ' Both caufe Sleepy and take away the 
Senfe of TaWy and fequtre a greater Dfife than ordu 
nary in Troportion to the Pain • Both take off Shiver • 
ings from Feary Cold, or Ague FitSy and caufe Mirth y 
Ccjjtentationy and Acqulefcence , Drinefs of the Mouthy 
Thlrf, a Senfe of Heat within uSy a Dreaming Con» 
ditiony pleafant Dreamsy (if the Quantity of Wine 
be not grievous by its Heat, Loady &c.) NoHurnal 
Pollution:, and in feme' Conftitutions caufe 
Vigiiancy • but Wine and Opium caufe that more 
rarely than ‘ : Both fop, and caufe Vomiting 

if they ftay too long at Stomach • Both moderate 
Hunger y "( Ai^v Stypw?/? ) and are good in a 
canine ' Appetite ; Both ' caufe Swimniing in the 
Heady So " , , 

Both in an Exceffve Dofcy 

Do caufe, at firft, Mirthy and afterward a kind 
of Drunken ’ Soper in fome^ in 'cithers Fury, ot 

uJ V ^ 1 n, ; u . ? Jidadnefil 

of opium ReveaPcf. 

MaJnefs^ Sardonkk Laughter ^ and Weight at Sto^ 
machy Vomitings y Hiccoughs ^ great Heat at Stomachy 
Debility y and laxity of aU Parts^ Faltring of the 
"tongue y Scotomies and Darknefs of the EyeSy Ver^ 
tigo*Sy Laxity of the Cornea of the EyCy Dilatation of 
the Papiday Deadnefs of the Eyes to the VieWy Lofs of 
Memory y Venereal Furyy a high Colour yprofufe Sweats^ 
Purging fometimesy Alienation of the Mindy Lofs f 
Memory ; and lafilyy greater or lefler Effects ac- 
cording to the Dofcy Confiitutiony &c. So 

A long and lavijh Ufe of bothy 

Caufes a duf. and mfR^tpiJh Difpofiiony Dropjtes^ 
Fall of Huniours upon Weakeidd PartSy a Sleepy 
Difpofitiony Want of Appetite, Weaknefs of Digefion, 
Aptitude to Sterility y and Abortion^ early Decrepite* 
nefsy Stooping in the Back^ Trembling of the Hands ^ 
Weaknefs of Memory, Shortnefs of Life, Difficulty 
and Danger in fuddenly leaving them off. Revive 
fuch as fink for Want of either , and fnpply the Want 
of each other. 

How can any have the Face to fay, that a 
Thing which agrees fo with generous Wine in Ef- 
fects, can be a Diminijher or Difabler of the Syi- 
xitsl The Milchiefs of exceffive Dofes, and la- 
yi(h Ufe of either^ is no Argument againft their 
infpiriting Nature ; if it were, then Wine is no 
Cordial, tho’ made to glad the Heart of Man, be- 
caufe of its ill EfFeds lavifhly ufed; Therefore 
none can argue from that, that Opium diminifises 
hr difables the Spirits, any more thm Wine, or 
Bread does, a Surfeit of which is moft dangerous, 
Qmnis Repletid mala^anis vero peffima 5 corruptio 
optimi efi pejfima : That is, AU Repletion is bad, 
hut that of Bread, is the worfi^ and the Qmuftion 
bf the befi ts the worfi, 

^ ■ The 


po The Myjleries 

The jhort is this ; Wme and Opium agree in all 
their EffeSls^ laving fuch as are Conlequences of 
their d^erent Accidents^ as the Quantity of JVine 
that muft be uled to caule the fame Effe^s with 
a little Opium ; and Wine having been fermented ; 
and Opium ( as may be fhewn) having Ibme crude 
and vifcid Rojin in it, which Ibmetimes flicks to 
the Crufia carnofa^&c. of the Stomach ; whence 
it happens, that Wine loads one more, heats 
^ more, and is more troublelbme upon thole Ac-‘ 
counts^ and that Opium offends the Stomach oftner 
even in a moderate Dole, caufing Vomitings^ Hie- 
coughs^ Anxieties^ Di^rejfes at Stomach, Delu 
quiums^ &c, becaule of the indi^ftthle RoJln flick- 
ing to the Tides of the moft fenfile Stomachy as 
I lhall farther prove hereafter, (by God's Help) 
Ihewing very eafie Ways and Means to leparate 
that R^n^ and lb make it as lafe, and iels trouble- 
lbme, as it is more effe^ual than Wine, 

Opium cannot diminlfh or difable the Spirits^ be- 
caule (as has been proved) it fends no ?art^ 
Fume^ or Effluvium to the Brain^ or Animal SpL 
ritSy to caule liich bad Effe<fls while it is at Sto. 
machy yet does it produce them while it is there ; 
for, as the Vaporarians tbemfelves (and indeed all 
Men) allow, there can be no Dejlru^ion without 

SanSforlus doth well and truely obferve, by the 
Help of his Staticksy that nothing caufes liberal 
Fer/pirationy but it railes the Spirits ; it is moll 
certain, that nothing in Nature opens the Poresy 
and caufes Perfpirationy more than Opium • There- 
fore nothing fliould, according to his Ohfervationy • 
elevate the Spirits more, and, indeed, nothing 
does, as appears by all that has been faid, and will 
yet more plainly appear* 

of Opium ReveaPcf. pt 

Lofs of Memory by Opium (as feme argue) is 
not fo much a Lofs of Spirits^ as Lanky of the 
Brain •, for People in Drink do not want Spirits, 
but there is a great Relaxation of the Brainy and 
its MembraneSy and of the whole Jenus Nervofum^ 
which Relaxation caufes a fofc, loofe, and labile 
Brainy that like Liquid Things retains no Impref 
Jion j befides, that 1 (hall (Gm willing) fhew you 
hereafter, that Impreffions cannot be (b well 
made upon the fenjitive Souly by the Animal SpL 
ritSy upon Relaxations of the Senfible Parts, as in 
Sleepy &€, for a very plain Mechanical Reafon to 
be fliewn in due time. 

Thus have I, (by the AJffance of its Maker^ 
who bed knows it) cleared Opium from the falfi 
Afperfions of an extreme Cold Quality y and farco^ 
tick Fumesy both which were commonly call’d 
Vencmousy fatale and by all the iU Names imagin- 
able, but (as good Luck is) they abufed nothing ; 
hecaule ’tis manifed, that there is no fuch Thing, 
nor has it any Quality by which it diminijhesy or 
difables the SpiritSy as is mod evident from the 
Fremifes^ lb that all that has been laid of Opiumy 
by way of Hypothejisy to explain its EfFecds, de- 
pending upon its diminijhing or difabling the Spirits 
by a Cold Quality y or Fumes y is come to nothing, 
I wilh it had been as innocent. 


9 ^ 

The 'Myfieries 


Shem what mujl be the true Caufi of the Ope- 
ration of Opium. 

f A LL the general Foundations upon which Au^ 
thorsy either Ancient or Modern ^ ere<5ted 
their feveral Hypothefifes concerning the Operation 
(f Opium^ having (as manifeflly appears) no real 
Exifience ; What Enchanted Caftles in the Air^ or 
•vain Vhantafms^ muft their Structures be ? And, 
how like deluded fFizzards muft they appear, 
while they feem’d to take high Flights and gtonous 
TrofpeUs of Caufes that had no Reality I 

Thus am I left utterly diftitute of either Foun^ 
dation or Models unlels I find out that^ and frame 
this ; which (I hope) may be eafily done, be- 
caule (the cloudy Suppojition of Vapours having va- 
nilhed away) there now remains but Two Ways 
by which an Internal Medicament can Operate, 

1, As an Alterative of the Bloody See, Or, 

2. As affeBing the Senfe of Feelings either grie- 
voujlyy as Vomits, Burgers, &:c. Or fleafingly, as 
Cordials, generous Wines, titillating Amphrodifiacks^ 
comfortable Warmth, Anodynes, and (iich like, that 
pleale the Nerves and Membranes • which way of 
Oper^ating is too little obferv’d by Fhyfidans, thq^ 
they take great Notice of the Operation of Things 
by grievous Senfation, as Irritatives to Vomit, Vurge, 
Salivate, &c, by their Acrimony ; whereas the 
Tleafers of Senfation, which muft, as Contraries, 
have contrary Operations, are litde regarded, or 
thought of. 

%, Opiuni 

of Opium Reweatcf. 93 

!. Opium does not Operate as an Alterative of the 
Bloud^ 8cc= ^ 

Firfiy Becaule it Operates while it is at Stomachy 
or {at leaf) before it arrives at the Bloud 1 which 
nianifeftly appears feveral Ways ; as, 

1. Becaula it often Operates in a Liquid Form 

in few Minutes^ and very commonly in a Quarter 
of an Houry in which time it Sit Stomachy 

or, at Icaft, far from arriving at the Bloud. 

2. Becaul^t has been very often Vomited up 

after it has Operated, and produced its uftsal Efi 
fe^s for I, 2, 3, 4, 5’, 6, 8, 10, and (bnietimes 
more Hours ; as evidently appear’d by the SmeUy 
Colour y Tafiey &c, of what was Vomited j and 
by its Operation ceafing after fuch Vomiting of 
which common Experience y Author Sy do inform 

us : See Helmont Jus Duumvir, 62. where h@ 
tells of Opium Operating at Night, and Vomited 
up next Morning. 

3. Its bare caufing Vomiting after k has Ope- 
rated for a good while, is of it felf (tho’ its Tafiey 
Smelly &c, did not difcoverit) an infallible Argu- 
ment of its Operating, while it is at Stomach j 
for 'tis againft all Realbn to imagine, that Things 
fhould irritate it to Vomit after they are gone into 
the Bloudy and not do it while they are in the 
Stomach it felf, as all Vomitories do. 

The Reafbns why it flays fo long at Stomach, 
are, i* Its Indigejfibknefsy which plainly appears 
by Stoolsy Uriney and Sweaty (melling of it, when 
taken in any confiderable Quantity ; all the CoSli:. 
onSy Digefiionsy Circulations y that it pafles in 
the Body, fignifying very little to it, which its 
, caufing Itchings in the Skin, and affeifling the Ve^ 



^4 Myjlertes 

nereal Membranes after its palling the Bloud, do 
alfo argue. 2. The clamminefi of its rcfinous 
Parts flicking to the Stomachy caufe (as 1 fhal! 
plainly prove hereafter) its long flay in it •, for if 
the Rofin be feparate from it> *twill not then make 
fuch a long flay at Stomach, as I have often Ex- 

4. We atflually feel it caufing a lenfe of Tka^ 
fare at Stomach during its Operation, therefore 
it is then in it. 

It has been carried off by Stool after it has 
produced its ufual Effects 5 Therefore it Operated 
before it arrived at the Bloud. 

6. All Obfervers do allow, that Opium Ope^ 
rates while it is at Stomach j which gave the Oc- 
cafion (as you may remember) to the Hypothefis 
of its Operating by Fumes rifing out of the St(h 
tnach ; becaufe they could not think of any other 
Means by which it might affed the Head^ Brain^ 
Ammal Spirits^ Nerves^ &c, while it was at Sto- 
machy but by the Way of Fumes or Vapours. 

It is therefore paft all doubt, That Opium pro^ 
duces its common Effects •while it is at Stomachy and 
before it arri'ves at the Bloody and therefore does not 
Operate as an Alterative thereof. 

Secondly y Becaufe a Grain of Oplumy which Ope- 
rates very remarkably, bears (as EtmuUer well 
obferves) fo liiiall a Proportion to the Bloud, 
that it cannot produce fuch great, and notable 
Effeds, as an Alterative thereof ; for a Grain of 
Opium to 20 Pound of Blood, (which an ordi- 
nary Man has in his Body) is but as i to 115200, 
or (if 16 Ounces be allow’d to the Pound) as 
i to 155 600. But it is no Wonder if a Grain 
fliould the Membrane at Stomachy finee the » 


of opium ReveaPd. ^5 

5000 part of a of the Vomitory Fart kies of 
Crocus MetaUorum^ or Regulm of Antimory^ does 
affed: it fo eminently, as many other Things will 
in a very fmall Quantity ; whereas the altering 
of the Blood to any obfervable degree^ requires 
the Ufe of Alteratives in great Quantity for leve- 
ral Weeks : Which confirms the former Conclu- 
fion, TIsat Opium does not Operate as an Alterative^: 
as to its common and ufual EfFeds. 

II. Opium does mt Operate hy grievous Senfation^ 
(or Irritation) as Vomits^ Turgers^ Errhines^ Salk 
vators^ (or Apophlegmatizers) •&c^ do. 

Hr/, Becaufe it manifeftly caufes a very agree- 
ablCj plealant, and even charming 

Secondly^ Becaufe it takes away grtevous Senfa* 
tion or Fain^ thereby flopping Purging^ 

and all other EfFeds of grievous Senfation^ by Acrk 

As for the Vomiting that Opiumiomttimts caufes, 
it is only (as jhall be jhewn) by its Refinous Parts 
flicking to the Coat of the Stomachy which being 
feparated from it. Opium has no Fueh Effebly tho’ 
all its good Effefls remain. So its Purging (which 
happens moft rarely, and only when a great 
Quantity is given to Men of flrong Digeflion) it 
is only from its Rofin digefled, and refblved i;i 
f^ong Stomachs * Hence it is that DogSy and fach 
as have canine Appetites, do generally Purge after 
a great Quantity of Crude or Rofimus Opium i 
whereas fiich as is not Rofin&us caufes no fiich Effe6l. 
But of thefe Matters more to your Satisfadioa 

Thirdly, Becaufe it caufes all EfFeds that are 
quite contrary to thoFe of grievous Senfation ; It 



^6 The Myftenes 

caufing aft Ovation of the Scnfitive Soul and Spi- 
rits ; Vain (or grievous Senfation) a DepreJJion of 
Spirits • It caufing Euphory and Vain^ Wearinefs y 
For what tires more than Vain^ o^abouring in 
Pain ? It caufing good Humour ^ Vam Peevijhnefs^ 
Fretfulnefsy and iU, Humour ; Opium caufing Relaxa- 
tion of all Parts, Vain Contradion \ That caufing 
free Verfpiration^ this checking it ; That caufing 
Sleep, this hindering it ; That caufing Conten- 
tation Acquiefcence, this Difcontent and Uneafi- 
nels \ That compofing, this difcompofing the SpL 
ritSy Bloudy &c. That caufing Fluxes by Irritati^ 
ony 8cc. this moderating, or flopping them ; That’ 
opening the Pores, Vain conflringing them ; 
Opium preventing the Shaking Fits in Agues^ Vain 
bringing them on ; That caufing a large and flow 
Pulfe, this a quick, hard, and narrow Pulfej 
That caufing an Efflorefcence cS the Skin, this Vak^ 
fiefs 5 That pleafant, this unpleafant Dreams 5 
That flills Hiccoughs, this caules them; That 
takes off CovtraBionSy Convuldonsy &c. this caufes 
them. To be ffiort, Opium caufes all the Effeds 
of pleafant Senfation^ and takes off all the Effeds 
of grievous Senfation. What can be a more evi- 
dent Proof of its ading by caufing a pleafant 
Senfation ? It were endlefl to mention all the 
Proofs that may be made to the feme Purpofe, 
from Vleafers and Difpleafers of Senfation^ 

Therefore we fairly conclude, 

That Opiuni does not Operate hy caufng a grievous 
Senfationy and there being no other Way left by 
Which it may Operate,^ 

It mufi Operate hy caujiitg a pleafant Senfation • 
which is the true and plain Reafon why (as has; 
been fhewn) it takes off Vainy and caufes all* 
Effeds quite contrary to that of grievous Senfation^ 


of O'^vamkeveaTJ. 5)7 

Irritations by Acrimony, &c. which are 
eminent upon the mofh fenhble Parts, as the Sio^ 
tnach^ Intepiaes^ P’^enereal Afttr.brancs^ Skln^ ^ic. as 
you may oblerve wliere the EfFecls of Opluw are 

Now (gentle Reader) confider, That Contraries 
are the true Cure of Contraries : What can tfien 
cure Pain, and all its Effeds, better than Vkajure ^ 
’Tis very Grange then, that Milliom for many 
Ages finding Opiptm cure, or take off Vain^ and 
all its Effeds, above all Things, fhould npjt attri. 
bute its fo doi^ to its caufing a pteafam Senjation^ 
which is the mred contrary to Rain-^ erpecially 
fince every Man that took Opium felt an atiual 
Vleafure upon taking thereof, fie af ant Dreams^ a 
pleajknt Humour^ &:C. 

It may be fiid, What if it be granted, chat 0- 
pium Operates by a pleafing Senjathn, (which r 
will Thank none for, that have Feeling at Stomachy 
or Reafon at Brain) how is it poffible that fich 
pkafant Senfation fhould 'Caufe and explicate all 
the various^ ftrange^ 7Vonderful^ myjhrious^ and very 
often feemingly comtadvFrorj Fhenomcnids and Fffeith 
of Opium > 

Anfwer. As eafiiy as ever I etplaiiTd any 
Thing in Nature, erpecially if my Tratl of AnF 
mal Mevbanifm wevQ pubiiihed 5 but it is my Mi/l 
fortune that it is not, however it (hall not be the 
ReaderSy tho’ it will put nie to a great Trouble f 
To evade which, is none of my Intention, by tboje 
Words, but rather to befpeak the Readers Patience 
while I am premifing fonie neceilary 'Fr.ecognita 
requifite to be known before I enter upon the 
Explication of the wonderful and feeniingly' inex- 
plicable EjfeFts of Opium, 



The MjiJieries 

I therefore dehre the Reader^ s Leave to premife 
fbme Things of the Nature of Senfation^ and' 
fenfiilve Pleafure^ in Older to his more dear and 
ready Underflanding my Explication of this My- 
fierious and IvLmaUQus Matter look’d upon as- 
lo dark and abdrufe a Bufinefs to this day, that 
fome have not only yielded it up as a Thing 
hidden from Ivtankind, but have earnelily and 
ierioufly argued, that it aded abfolutely by an 
cccult Quality^ refer ved in a fpecial manner (as is 
chc Nature of Spirits^ frpm our Kmivledge. 

That it has been fo hitherto, T think none 
can deny, as thQ Circulation of the Bloud was 
for Thoufands of yearsy tho’ the very Motion was 
fern by Millions ; fo as the Caufo of the Operation 
of Opium has been felt by a far greater number, 
it therefore will (if I fail not in explaining it) 
appear fo clear, that it will be much wondered 
at (like that of the Circulation of the Blond ) why 
fo obvious a Thing was not found by every one 
that ufed Opium, But (whatever Opium is) GodV 
Methods are unfearchable, and often his Wife 
Providence bellows good Gifts upon the Un- 
worthy, that his free Goodnefs may appear f To 
whom be all Glory ^ Praife^ and Thankjgiving for^ 
ever and ever. Amen, 

Notey That while I am upon the Preparator3/ 
Difccurfe about Senfatlsvy PleafurCy ^‘c. in the fol- 
lowing Chaptersy you may foinetimes wonder 
what i would be at, becaufe you may not per- 
ceive the 'Drifty yet do they require your Atten. 
tmi as being the Foundation of all chat is to follow ^ 
which yoidli plainly perceive afterward, when (f 
- hope) you’ll have good SatisfaBion for your pUj^ 
tient and attentive ^ Perufal of the Two following. 


of Opium Reveal j. 


Of the Oecottowy of Sen faXlon^ as f^r( at leaf 
as it concerns onr prejent Purpofe. 

W HEN Ih^d written this TraSf thus 

I judged it bell:, firft, to publilh that of 
Animal Mechanijm^ becaule it contained thofe 
'Principles that would explain the Matter of Opium • 
therefore laying this afide, I applied my lelf to 
shat : But a Npn Art^ rightly to Spell ^ IVritc^ and 
Sweeten all Languages ^ (yhzx. I fince call’d Phono- 
graphy) coming into my Mind, and thinking it 
might be very ufeful, and likely to lie for ever in 
Darknefs, (as it had always been) iinlefs I under- 
took the Drudgery^ I (et my (elf to it 5 which ta- 
king up more Time than I imagined, has to this 
day hindred the finilhing of that Tra^ of Animal 
Mechanifm, which I now much want, ( as was if?~ 
dmated:) Therefore becaufe I refolv’d to publifli 
this, (that was fo long fince promifed) I am now 
forced, for want of that Book’, to premife here 
(bme Things, concerning the Oecommy of Senfa^ 
tion, and the Nature cf fenfttive Pleafure, in order 
to explicate the EffeSfs of Opium^ which might 
have been fpared , if chat of Aftimal tdschamjm 
had been publifhed. 

Confidering that Opium mufl: fas was (hewn) 
operate by pleading the Senfe of Feelings it will be 
requifite to conlider^ 

I. The Oecommy of Senfation, as far as it concerns 
the prefent Purpofe, for which this Chapter is de* 

H 2 

2. The 

loo The Myjieries 

2. The ''Nature of fenfttive Vleafrre^ and its EftSfs 
upon the Soul and Body^ which is tO be the 

SiibjeiTt of the following Chapter, 

Five Things mainly concern the Oeconomy of 
Senfation : i. The ObjeB. 2. The external Me^ 
dinm, 5. The Organs of Senfation, 4. The Anu 
mol Spirits^ (or internal Mcdiumd) J. The fenjitive 

1. The OhjeSl is the Thing perceived by any of the 
Senfesy as, Light by the Eye y Sound (ovtremulom 
Motion o{ the Air) by the • Odour by the 
Nofe ; Tafies by the Tongue ; Opium by the Feel- 
ing, or (as Belmont calls it) the Gufius (or Ta^f e) 
at Stomach, 

2. The External Medium of Senfation is that ’which 
receives ImpreffiOns from the OhjeBy and conveys them 
to the Organs of Senfation, Thus the Air conveys 
Sound (ov tremulous Motion) to thzEar y Light to 
the Eye,^ and Odour to the Nofe, 

3. The Organs are the Tarts of the Body that God 
has framed to receive thofe LnpreffionSy and communu 
cate them to the Animal Spirits, (or Internal Me^ 
dium.) Thus the Eye is the Organ to receive the 
Impreflion of Light, the Ear that of Sound^ &cd 
And the Membranes in* all Parts of the Body are 
the Organs that receive Imprejfions from ObjeBs in 
the cafe of Feeling , which is our main Con* 
cevt, _ 

4. The Internal Medium is the Animal Spirits 
that receive the Imprejfions from the Organs^ and con^ 
vey them to the Senjitive Soul, 

5. The Senfitive Stuf which perceives thofe Im^ 
frejjions convefd to him by the Animal Spirits 5 which 
perception \i Senfation, 


0/ Opium ReveaT d. 

I. 'the Tart, Office, or Bujtmf, of the OhjeB, in 
the Matter of Senfation, is to make a fufficient Impref 
fion either upon the External Medium, (or Air J as in 
the cafe of Hearing, e^c. or immediately upon the 
Organ, (or Membrane) as in Feeling, There- 
fore if there be no Impreffion of Ltght, Sound, (or 
tremtdous Motion ) Odours, Reliffimg T articles, 
there can be no Terception ; or if the Inpreffions 
thereof be weak and faint, the Terception, or Sen- 
fation, muft be accordingly ; or if it be fb incon- 
fiderable , that it cannot at all affedt the fenffi 
ti-ve Soul , then is there no Terception thereof. 

1. Senfitive Perception is not infinite, becaufe there 
are Degrees of Light, Sound, C>'c. that cannot be 
perceiv’d, tho’ they mufi: be very fmall, and in^ 
confiderable : Thus the Light of a Candle at lb 
great a difiance that it can hardly be perceived, is 
feme Degree of Light, and makes its Redc(n:ion 
proporcionably from a Wall, Trte, &c. yet cannot 
that refieded Light from the Wall, or Tree, be 
perceived ^ Ip the fmallefl: Things cannot be per- 
ceived. Yet GOD has in His and 

nefi fb ordered it, that, 

2. Senfitive Terception is of excejjlvely fimallThings : 
Thus the Sotmd of a Pin’s Head, falling into a Brafs 
Caldron, is heard at fbme diftance ; rhehundi eth 
part of a Grain of very hot and biting Things, 
are fenfibly tafted ^ the thoufandth part of a Grain 
oT Amber grifie, Musk, &c, very fenfibly ffiielt ; the 
Light of an exceeding fmall Spark , ftruck out 
between Steel and Flint, is perceived at a great 
diftance : And Light in general confifts of fuch 
tenuious Particles, ( if material ) that none ever 
could take any eftimate of their Bulk. So the 
Feeling at Stomach takes very eminent and remark- 

H j able 

10 2 The Myfteries 

able notice of (as was fa id ) the Vomit cry Vartidef 
of Crocus Metallorum^ or Regulus of Antimony ^ which 
are fo finally that a thoufarJ Vo7nits thereof does 
not ienfibly dirhinilii the Crocus^ or Rigulus^rdithtr 
in weight or hulk. Therefore it is no Wonder if 
a Grain of Opium fliould affeA the Feeling fo fen- 
hbly as it does, efpeciaily at Stomachy tho* it can- 
not m-ake any confiderable Alteration of the 

3 , That whate^'er afeBs^ or makes imprejjlon^ up- 
071 the Organs cf Seitjation^ is in the fame moment 
perceived by thefe7ftive Soul', So that it is no Won- 
der, that a Gram of Opi^'m operates in fo fliort a 
time^ that is , as (con as a Tincfure thereof infi- 
nuates it (elf through the Crufa Carnofa to the 
fe?i/ile Coat of the Stomach ; whereas it muft take 
a very long timej if it operated as an Alterative of 
the Blonde 

Now T. That there is no way for any 

thing to operate upon tho, fn fit ive Soul ^m^fo 
Imail a Quanty, as Opium operates, or in fo'ftort 
a Time, as by affeding the mofi exquificely dif 
po(ed Membrane 2it Stomach. 2. That the (peedy 
F/ay that God has contrived for our Rcjrejhnent, 
Comfort.^ raifing of OUT deprejjed Sfirits upon any 
Hidden Occa.f]ony ^sm Deli<^uiumSy Faintings., Syn^ 
copes j Lcipothy'mies, &c. is by the Senfes 5 efpeci^ 
ally that mod exquihte Senfation at Stomachy be- 
caufe Refrefament by Nourifhment and Alteration^ 
eannot be perform’d but in a long time, where- 
in we might in many Cafes perifb before we could 
be relieved thereby : Thus a pleahng, and there- 
fore comfortable Odour ^ excites the Spirits in a 
moment ; the fight of a beloved Miftrefs, or dear 
Friend , raifes us immediately , when we are 
mod cad down 5 as does alfo fweet Melodyy and 
an aggreeable or pleafant Senfation at Stomachy as 

c/ Opium 105 

of Wi-nc^ Cordidi^ hdt Spirits^ &'c. I hope none 
will fay. That MuHck, the fight of a Bag of Mo- 
ney, &c. fend Effluvia s for that end, yet are 
great Comforters. 

11 The Party Offlcey or Bufineffl of the External 
^edlur/iy in the Oeconomy of Senfation, being to re- 
ceive and convey Intpr( ffloniy as Sound (or tremulous 
Motion) from a Bell to the Ear^&c, it muff be 
duly qualified for chat purpofe. ’ 

It is true, that we are not concerned as to this 
external Medium (or Air) in our Cafe, becaufe 
Opium affe^ls only our Feeling iniernallj^ and im- 
mediately at Stomach , where it tor^ches' the very 
Organ ^(ov Membrane:') However, becaufe this 
E^xternal Medktfn (or Jir) is to receive and con- 
vey Impreffllms the fame manner, from the 
Objehl to the as the hternal Medium (or 

Ammd Spirits ; is to receive them from the O/- 
gansy and convey them to the fenfiive Souly and 
therefore bear exact Jndogy to each other ; and 
Becaufe the External Medium (or Air) is more 
obvious than the Interiialy (or Animal Spirits ) 

I think it very convenient to confider its Diff- 
t'lons and Reymftes y as a Mediumy fliat we may 
the more clearly perceive thofs of the Animal Spi- 
ritSy as fuch. 

I. It is re^uifite that the Air, ass a Medium ^ (he- 
ing a fluid Body) jhotdd be fl^if^gy, (or euflich) be- 
caufe nothing-but what is fb is capable of tremdous 
Motiofty (which is mzterid Sound) nor ot Compref 
without which, a loofe, tenuious, yielding 
Fluids as the Air is, cannot be fit to convey 
freffions • for the more fold any thing is, the fit- 
ter it is for that end ; therefore Comprejflon muft 
render it flrm^ tight y and clofey that one Parc may 
Briskly communicate its Motion^ or Imyrefflon^ to 

H 4 the 

104 The Myjleries 

the ns'St to it, and that to the next to it, and fo 
i.idefinicely ; yet can ic never arrive at the Per- 
fect i of a SoIiJ in carrying oi' Iffipalfes : Hence 
it is that Sotr/id decays by dej^rees. However, itlias 
many gt'eat y^d^vurjtages over a ScUd^ as a l/ledium 
for the purpofe of ScnUtlcn: 

F-rfi^ Becaefe it receives IwpreJ^ons better. 

Secor,dly^ Becaufe a Solid having could 

not be fo eafily moved^ in order to convey the 

Thv'dly^ Becaufe there would be no living or 
being in a Solid, as there is In the^ir. 

Fourthly ^ BecaJife if moved, &c. it would deal 
very rudely, grate and tear the very Orgam^ and 
not gently touch them, as the yielding Air docs ^ 
btfides many other Inconveniencies, which to 
mention is co litde or rm paipofe. So being 

jhid^ tenaloHS^ yielding^ cCC. 

Ic is (as was indaiared) rcauifie, that It jlmld 
he cumprepJ^ for the better canveya.-'je of Imp/ef. 
(d>7)s^ the mere the better ; for then (like a Gnt 
bio'Vv/n very tightly) a finall Impr(JJlc?i cannot be 
made upon one part thereof^ bur it is communi- 
cated a good way to other Poarts: But if not com- 
preffed, you may compare it to a Gut half full of 
Air^ ora loofe fofc Lock of Wuoll^ that yields, and 
will not convey ImpreJJions at all, or very faintjy 5 
whereas if the Air be comprej/ed m s,Gut^ 

&c, you cannot make a little Imprejjlm (or Dent 
rhsiebyj at one end of it , but the whole contain* d 
Alr^ having lefs room by lb much, ' becomes more 
comprelTed, and confequently thruBs lb much the; 
h.yder againft and the farther end there- 

of,erpecially if the Gut hasnox^ew^jor that it be not 
too wide *, for, in tht fir fi Cafie, the Air^ thijt Ihould 
be kept in for the communication of the ImpreJ/ion, 


cf Opium Reveafd, lej 

having Liberty at tho^Fent^ takes ks courfe that 
way, and fb difappoints the continuation ot the 
Impulfe^ (or Im^rcffion ) either wholly^ or in great 
meafure*, In he fecQ72d Cafe^ the Impulfe bearing 
but a (mall Proportion to the whole, and alfo de- 
caying in Proportion to the Likrty it has to widen, 
becomes much more infenfible, or lefi remark* 

Thus if you make a Dent^ or Jmprejjlon^ of die 
bignefs of half a (mall Pea^ at one end of a Gut lb 
filled with Airy that is of the bignefs of one’s 
Thigh, and two Yards long, it will bear a very 
iinali Proportion to the whole, and jconfequently 
very infenfibly affed it ,• for ’tis like a Brop (as 
the Saying is) iHded to an Ocean ; but if an 
pre^ton (or Dent ) of that hignefi be made upon a 
Gut no bigger than a Tea in diameter y the Thrufiy 
or Imprefjiony will be very confiderable at the other 
endy for the Realbns aforeiaid. So that you plain- 
ly fee, I. That the more Air is compreffed, the 
.better it conveys Imprejfions : Hence it is that we 
hear Sounds better, and farther, when the Air is 
moft compreffed, and the Quick^lver high in the 
Barometer y (or JVeaiherglaf ) and upon low 
Grounds, tho* flat, and without any hotlowne^y 
than on the tops of high Hills that are fiat allb ; 
becaufe the Prejfure of the Air is lels on high Hills. 
1 mention the Flatnef in both Cafes, left any 
fhould attribute it wholly to the more free Ejc- 
pavfion of the tremulous Motion on the tops of Hills, 
.which indeed is a Reafin where the Flatnef is not 
alike, as far as the Sound goes. 2 . That the nar- 
rower the Guty DuSty or Pipey the Air is in, the 
finarter and more fenfible will be the ImpreJJion at 
the farther cwJ thereof, which may be confirmed 
and illuftrated by many Demonfiratimsy h^ances^ 
and Experiments, 


10 ^ The Myfleries 

Hence it is^ That if one fpeaks at one end of a 
that is but an Inch in diameter, you’ll hear 
it much better at the other end than in a clofi 
Gallery of the fame length, tho’ this will advan- 
tage it much more than the open /^ir : That if one 
fpeaks ever fb flowly at one end of a long Piece of 
Timber, it is manifcftly and diftindly heard at the 
other end , through the narrow VeJJels, and be- 
tween the. Fibres of the IVood: That all Sounds are 
jkar^r in narrovj Fifes, &c. How eafie is it then 
to contrive invifible fVhiJperhgJPlaces, which the 
World fo much admire, and fbme Religions make 
filch great Ufe of to deceive the People by preten- 
ded Divine and Oracular Ref^onfes, of which the 
Reader may hereafter be aware. 

It is for like Rc^fons that Guns, Bells ^d^c. are better 
and farther heard along hollow Valleys^ than upon 
Flains', thatSounds are heard fo well the ways that 
Rivers run ; for it is a vulgar Error that the Water does 
advantage the Sound \xjpon Rivers • if it did, you’d 
hear farther at Sea than upon Lmd^ which is fo 
lalfe, that the quite contrary is true. Sounds being 
much farther heard by Land than at Sea, It is a 
common Obfervation in Sea-Fights, that the Sound 
h heard at a much greater diftance upon the Land 
than at Sea. 

There is indeed another Advantage in Valleys, 
(and therefore upon Ravers ) viz. the feveral Re- 
^rberations, or Eccho’^s, from the Hills and high 
Banks, Rocks, &c. on the fides thereof ; but this 
not much concerning our Purpofe, I muff (for the 
prefent) pafs them and leveral Obfervations upon 

For the aforefaid, and other ends, it is notorious 
thatth^ Air IS ^ringy, and always under the 
frejjion of the Atmo^bere, or dfe it would be of 
Httle ufe as a Medium. 


of Opium Reveal* cf. 107 

1 know but one thing more to our Purpole that 
IS worth the mentioning, in reference to the 
logy between the and Animal Spirits^ as Afe- 
Mums of Sen fat ion^ 'viz,. 

It zs requifte^or con'venknt at leaf^ that the Air 
have an homogeneous Continuity^ which much more 
advances it in conveying Impulfes, (or Jmpreftons)' 
than when it is difeontinued, divided, or fever’d, 
by other heterogeneous T articles , elpecially if thefe 
be in motion between the Parts of the Air^^ for then 
they very much difappoint and difgregate' the 
Imprejjions made^ereon. 

Therefore it is; that we hear fo much better after 
Sunfet^ or in the Nights^ e^ecialiy the Summer, 
time^ than in the Day, when the Particles of Heat^ 
and others thereby railed, do too much divide^j 
difconrinue , and difgregate the Imprefpons , and 
the Parts of the Air: Where you may obferve 
how Good and Wile Providence^ orders Hearing to 
be more uleful in Night, when Seeing fails. 
It is a vulgar Errour, ('tho’ little thought Ibto bej 
That the Caufe of the Difference of hearing Sounds 
before and after Sun-fet, is the Noife thzt is made in 
the Day-time, and the Silence of the Evenings and 
Nights ,• which one lingle inftaneef tho’ thoulands 
may be given ) will fully demonftrate, viz,. 

In the Famous and Well-governed Univerjity 
and City of Oxford^xhtro. is fcarce any Noije made 
at the Times of Divine Service on the Lori^ Day^ 
all People being either filent at Church, or Ihuc 
up quietly and filently in their relpedive Houfes 
Qi Colleges, (the Heat of the Days' in Summer- 
time, but moftiy the good Order of the Place, 
caufing it : ) But after Sun-fet , molt People are 
out, walking and difcourling , or talking at 
their Doors^ Arbours^ or Gardens j and all Chil- 

10^ The Myjieries 

dren ( that noifie Part of Mankind j are now per- 
mitted to go out, who ad their Parts in Vlaying^ 
IRunning^ Callings Tawling^ and Crying out one to 
another *, infomuch that (all things cqnfider’d) I 
cannot imagine but there muft be in general an 
hundred times more Noife made then^ than in the 
the time oi Divine Service in the Heat of the Day:^ 
yet may you, notwithftanding ail the Noife^ hear, 
in the Twilight ^ any thing twice as far as in the 
time of Divine Service in the Heat of the Day^ (I 
believe I might have (aid four or fix times as far.) 
The lame may be obferv’d in any Town or City 
that is kept in good Order at the time of Divine 
Service , or in CatnfSy upon leveral Oc- 

It is not only conlbnant to Reafbn that the 
Air (hould be fo difcontinued by the Particles of 
Heat^ &c. but obvious to the Sight that it is fo ; 
for in a great Heat^ the Summer-time,and cleared 
Day^ you may fee the very Air in a wavering 
tremulous Motion, which could not be (een of 
it felf, without the mixture of other Parts ; for 
dilgregation of Parts, (as you (ee even in pel- 
lucid homogeneous Things powder’d), caules 

III. The Bufinejsy or Ofice^ of the Organs of Sen 
fatioTty in the Oeconomy thereof ^ being to receive and 
communicate the Imprejfons to the Animal Spirits with 
all the fmartnef they cany it is manifeft, that in the 
, Membranes^ (OT Organs) Tenfion ts their main RequU 
fte. Hence it is that when the Tympan of the Ear 
is tenfe, the Cornea y and other Tunicles of the 
Eye fufficiently fo, we hear and lee acutely and 
accurately ; to that end Cod has given us a Power 
. ^o render the Tym|)an moretenfe when weliften; 
to ^ontrad the Pupilla of the Eye when we look 
very intently, we fee, that when the 


of O^mtXiReveaPd. lo^ 

is relaxed, fas it is always wheti the Eye 
looks deadiih, as in Sleep, Drunkenne^, fainting 
Fits^ &c.) yet then we either not feet at all, or 
much worle : So it is when the Tjmpan is relaxed 
We alfo always put the Tongue in a tenfe cojtidU 
tion, when we would taftc a Thing exadly. So 
when any Part is relax’d by Warmth, &c, we do 
not feel fo well and nicely, as when the Part is 
cold, or more tenfe, or rigid ^ nor in Sleep, as 
when^w^^^^, becaufe all Parts arc relaxed in Sleep, 
and contraded when we are awake, which ma- 
nifeftly appears, 

1 . Becaufe perfpire lefs when we are awake, 
than when afleep, which happens becaufe the 
Pores are clofed by the ContrdHon, or ConfiriBion, 
when we are awake, and opened, or loofened, 
by Relaxation when afleep. In all Relaxations, as 
that which happens by Fleafure, Warmth, Leipe^ 
thymies, Sleep, &c, we perfpire more ^ and lef in 
ContradiiSlions, by Cm, Fear , Grief, Fain, or 
any grievous Senfation, or Fajjion. 

2. Becaufe all Parts are firmer when we are 
awake, and more loofe and flaccid when we aie 
afleep ; none can doubt but Firmnels is from ten. 
fion, or ContraBion : But in this matter you may 
expecSt farther SatisfaBion by and by. 

Obj. Some may needlefly fey. How came Ten^ 
fion and ContraBion to be Concomitants, or EfftBs 
one of the other, feeing we make Things rhore 
tenfcy as a Drum's Head, &c. by Exteffm, not 
ContraBion ? 

Anfiv. I purpOfely ftarted this OhfBton to clear 
the Cafe, Therefore, i . Obferve, That Violnu 
Strings will grow lb tenfe (as will any thing elfe 
of like Nature) by ContraBion in moift Weather, 


1 1 o The Myfteries 

that tears them to ^pieces lometimes upon that 
account, and always puts them upon a greater 
ftrefi ; for when a thing is fixed at both ehds^ it 
is the (ame thing to Ihorten, or contrail, the 
String, to render it tenfcy as to take fomething 
from its length between thole two fix’d Points ; 
both the ContraBion and the Winding do only take 
fomething of the Length away, chat is between 
tliofe two Pointsv where the Ends are fafined ; 
which caufes a great ftrefs of the Ihortned String, 
to reach thole two Points that it is fafined to : As^ 
fuppofe you have a String of 1 1 Inches long, faft- 
ned at both ends at the difiance of lo Inches, it 
will be very loofe; then Ihorten it one Inch, by 
winding up lb much, or by fomc means contrad: 
the String to i b Inches, or any way Ihorten it 
an Inch \ then it will juft reach the Points, and be 
tenfe, if fafined at them. So there is ComraBion 
neceflarily caufing Jenfton , which was to be 

It will bethe lame in efFe(fi,if a String put round 
any thing is Ihortned by Moifture, or otherwife, 
it muft grow more tenle ; and fo mull 5‘op Strings, 
if fo Ihortned, or an entire Membrane that covers 
or includes the whole. Thus Membranes (as a 
Gut contracSted upon included Airj mufi, when 
* they Gontradl, grow more tenle upon the inclu- 
ded Animal Sprits in the Nerves, or otherwife j 
for it is the lame as forcing much Air into a nar- 
row,, or ‘contra( 5 led Gut, or Bladder, which muft 
make than tenfe, while the elafiick Body muft 
thruft out the harder, the more it is compreiTed. 
And that the Membranes, and all fenfile Parts, 
are more contracftcd when we are awake, doth 
farther moll plainly appear; Becaufe, 

cf opium Reveatd. 1 1 1 

3. The Cornea of the 'Eyes f which is a vififale 
and certain fign of the Relaxation of all the fenfik 
Farts of the Body ) is relax’d in Sleep, as any one 
may fee ; for that is the cau(e of the deadnels of 
the Eye in Sleep, which upon awaking is imme- 
diately gone, by the Cornea contra(S^iDg into a 
tenfe condition upon its Contents, by which meam 
it becomes tenfe, rotund, hard^ fmooth, Jhinlng, and 
refleds a brisk Speck of Light, ( as round Things 
do) which makes it look lively 3 whereas when 
’tis lax, as in Sleep, Syncopes, Faintings, <^c, it k 
uneven, fbft, and refleds an uneven , dull, inde- 
finite Light , all which caufes the deadnefi of 
Looks. Therefore ( as was intimated ) there is 
no better fign of Relaxation than deadifh Looks. 

4, The FupiUa ( which is another fign of Relaxa- 
tion ) is relaxed, or dilated, in Sleep, and contra- 
ded when we are awake. 

y. All Motions of the Body are better perform- 
ed when we are awake •, which argues the grea- 
ter contraHion of Parts ; for Relaxation ( as in 
Sleep, Deliquiums, Drunkennefi, ^c,) weakens all 

6 c That E fflorefcence of the Skin which People 
have when afleep, (which is caufed by the 
taxation of the Skin admitting the Bloud more 
into it ; as Falenef is by the Contrdlion of the 
Skin in Cold, Fear, repelling the Boud ) dit 
appears upon awaking, by reafon that the vigila^ 
tiue Contraction (fb I call it) does fend the Bloud 
out of the Skin by fqueezing it back, or repelling 

7. Meafure the Body ingenioufly and accurate- 
ly, and you’ll -find it contraded and narower, 

awaking, thmm Sleep. 

8, Hence it is that you find, when the Body is 
pretty full of Moifiare, and the Weather hot, a 
hidden Sweat upon awaking j becaufe the whole 


112 The Myfteries 

6ody contrading, does , like the contortion of 
Wet Linnen» caufe an exudation of its Moifiure^ by 
a mechanical exprejjiony er fqueeZjing, 

9 . Hence aifo it is that we ,are fubje<5l to take 
Coldy even in a warm Room^ if wc watch long ; 
becaufe the Tores being clofed by that njigitative 
ContraBien^ hinder Terfpiration too long, and too 
much : Therefore it is that all Colds are worfe to- 
wards the Evenings^ becaufe that ContraBioit clofes 
the Pores all day ; and not only Colds ^ but many 
Other Difiempersy efpecially fuch as VcrJ^iration is 
good for j as indeed it is for moft Difeafesy as be* 
ing the moft natural and confiderable Evacuation : 
Mofi natural^ becaufe it requires no voluntary Mo- 
tion, or Irritation of the fenfile Parts, as that of 
SiegCy Uriney &c^ which either require the IVidy 
or Irritation by Quantity or Quality y or bothy or dU 
three • but Perjpiration flike Fumes in a Chimney) 
requires only that its little Funnels ( the Pores) Ihould 
be open, becaufe our Fumes pals (as the other do J 
by their own natural Levity : And it is mofi con- 
ftderabky becaufe univerfal, and that much more is 
evacuated that way^ than by all Means and Ways 

Hence it is that all Membranes gaining a TenJIony 
by the vlgilative ContraBion in manner aforelaid, 
are more rightly dilpofed to receive and commu- 
nicate [mart Imprests to the Animal Spirits^ 
while we are awake, which was the Thing aim’d 
at , and will be much more illuftrated by the 
Confideration of the Animal Spirit Sy and the Senjitive 

FTotCy That the Membranesy Fejfelsy and Roads 
of the Animal Spirit Sy being much narrowed and 
comprelfed by this vigilative ContraBion , Tv^o 
Other main Retiuifttes for exa<ft Senfatkn do of 


bf Reveal’d, 115 

coarle follow, ffo confentaneoufiy do the Woiks 
of God confpire to their Ends ) 

Firjty That an Iwfnfion made upon the AhL 
md Sprits \\\ Pipes (b narrowed, is better, more 
exadly and fmartly convey’d to the fen^tive Soul^ 
as has been fhewn, by the Analogy of the Externar 
Adedium in Jlender Pipes^ 

It is by fuch narrowing of the NerveSy Tipesy 
Roadsy d^c. of the Animal SpiritSy that cold 
ther^ which Gontrads the Parts, makes our Feeling 
more nice and [mart than ti^arm Weather ^ whicii 
relaxes the Fejjels , and gives the j[ringy Animal 
Spirits (for fuch ^they are, as fhail, by Bis Afi- 
ftance that made them, appear) leave to expand^ 
by which means, and the Vejjels widening , the 
Feeling grows duller, for want of compreffion of the 

By what has been laid, you rhay lee why Per^ 
lbn§ of a fine and delicate Texture (that is, of 
[mailer and (tenderer Vejjels ) have a more exquifita 
Feeling • that little Animals ^ as Spiders^ Fledsy and 
many fuch, have moft nice and accurate Feelwgy 
becaufe their Ner-ves^ Ve[ielsj Pipesy &-c. are pro- 
portioiiably fmall, and the fmaller tto are, the" 
more accLite is their Feelwgy for the ^a[ons afore- 
laid ; which w-asabroiufely neeeiiilry, becauletliey 
deal with fmali Things proportionably, as their 
Foody Treading‘y O'c. and that falall Things may 
harm them, unlefs they take diftind notice there- 
of to defend chemlelves j whereas Elephants^ Ca^ 
tnelsy Hor[esy ^c, can , becaufe of their largd 
Ve[elsy Icarce feel fiich Imprellioits, as would 
cruih thole little Ammals to pieces. Lord^ how . 
manifold are Thy Works I In Wijdom Thcti hajl 
made t hem all I 

' If 


1 14 TheMyfteries 

It is from this Finenefi ^nd delicate SmaUne^ of 
the Ner'ves, Fibres^ and Membranes^ &c. that one 
Part has a more exquifice Senfation than another, 
and that the extream Farts have ( generally Ipeak- 
ing) better Feeling, 

Secondly^ It follo^vs, that by reafbn of the 'vigi. 
hnive CojtiraBion of the fenfiie Parts, the Animal ' 
Spirits muff gain zconfidQrablQcompreffifre^whtrcby 
( as the E^cternal Medium is rendred fitter to con- 
vey Imprcjjions by the help of Compreffion) they are 
better difj3ofed to convey ImpreJJions to ihtfenfe^ 
ti^e Soul ; for the Internal and External Mediumha,'- 
ting like Office in the Oeconomy oi Senfation ^ and 
fas you’ll findj like Qualifications^ muft be affect- 
ed alike by ; but* whether they are the 

fame thing, or no, 1 fliall not need the Difcujfion 
of that Point here ; therefore I leave it to my Trad 
of Animal Mecbanifm, 

IV. The OfficCy or Bufin fi of the Animal Spirits 
(or Internal Medium ) bang to receive Imprejfions 
from the Organs ^ and convey them to the fenfitive Soul^ * 
as that of the External Medium (or Air ) was to re- 
ceive them from the Obje^, and convey them ta 
the Organ ; «lhe requifite iDificfiticns for its purpofe, 
are manifeft from the Analogy of the External Me~ 
dismsy viz. 

Firft, That they fiould he Jfringyy (or elafiickty } 
and that they are 16, appears, , 

T, From their very Office, which being tenuiom 
and f.uidy they could never perform ( as the Air 
carinot) without being fpringy. 

2 . If they were not elajiicky and thereby com- ' 
preffible, their Feffels could never be focontraded ' 
as has been ffiewn) without (queezing them quite 


of Opium Reveaf d. 1 1 j 

Cut of them, which is a Difordcr not to be flip- 
poled in the Worh of God. 

%. If they were not elafilck (orlpringy) they 
Would riot fill their Veffels upon K^laxat ion th^rcoi^ 
which would leave a Vacuity ^ and thereby caufe 
a difcontinuance of Motion^ or (at leaft) a great 
diforder of it, which wQuld (Caufe difrrial ConvuU 
fonsy if riot Death it felf \ which; is moft likely. 

4. .They could not be lb a^ivc, nor indeed at 
all adive, without fpringinefs ; for they cannot ad 
up and down, and all manner of ways, (as they 
do) by either Levity or Gravity^ or by any other 
known or iin^inable Qualification^ but Elafiidty 
(or Springineff) . ^ 

5*. It cannot be conceived why they Ihould be 
more adive one time than another without Elafii- 
city* but they are more adive at one time thart 
another, as appears by (everal tlaces or Eafiages 
of the Premifes, and in the wmng more than 
in fuch as are afieep, 

6. It is manifeft, that they are elafiicky by their 

fpringing into a Limb held up or down ; and, that 
with luch Force as to Caufe a great ?ainy after 
they have been excluded from it by Ibme AccL 
dent, as leaning, or preffing too hard upon a 
Nerve, &c. for neither Levity nor Gravity can 
do fb, efpscially both up and down (as was laid ;) 
nor is there any Propulfbry Engine for them, as 
is for the Bloudy therefore it muft be from their 
fprir/gineCs. . , . ^ 

7. They could not caufe brisk and fmart tre^ 
^ulom morions in the Body^ if they were not eL^. 
fichj for fuch cannot be Conceived by any means 
without it; but there are feveral brisk arid Imart 
tfcmulom motioniy qaufed by the Animal Spirit a! 
in the Shivcrings of Ague Ftts^ Frights^ Coldy Sur^ ^ fudden or exquisite Tain^ Tremors of the 
Hands^ Beady &c. in Old Age^ in fbms Convrdj:- 

ii^ The Myfteries 

o?2s^ &c. Therefore the Animal Spirits that caufe 
iheni are elajtkk, 

S. Mufcles have no fpringinefs of themfelves, 
when the Animal Spirits are excluded from them, 
as in, Paifies, &c. but all Mufcles in their Exertion 
are very (jDringy, infbmuch that if you hold any 
of them back, or reftrain them from their mo- 
tion, and again fuddenly leave them at liberty 
during the Exertion^ they, or any Part moved by 
them, will (pring out very violently, as in Flip- 
pi^gy an Arm held hacky 6CC. 

But nothing proves this Matter better than the 
Tongue y in forming the Sound of the Letter Ry 
For in that Cafe the Tongue y after it is put in Ten* 
fton and Exertiony being fuddenly hit againft the 
fnfide, or Gums of the Upper Teeth, does there- 
upon (as Springy Bodies ufed to do) fall into a 
tremulous motion^ or jarringy that cauies the fnar* 
ling found of Ry which nothing but fpringy Mat* 
ter can do. 

5). Were they not they could never 

convey the tremulous motion of found to the fnf* 
rive Souly and indeed over all the Syfeme of the 
Nerves, by which is caufed (as may be proved) 
that Motion of Confent call’d Dancing, and the 
Fingers, &c, to move and keep Time with the 
Muficky even when it^ or the Finger y are not as 
much as thought of, becaufe the Animal Spirits 
have the fame Capacity with the Air, to receive 
and convey if, by Reafon of their fpringinefs, and 
greater by Reafon of their more forcible Com- 
prejfion by the Figilative Contra^ion, feper added 
to the Comprejfton of the Aivy under which they 
are, as well as the Air it felf, as plain Reafon tells 
us ; for that which Compreffes the whole Body, 
muft needs Comprels the Animal Spirits: The 

o/ Opium ReveaPcf. 1 1 7 

Exfmments of the Alr-Vu?np do confiim the 
feme. _ 

10. There can be no doubt but the Animal 
Spirits are nouriiVd^ or fuftain’d by the il 
they be not Air* therefore they elafiick. 
What needs any more ArgummtSy when (everal 
of the former are Demonhrative ? And, that, 

11. AH Vhjfcians and P hylofophers (that I know 
of) do allow, that the Animal Spirits are ela- 

Secondly, It is (as was fald of the Ex^ 

ternal JHedmm) that they jhould be comprejjed^ to 
render them fit to convey Imprejjlons ^ and that 
they are coliipreired is evident, (as was before in> 

I. By the Atmofphcrs, 2. By the Vigilative 
'ContraPiisn:^ which makes them much more d if 
pofed to convey Imprejjions than the External Me- 
Mum ; befides, that very often Two other Contra- 
MiBiom (that are fhewn in the remaining Part of 
this Chapter) are added thereto*, and, 'that the 
Animal Spirits are wholly contained in Pipes^ (to 
prevent their Expanfion) and that of the nar- 
rowed fizes that can well be imagined ; but the 
or External Medium^ is at large in the 
mofpkere ; fo that all the Impreffions made upon the 
A^n^d Spirits sltq very tightly, clofely, and Ihaart' 
!y convey’d, nor have they but a little Way to 
pafi, that is, the length of the Animal at mofi, 
which aifb may be fbme Advantage to Imail Crea- 
tures. But in Sle7p the Vigilative Contraption being 
loft, and the Animal Spirits thereupon expanded^ 
all Impulfes muft needs be carried very faintly, 
both becaufe the’Or^^wj (or Membranes) are in- 
difpofed by Relaxation^ and the Animal Spirits by 
Expanjion upon tlpt Relaxation^ for want of due 
Qmprejjion to I 3 7)x.. 


1 1 8 The Myfteries 

'Thus have you ( after many vain Enquiries) ths 
true Mechanical Caufe of the Difference of Senjation^ 
Sleeping^ and Wakings and the plain Reafon^ •why 
our Motions are Jo feeble in Sleeps viz. B e caufe thq 
Animal Spirits have lojl much of their Force ^ Spy in. 
gi^'ufsy 6<CC. for want of due Compreffon^ by Reafm 
of the Relaxation of ad the VeJJils that include the 
$pirity»/ ’’ 

Thirdly, It is (in (bmc Meafure) requifue^ that 
tae Animal Spirits jhould have an Homogeneous Coti- 
tinulty^ as was fiiewn by tlie Analogy of the Ex* 
ternul Afedium, vvhiph does npt convey Impreffons 
as well in the Heat of the Day^ as in the Hight^ 
qr alter Sunfef^ becaufe its Parts are more difcon^ 
tinued and di^regared by the Particles of Heaty 
Fumes ^ &c. in tlie Day Time ; nay, if Things be 
difeontinued, they never carry Impnffions io vjoiXy 
tho* placed contiguoufly afterward ;• Thus a long 
Tree that conveys founds fo exatltly from one end 
to the other, while all is continued, and in one 
piece, will not convey the found fo well if it be 
Cut into many Pieces^ tho’ they are afterward put 
Cloft one to the other. ‘ ' 

As to this Matter of Centinuity in the Animal 
Spirit Sy feeing it does not much concern us, and 
that People in a State of Health are fuppoled to 
have it, and that it is not our Bufinefs here to en- 
ter upon the Confideration of Nervous Diflem- 
pers, I need not ufe any more Words about it ; 
but that if it any Way happens to be difeontinued, 
as either by the Penury thereof, that they do not 
quire fill all Parts of their Veffelsy or any Matter 
intercepting their Parts, or that the Ihould 
be fb relaxed, or widen’d, that the Animal Spirits 
Cannot fo well fill them up, fuch Caufos muft 
. ... . . . . deftroY 

of Opium Reveal d. 1 19 

deftroy or lelTen Senfation^ tho’ the bare mixing 
of Pumes with them would not (confidering the 
ftortnqfi of the IVay that Impreffions are carried 
in Animals) much alter the Cale, as you find 
Fumes in the Air do not much hinder found at tlie 
diftanceof Si Tard or wherein it is infenfibJe 
(to common Obiervers at leaft ;) (b that if (bme 
Fumes from a Grain or Two of Opium ^ did 
mingle w^ich the Animal Spirits, it would not 
.caufe a lenfible dtfftrence of Feeling in the Ihort 
Ipace of the length of an Animal : But I have 
proved. That no fuch Fume from the niixe$ 
with them, therefore need fay no more of this 

V. The O^pce ?r Buflnefs of the fenftive Soul in the 
O.oonomy of Senfatlon^ being to perceive the Impref- 
Jions con veyed to him by the Animal Spirits, that he 
mayj ifhe finds them difagrceable^ beftir himleif 
in Defence of the Animal, 

FirB, It zs rears tfite he fould attend to all Impref- 
Jions offer d him by the Animal Spirits, other wife 
Imprejjions of great Concernment may efcape his 
notice, and confequently watit his Affifiance by 
Way of Defence. For 

It is manifcft, That when \\\s Attention is di- 
verted by any OhjeB, more efpecially by fuch as 
migfitily pleafes him, as in the Atl of Fenery, and 
other Pleafures, efpecially if that he does 

not perceive other ObjeSls at the Time that he is 
ft) diverted ; and if the pleafant Diverfion be in- 
ten fe, and permanent, as in the Cafe of Opium and 
Wine drank in a confiderable Quantity, he is fb 
taken up, divel*ted, or charm’d therewith, thac 
he does not attend to the Bufinefs of Senfation, 
This is one Reafon why fuch as are far gone in 
-■ ^ 4 ' ■ ' Drlnfi^ 


1 20 The Myjteries 

^Drinky hare none of their aright ; but 
. to ihc^lHufiration of this you may e%"pe6t 
more hereafter. 

Note^ That the fenjltlve Sod is the only Thing 
ii an Anmd that has Ferceptlon^ and therefore 
tine only Thing that is fenfible of any Grievance^ 
Wearinefs^ Hunger^ FkafurCy Comfort^ 6CC» 

Secondly, It is reqmfite^ that it jhodJ ufe all 
Means that is in its Fower^ that the Imprejjiom Jhodd 
he hrotight to it ojerj entirely ^ exaBly^ fmartly^ &:c. 
ft) as to have due notice of all Objells^ and the 
ftnalleft Impreffions that may be. 

For which good Ends and Furpofes God has en* 
dued the fenfitive Sod (as will be fully proved j 
with a Power of contraifiing all the fenfile, 
fmall, and flender Fipes^ F'^jJ'ds^ or Faffages of the 
Animal Spirits, for the more exprels, diftind-* 
fnd. accurate Conveyance of all Imprejfions by 
the Help of Comprejffwn ; Therefore the fenfitive 
Sod taking the Advantage thereof, for better In- 
formation, in order to Sef-Frefervation, does (by 
the Appointrnent of the Preferver of all Things) 
execute his Fower by the aforementioned Vigila^ 
tive^ ContraHion of thofe Farts, to paufe their Tden. 
fon zxtA greater Compreffton of the Animal Spirits, to 
improve the Imprefions that are to be convey’d to 
hirn, and render them more obfervable; This 
Qod, who has made nothing to be idle, and par- 
ticularly ordered the fe7ifttive Sod in Adam for 
Labour, efpeceally in Reference to their own 
Safety and Prelervation, haf made to be the 
ordinary Employ or tXay-WorkoI the fenfitive Soul, 
that by the laid Vigil/itive ContraElion, the 
Membranes, Fejfels,^c. may be render’d tnovQtenfi 
and jfr/w, and the Animal Spirits more compreffid^ 

of Opium ReveaFc/. 121 

fprmoy^ prompt , flippant^ md forcible j for the BenehC 
of Senfe and Motion^ upon all Occafionsof 
Flights^ Struggles, &c. which is Qur State of 
Vigilancy (as has been intimated.) 

But the keeping of the faid Parts, Membranes, 
&c. in ccntinml Cow^r^^wWjCvenagainft ^^Fjonitency 
of the elaftkk Spirits, (which refift, and thruft the 
harder againfl their Vejfels, by how much the mpre 
they Comprels them by the Vigilative ContraUion) 
being a continual *tedious Labour and Fatigue^ of 
which the feufitive Soul being fenfhle, ( as the only 
Perceiver of Lajfitude, or indeed of any Thing 
befides, in an Animal) and in his Nature hut 
material, change^le, fatigable, frail, fuhjeB to be 
worn out, and capable of Decay, (which makes 
the Certainty of Death in ad Animals, and in us 
fince the Fall into an Animal Nature) does, upon 
that Account, and left the continual ContraSlionsLnd 
tenfive Strefi of Parts, by that Means, fhould fpoil 
their Tone, and to recruit the wafted Spritsby Reft* 
(after tuggingall Day at the Vigilative Contrallion) 
grow willing to give over the Drudgery, however 
convenient for the C^^ afo relaid; Therefore being 
allow’d convenient Ref by his Maker, he, for the 
great Benefit of Refeblion, without which he catirnot 
continue his Being, and for the fweetneft of Eafe^ 
ioolens the Reins of Vigilative QontraElion ; where- 
upon Senfation and Rromptiwde to. Motion (which 
were raaintain’^d by ,tlm Central ion^ caufing the 
Tenfon of Organs, and Comprejfion of the Animal 
Spirits, as has. been Mechanically d^monttrsLtQd) 
fail by the Relaxation of thofe Organs, 
and Vejfels of the Spirits, and the coofequent 
ExpanJjono^ the Animal Spirits ; fo that now only 
the Compreflton pf the Amofphere remains, 
which (as you fee m z Gut half full of Air. un- 
der that Preffure) is not fufficient to convey the 


122 The Myfteries 

ImpreJJions with any Smartnefs^ or caule the AnU 
mal Spirits tofpringvigorouflyinto Motion which 
Decay or Failure of Senfe and Motion by Relaxa- 
fion, and the confequent Expanfion of the Animal 
Spirits^ is the State of Natural Sleeps 

Note^ That Relaxation is a neceflary Confe- 
quence of the Pri'vation of ContraBhn^ and re- 
quires no Labour^ but a bare Remiffion of that 

Note^ That the Watching Part of our Lives is 
upheld by Force^ and that Nullum 'viokntum efi 
diuturnum^ and confequently a ncceflity of Sleep^ 
and at laft of Death it felf. 

Thus have you the true Reafon of Sleeping 
Watchings which will naturally, plainly, and eafily 
fblve all the Phenomenons thereof; for it is moft 
evident from the Premifes: 

1. Why Watching and Sleeping oblerve a Pro- 
portion between them ; the being tired with one 
being the caufe of the other. 

2. Why Senfe and Motion do fail lo much in 
Sleepy *vix», by the Relaxation of all Parts, and 
Expanfon of the Animal Spirits, 

3. Why they always fail together, and in like 

4. Why they do not wholly fail in Sleep 5 be- 
caufe the Compreffure of tho Atmo/phercy re- 

y. Why in Sleep the Limbs are (like a Gut half 
full of Air) laxy limber y ftaccidy and yielding all 
manner of Ways becaufe all the innumerable final! 
Vejjkls that contain the Elafiick Animal SpiritSy are 
(as that half filfd Gut I mentioned) not tightly 
fill’d, Which if they were, would be firm and 

of Opium Reveatd. 123 

tenfe^ as (uch a blown up very full and fon 
ciblyjis *, which Veffds being all over the Body^oon^ 
firm the whole Tone when we areawake^ and 
the Vigilative ContraUion comprefTes the Animal 
Spirits into a Steadinels, and (as it were j a kind 
of Solidity. 

6. Why (as appears by Statkk Demonfir atigns, 

and Experiments) we perfpire more when afleep 
than awake; becaufe the Porej are clofed by the 
Vigilative ContraBion^ and open’d in Sleef by the 
contrary RelaxatioHy which therefore always caufes 
free where ever it happens, as in faint- 

ing Fits. Syncope Sy LeipothymieSy and by IVarmtby 
efpecially if moift and emollient, as in Baths y Fo- 
mentations y Feet WafieSy Head fVaJhes^ as alfo 
when Vltafui^ relaxes^ as in the AB of Venerpy 
great Joy, after good Mealsy or feme GlaJJes of 
IVlnCy &c* all which caufe plentiful Ferfpiration, 
becaufe they relax, and thereby open the Poresy 
(as more fully appears in the following Difiourfe) 
by Reafon of the Pleaft^re that they caufe, which 
diverts the fenfitive Soul from his Employ of Con^ 

7. Whfy the Pores being open by the Relaxation^ 

we fweat in our Sleep, if we are fill’d with* Mat- 
ter for it, 'viz,* TreXu'i uVi/» dveu ^etnf»c 

dtiivic ^fvo/m^Q-y 70 azof/a, an^tvi on wKeiov 
^hat is, Mach Sweat in Sleep argues y that much 
Food (or Nutriment) was taken ^ of whichDr/»i& 
is the greateft Part in Bulk, even in Sober Per- 
ions. I mention this to fliew the Difference ia 

Perfpiration Sweatingy iov that 
always happens in Sleepy but not Sweaty unle£ the 
Body be well fill’d with Moifture ; To fhew the 
Caufe of which Difference y will be the BufineS of 
ipy Trad of Animal Mechanififty if I have not 
hereafter an OccafioH dp it in this TraB<^ as (t (Up* 
pofe) I may. 

» ‘ 8 . ^ 


124 The Myfieries 

Z. Why Sleep cures Colds (by opening the 

% Why the Skin is more florid in Sleep; be^ 
caufe (as has been faid) it being relax’d admits 
the Blond into it, which V^igilative Contra^ion does 
in good meafure repeh and thereby caufe the Skin 
to appear more -white and faU^ as it is, and any 
one may obferve upon awaking. 

10 . Why the Eyei look deadifh in Sleep, 
beeaufe (as has been fhewn) the Humors do not 
fill up the relaxed Coined to a due Tenfion and Ro^ 
tundity, which (as was faid) makes the Cornea 
jhincy ^arkle, and particularly to reflecfl a brisk 
Speck of Light, (as Ihining round Things muft do) 
which Speck if Painters omit, the Eye looks 
deadifli, therefore they fhould, when they have a 
mind to exprels the Veadmfs of the Eyes^ as in 
Fainting Fits^ Syncopes^ Sleeps Deaths Wanton loofe 
OgUngs of Lovers ^Drunkennefs^&'c, omit that Speck, 
or rather draw it duller, wider, and difcompofed 
in Figure, with the Pupil very large, and the 
Upper Eyelid falling down loofely, which would 
exadly exprels the Deadnefs of the Eye in all 
thole Cafes of Relaxation, in which alone it lb 
appears. Note, T^hat the Reafon why Ibme in 
fiich Cales fee dtvers Colours before their Eyes, is, 
beeaufe the uneven Cornea varioufly retrads and 
reflects the Light, which I mention beeaufe none 
(that I know of) have obferved the Caufe. 

II. Wiy People are more fleepy in warm moift 
Weather, viz,, becaufe the Parts arc more relaxed, 
and the Preffure of the Atmofphere lelsto affift 
the Vigilative ContraBion., to keep us in a waking 
State by the Comprejfure of the Animal Spirits: 
How much better therefore is slcooI and dry Air, 
that laifes the high in the Barometer, (or 

Weather GJafsybo^ for Heath and ABion ? be- 
renders the Animal Spirits more power- 
' ’ ful. 

ofO^ivmReveitPd. 125 

ful, prompt, and fiiffant by the Compreffkn, This 
fhould be obferv’d by fuch as are to run Races 
alone, lift Weights^ or perform any Thing that 
requires Strength, Vigour , or Speedy nor can I 
doubt, but if we had an Artificial Means to com^ 
prels Men’s Bodies in a high manner, (as by put- 
ting them into convenient Cavities, and forcing 
Air upon them) but they would be much ftronger 
for the Time, and thereby enabled to do 
floits beyond their ordinary Strength ; which 
puts me in mind of leveral Things that confirm 
it very much, as Mens lifting of greater Weights 
in low Places, than on the top of very high HiUs^ 
where the Preflure of the Air is left to compreft 
the Animal^pirits ; The ContraBion of all Parts 
in lifting of great Weights ; The prodigious Leap^ 
and Sw^tnefs offome Perfons in great Frights^ 
Terrors, &c, which mightily contrad the fenfils 
Tarts, and Vejfels of the Animal Spirits, by which 
Means they are render’d more fpring^ and power* 

Note, That the true Caufe of Strength is the 
Comprefiion of the Animal Spirits, and that 
(probably) the Force of Mufcles may (bme way 
or other depend upon’t, which is not my Bufineft 
to explain at prefent^ 

Note, That it is the Mmbranes are primarily 
contracted, and the Medullary Part of tho Nerves, 
Spirits, &c. compreffed thereby by Confe- 

12 . TVhy the foft flejhed, and moi/l, are more 
Jleipy,' as Children, &c, viz,, becaufe the Compreffion 
of their Animal Spirits is not lb great by Realbn 
of the laxity of their Parts, lb are they weaker 
for the fame Reafon, which tells you why Unit 


the My/leries 

Men^ whole FIcfh is firmer, that are no bigger 
than Boys^ are much ftronger than Boys or Women 
of the iame bignefi. 

ij. Why warm and emollient Baths ^ Foment 
tations^ Feet or Head Waflies^ &c, do (as moyh and 
warm Weather) caule Sleeplnefs; and indeed all 
Things that caufe Relaxation^ or incline the fenji- 
five Soul to leave off contracting, as Weari-- 
vefs, &c. do caufe Sleef. 

NotCy That in dry Bodies, as old People, &c. 
fiich Emollient Bathsy Fomentations^ with the 
Ule of Emollient Moifiners inwardly, will caufe 
Sleep very finely, when Opium it felf will not *, 
and that Opium in fuch Cafes fhould be ufed with 
Itich Things both internally and externally ^ but 
(which is not obferv’d) the Baths ^ Foment at u 
onsy &c. Ihould not be above the Warmth of 
Bloudy becaufe the Heat may otherwife caufe too 
much motion of the Bloud and Spirits^ which is a 
great Enemy to Sleepy that confifis in their Refiy 
and the aforefaid Relaxation of PartSy by both which 
co-operating, you may, and cannot fail to caufe 
any Man to Sleepy if you can make them concur. 

14. The lame Relaxation caufes the Vulfe to be 
larger and flower in Sleep, NoBurml Pollutions^ 
want of due Contraction and Senfation at Sto- 
mach, by which Means the Meat flays longer 
there in our Sleepy than when , we are awake ; 

ly. Frets y CommotlonSy and Perturbations of the 
Spirits y are compofed by Sleepy becaufe the 

fenfitive Soul (who is the Original of all motion) is 
at Reft, and chat the Animal Spirits being ex* 
panded, are nearer their abfolute Re/ly which 
confifts in a full and perfeCl Expanfany fo that 
there is no farther Endeavour towards Motion. 

16. Sen^ 

Opium ReveaPd. i 2 7 

16. Senfation being much leflened by the Ex- 
pavfion of the Animal Spirits upon the &id Relaxa- 
tion^ the Scnfe of the Irritation of Humours is there-' 
by leflened^ or quite taken away, whereupon all 
Fluxes occaHoned by the Irritation of Humours^ 
as Diarrhea's^ Difenteries^ Catarrhs^ &c, are ftopt 
or moderated (at leaft) by Sleep Befides, that 
Relaxation being quite contrary to Contra^ion^ by 
which chofe Humours are fqueefed out, lets the 
Humours ftay quietly where they are. Relaxation 
being more for receiving, containing, detaining, 
and fiifpending Humours in the Parts, than ferid- 
ing them forward, as you lee in a Spunge firft 
contraded, and afterward fuffered to dilate, or 
expand it felf in a Dif) that has feme Water in it, 
which it takes into it lelf, and (iilpendstillfome- 
thing fqueefes it out by contrading it. 

17. Therefore it is that the Spittle does not 
come into the Mouth in Sleep, or very little, and 
that People are apt to awake thirfty, tho’ it is 
foon taken off in feme meafure by the Vigilative 

fqueezing out the into the Mouth, 

unlels there is (bme ipecial Caufe to the con- 

1 8. For the lame Realbn the Menfiruum of the 
Stomach comes but very flowly into the Stomach 
in Sleep, which is one Caufe that Digefiion goes 
on but flowly in Sleep, 

Note^ That Digefion, and lending the Chyle 
put of the Stomach, depending both upon Con^ 
tralliony they are haftned and retarded in exaSI 
Froportion^ fo that the Extrufion keeps equal Face 
wi^ the Digefion, How equal and duely pro. 
portioned are the Works of Nature ! 

19. It is plain alio from what has been Stated 
eoncerning Sleeps why Ague Fits feldom (if 


128 The Myfteries ^ 

ever) take People in the time of their firfl: (bund 
Sleeps becaule the Shivering is cauled by a grievous 
Senfation of the Jenfile Parts^ which Cannot well 
happen in that found Sleep, wherein there is fo 
little Feeling by Realbn of the faid Relaxation * 
and becaule Relaxation oppoles ContraBion, by 
which that Shivering is promoted. Such a Re- 
laxation, and Failure of thereupon, is the 
true Caule why Opium puts off Ague Fits, &c. 
So, , ^ 

20. The Relaxation m Sleep Vomiting, by 
taking away the fenfe of the irritating Caufe, and 
quieting (as I have intimated J all Motions in 
general; (b Sleep Hiccoughs, Hemorrhages, 
Diary Fevers, &c. - 

’21, Why Watching, Labour, or what impairs 
the Spirits, and xxvqs t\\Q fenfitive ^oul, indines us 
to Sleep, that is, dilpofes the fenfitive Soul (the 
only Feeler of LalEtude) to give over Contradt* 
ing the Senfila Parts, which (as will plainly ap- 
pear by and by) fpends the Spirits, as Sleep by 
relaxing them caufes a Recruit thereof. 

To be (hort, (tho’ one can hardly be tqo long 
in Iblving PhemmemPs, which is the Proof of the 
Truth of a Man’s Ajfertion) the Mechanical De^ 
tmnf ration that I have made of the State of Sleeps 
ing and Waking, does (b evidently explicate all 
the Phencmends of both, that 1 am even afham’d 
to run any farther upon fuch plain Matters, (fo 
obvious are Things when the Truth is known,) 
and therefore (having mentioffd thofe Circum- 
fiances and EffeBs of Sleep, that mainly concern 
us) I muft give over, left the World fliould think, 
that I take all my Readers to be Idiots, by uling ' 
too many Words in fo obvious a Thing ; or, that 
I am no better for ufing them without Caufc ; 
for the Truth of thii Matter feems to me to ouc- 


of O^hmRevedPJ. 12 ^ 

ftine ^11 the Arfruments I can make fof it, fiicli 
Splendour does Truth jhcw upon the firft Qlimt^s 
thereof, as I take the Account I [^av^ of Sleep 
and Watching to be ; for the Opinioils I have met 
concerning them were quite contrary to^ or Very 
remote from what I hsLve ftated. 

1. They went quite contrary to it that faid^ 
That the Animul Spirits were expanded, and thd 
Pores of the Brain^ &c. more open fand confer 
quently more lax) in Watchings as WiHis, and Je^ 
'veral others • who therefore fay that Cojfee^ Volatik 
Salts^ are Antihypnoticks, ("or good again li too 
much Sleepinefs) becaufe th^y caufe &nExpanJion 
of the Spirits^ 4nd open the Tores of the Brain ^ 
fuppofing fforfoothj that they marched up and 
down, and fo kept the greater ftir upon the falfo 
Imagination of their Roads being more open^ 
which (as was proved) are really more clofe 
Coffee keeps us from Sleep by drying, bindings and 
both Ways conftringing the VeffU^ as alio by a 
wide grating Quality,* which therefore does irrn 
tate them to contrail*, beOdeS that the Saline Par-* 
tides caufing an Agitation^ may contribute there^ 
to, (o that by conffinging and agitating^ 1 C diredily 
oppofes Sleep, which proceeds from RelaxaciorS 
and Quietnels, 

2 . They were very reniote froiti tile Marif, t’hal 
faid (as Wedelius aiTerts all do) that Vapours were* 
the caufe of Natural Sleepy which bear no manner' 
of Treportion thereto (as v^’^as fhewn 5 ) As they 
were alfo who madly talk’d. That the Animal 
Spirits^ which have neither Life^ Senfe^ Motion^ Of 
Ele6tion^ did of themfolves retire Very knowingly 
to the Brain in Sleip^ and left the Limbs^ &c, 
flitute of them, whereas ( as has been Mechanu 
ca'dy proved) they have more J^om than that at 
ocher times in the Limbs, and all tliQ jenjik Tarts. 

1 3 The Myfieyies 

Bat I will not argu j againft fiich (enfelels and 
pretarious Ahfurditks *, k is not worth the whiley 
clpedally fince the Truth is nianifeftly difcovered: 
It would not have been lb filly to have affirm’d 
the quite contrary^ viz,. That the Animal Spirits 
are forced into the loft and yielding Brain, in 
Watching, by thcTigilative ContratUon of all the/ew- 
repelling them, as when Cold repels them 
by a llrong ContraHion of the Parts, and caufes 
a Stupor or Sleep thereof (as they call it.) But 
what have we to do with fueh infufferable Trajh ? 
Therefore bidding it adieu, let us purliie our Bu* 


That it is the Senjltive Soul^ and nothing but 
it) has that ContraUing Tower ^ is evident; 

1. Becaule it is the Original of all Motion in 
the Animal as fuch ; and that nothing befides it 
has any Life^ Perception, Motion^ or Tower, and 
therefore muft reft till they are moved. 

2. Becaufe, That when the Senjltive Soul is di- 
verted by intenfe Fleafure, from attending his Bu- 
finels, immediately Relaxation follows ; as in the 
Tleafure of the A Cl of Venery^ by iVine, Joy, 

in which you have all the EffeSls of Relaxation,^ as 
JDeadnefs of the Eyes, Dilatation of the Tupilla, 
plentiful Terfpiration, Floridity of tht Skin, a large 
Ttdfe, and Ibmetimes a conliderable Failure of 
Senfs and Motion, as in the moft pleafant time of 
the Venereal ASl, Deliquiu?ns, Drunkennefs, Syncopes, 
or Ecjlafies upon intenfe Tkafure, (which are very 
properly called Ecjlafies) Leipothymies, Leipopfyehies, 
&c. which fignifie the Soul*s leaving us without his 
Help by ContraUions, v*rhich he then- does not ex- 
ercife, as being charm’d, and wholly taken up 
with Pleafure, This is the true Caule of all DAL 
quiums, 0‘c, upon PleaJ'ure, Joy, d^c. all Which 
caufe great Relaxations, and thereby Lofs of Senjh 
and Motion, as being its neceliary Coafequences. 

.3- Be- 

of Opium Ret/eaf d. 

3. Bccaule grkvom Senfation^ whicTi belongs 
only to the Senfiti<ve Soul^ puts us immediately ouC‘ 
of Slee^ into a Vigilative Contra^im, 

4. Becaufe the Senfitive Soul can, when we are 
Sleepy, oppofe it, by continuing the Vigilative 
Contratlion ; which proves Vigilative ContraUion tO 
be in his Fo’ii>er. 

Note, That there is allc) other forts of Lelpthy^ 
mm, Deliquiums, &c, upon the Senfitive SouFs 
being over- tired, (whereof Sleep is but a 

common and ordinary Degree, that happens of 
Courfe for our Relief) or overborn with fbnie 
Fatigtte^ See. as when Ibmewhat grieves at Sto^ 
macb^ and thu it has laid about it all manner of 
Ways, by Vomiting, Qonvulfive Motions, to be 
rid of it, till it can work no longsry whereupon it 
lays down th^ Ctidgels, defifts from all further En- 
deavour by Contra^ions, yielding it feif to Dafe^ 
feeing all Striving is to no Effect ? So, that tho'^ 
this Deliquium, and the former, differ in their firft 
Caufes,yet do they agree in thelaft and immediate, 
the Senfitive 5 ^«/’s not attending his Bufinefs 
of ContraBion, whereupon follows a mighty Re'^ 
taxation, as appears by the DeaJneft (or Relaxation^ 
of the Corneay Dilatation of the Fupil, a great Laxity 
of all Parts, a large or none, very plentiful 
Ferfpiration, Stops of Hemorrhages, and all FiiutOS 
that require ContraBion, See. which happen both 
upon the Account of the great Relaxation it felf, 
(as has been Ihewn) and the almoft abfblute Reft 
of all Things by the Senfitive Souh withdrawing 
himlelf from Bufinefi^ more than in Sleep it felf 
1 therefore obferving the Degrees of Sleep, Scca 
do Note, That (God and Nature ufing a du5 
Vroportion in all Things ) the Senfitive Soul ules 
feveral Degrees of Relaxation, according as he is 
dred, and RefeBm is Wanted : Hence it is, that 

K a ' fuch 

13 ^ • The h^fienes^ 

^uch as are much tired Jleep more profoundly , thaf 
our firfi Sleeps are the (bundeft, and that Sleep: gra- 
dually declines in degrees ( as we are recruitedj dll 
we awake ; the nearer which we are, the more 
we dream, the date of Dreaming being a kind of 
Twiliglit between found Sleep and Awaking, of 
between 'a full fomniferous Relaxation and 'vigilative^ 
Contrathon. And as the Senfitive Soul ufes all degrees 
of, ContraUion below that of the Vigilative, till it 
comes to bare CompreJJion of she fo it can 
exercife fuper-'vlgllative ContraBion^,(\i\m^y{6 c 2 Xi 
yt) that is, much higher degrees thereof than what 
was requifite ordinarily for a ftate of Vigilanty, as 
in Cafes of Danger to the Animal , Frights, Ter^ 
fours, grkvom Rations and Senfations ^ by which 
means the animal Spirits being more compreffed 
than under the ordinary 'vlgilative QontraBion^ 
Senfetion grows more nice and fmart^ andMotion 
more prompt and 'vigorous ( they always going 
together ) for the Defence of the Animal , by 
extraordinary Flight , Repuljion , or otherwife.^ 
Hence it is, upon Fear, Terrour, grievous Faf. 
fion, ovSenfation, (which manifeftly proves the Be- 
ing of fuch an extraordinary QontraHion upon fiich 
Occafions) That, 

I . Ferf>iratkn fails in a yet higher degree than 
under bare or ordinary vigilative QoniraSlion, as 
appears by infallible/^ric;^ Experiments md Demote 
f rations, 

. 2 . It is by reafbn of the fkid defenfve ContraSliony, 
(for fo I call it, becaufe it is excited in an extra- 
ordinary manner for the of the Animal in 
rime of need, or great Exigence ) That in Frights y 
Terrcursy &c. our Hair, Dogs, 6cc. does Band on 
end, or more upright *, r. Becaufe the Fores do» 
by that violent ContraWon, ftridily clofe about the 
Root of the Hair , that it cai^ot fwag^ incline. 

«/ Opium Reveal'd. 153 

m yic’d any way, by reafon of its IVdlght, &;c* 
:as when the Skin is more lax and and th^ 
‘Pores, wherein the Hair is fixed, more open; 
2, Becaufe ( which is the mam Reafon ) the (aid 
<dontrdUm renders the oblique Pom more upright ; 
as fuppofe the Pores and Hair do naturally iiand 
.obliquely, ( as they do to carty off Wet, &c,) as 
an Fig, u 

And thatf a) in Fig, i . is, by the laid 'ContraBlnn..^ 
brought nearer to (f), as much as is frotn {a) to 
fy), then will the Pom and Hair ftand upright, 
as in Fig. 2. and the Skin a, 0, e, contraifTed 
and brought within the prick’d Perpendiculars 
whereas in Fig. i. it excur’d beyond the Perpendi^ 
fuloT w, m.^ as much is from a too. 

3. For the fame Reafon It is. That the Pace, 
in grievous P a jjlons and Senfatlons^ as acute Pain, 
&c. is contorted and wrung awry, as you fee in 
Perfons that cry becaufe oi Grievances.^ fafter the 
fame manner as when they ftrive to lift up a great 
Weight) that at the feme time Tears, and 
Moifiure at Hofe and MQuth.^^xt (queezed out by 
the feme Contradion ; which makes People ule 
the Saying of Cafling Snot about when Men cry. 
It is for the feme Reafon that' P^op/e’s Mouths water 

K } extreamly 

134 The Myjierks 

cxtreamly when they are trimm'd with a bad 
Raz,or that puts them to Pain^ which contracts 
the Parts, and Iqueezes out the Spittle. 

4. The Ptilfe grows fenfibly nanower and har- 
der by the fame Contr^^ion. 

5”, It is by the Contra^lon upon grievous Senfa-. 
tion^ that our Mouths water very much upon a 
Naufea at Stomachy beqaule of the continuity of 
the Mernbranes of the Mouth and Stomach. 

6. The fame ContraBion is the true Reafon why 
People., upon Hunger {yv\-\\ch is grievous Senfation 
at Stomach) have lb much Moifture for Spittle} 
m their Mouths, and fo much the more when 
they fee good VtBuals^ and cannot have it, be- 
caufe the Grievance which Gaufes the ContraBion 
that fqueezes it out, is by fo much the greater 
Thi^ is the caulewhy the Mouth waters when hun- 
gry People fee or fmell good Visuals. By the fame 
Contraction Moifiure is fqueezed out into the 
Oefopbagus , f or Gullet ) and the Menfiwum into 
the Stomach at the fame time ; where fobferve 
Good and .Wife Providence ) that Httnger 
which calls for Meat^ at the fame time provides 
Spittle to lubricate it for fwollowing, and to help 
pigeftion^ render the Gullet flippery and diften- 
fible, and caufes the Menfiruum to flow more 
abundantly into the Stomach 3 and all this when 
nioft needed , and that exactly in proportion to 
the Hunger (or grievous Senfation) that caufes the 

It is well worth your notings That God^s Ppyi 
iom does alv/ays caufe the Want of what is neceC 
|ary in finjils Creatures ^ to be the fbilicitiiig and 
urging Caufe for fupply^ that a due Proportion may 
be pbfervcd between the Supply and the Wojst ; 
which may upon the telling of it appear fo plain 
a Cafe, that it is fcarce worth the mentioning j 

(believe me) it is fo little obferv’d^ (as plain 

" ^ "■ 

of Opium Revear J. 135 

as It may Teem to be ) that People have, and do 
err extravagantly for of noting it *, which if 
they had noted, they could never have laid that 
Vapours^ or the retiring of Spirits into the Brain^ 
&c, was the Caufe^ or Call of natural Sleep \ nor 
feigned Menfiruurm to be the caufe of Hunger ^ but 
would have duly confidered what is mainly fup- 
plied by Eatings or recruited by Sleeping, &;c. and 
then had nothing to do but to conclude the Deft^^ of 
that to have been the Caufe that folicited for the 
Supply in proportion to the DefcQ : Which, if ob- 
ferved, will mofi. naturally and eafily lead you to 
the true Knowledge of the Cauies of all Appetites 
in an Anintal, ufion a few Minutes Confideration ; 
for want of which moft plain and (one would 
think j very^bvioiis Method, the deviating World 
has ladly puzzled it lelf about the Caufe of Hun. 
ger, Thirfi, Sleeps and the like, to this day, and 
iiill is in Difputes about them, of which (tho’ 
my advertent Reader may well prevent me, by 
ufing ihtit natural Method) I fhall {God willing) 
give an account in my Trad of Animal Mecha- 
nlfm : Only note here, That I do not mean bare 
privative Defed, as fuch, to be the pofitive Caufe ; 
but that the Defed of what keeps or guards the 
Stomach, from the Grievance, caufes other 
Matter to grieve it, caufe Hunger, &c, without 
which means, no Proportion can be obferved be- 
tween Hunger and what nukes it away, or our 

7. defenfive Contr a Wion dotSy grie. 

'vous Senfation, as Pain, Cold, Terrour, caufe 

a Corrugation of the Scrotum, contrad the Skin 
into little Tubercles like that of a Goofe-Skin, c^c, 

8. By it, upon gruvom Senfation, as by (queez- 
ing the Nofe very hard, pulling the Hair, Sand, or 
any (iich thing, in the Eye, or a Grievance by the 
VolauU Particles of Onions, Mufiard, Horfe.Radijlj- 

K 4 RootSy 

Jhe Myftertes 

Roots^ 0:‘c, the Parts and Membranes about th^ 
Eyes contradjng, fquee?:e out Tears, that what 
grieves the Ejes may thereby be waited away, 
pr Gualihed, as much as the Tears can dp it. 

9 . By this ContracHon repelling the Bhud^ the 
Skin grows Tale by Cold, ¥ ear ^ Tain, ^c, which 
ahb clofing the Tores, flop S2i7eaP^ as in a moment. 
YouMl have an account hereafter how Contra^^ 
^ion may caufe Sweat by fjueezing in fomp 
Cafes, and flop it by JlMtting the Tores in other 

I o. It is by it chat ContraUion, that Rear, Cold, 
pc. ciofing the Tores, and repelling the Bloud, 
jtanch Bleeding : So happens alfo a greater Con- 
traction pf the Tv,yil ot the Eye by the fame 

II. It is the Violence pf this ContraBion upon 
Feat, Terrcur, Tain, Cold,< &'c. clofing the frpail 
YeJJeh of the Animal S fir its, and there% repelling 
them, caules the Skiojering in thole Cafes, by the 
Renitency of the elaftick Animal Spirits fpringing 
back again* tones quoties, having gain’d rpore eld- 
ifich Force by the very .Compreflm it lelf, which 
that ContraBion caufes ; fb that by reafon of the 
dubious 'velitaUQ'.i (or skirmijlmg ) between the 
repelling ContraBion and the fpringing Spirits, hap- 
pens a tremulotis Motion, ( as of quavering Springs',!^ 
which Shivering in Ague-Fits did formerly lead me 
to tht Situation of the Caufe of Agues (when I 
writ my Book De Fehrlkus intermittent ihs) in the 
Angujti^ at the end of the Vejjels, which termi- 
nate in the Membranes ; the grievous Senfation of 
WhichV caufe? ^11 tlie Shivering that happens in 
any Cafe to Animals, 

1 2 o By the fame ContraBion, when very violent, 
and of the whole Body, Sweats happen in 
Fain, Fcarfjerrour, fee. while it Wolently Iqueeze? 

^'dt the outmoft^ and therefore coldeft Mbifture 

... .... ...... ........ ... 

of Opium ReveaFcf. Y 

pf our Bodies^ as LaundreJJes do Water out of wet 
Linnen by Comortion. Thus if you dip one half 
of a wet cold Sheet in hot Water, wrapping the 
hot fide within the cold, or let a warm Sheet that 
is contorted cool on the out-fide of it, and then 
wring it as Women do Linnen , the Water that 
firft exudates will be cold ; for in this Cafe the 
dofipg of the Tores avails nothing to hinder it, as 
long as the exprcfling Force matters it ; more 
effecially in A^itnal Bodies^ wherein the Parts are 
10 contrived, that Humours defign’d for Excretion 
cannot well return, apcj therefore mutt, upon 
ContraBion^ run out. 

Hence it is that Altmy pr Vitriol y which are 
very aftringent, and therefore plofe the Toresy 
will noty/ithttanding caufe the Mouthy or Nofe^ 
to run very plentifully with Moifture, by contra^-^ 
ing all the Membranes about the Mouthy or Nofe^ 
arid thereby fquee^ing out the Idoifiure defign’d tp 
be excern’d, which cannot return, becaufe the 
Tarts are contriv’d againft the return or read^ 
pittance thereof ; whereas Alumy or Vitrioly will 
ttanch ov Bloud by the lame Contrarian y be- 
caule it may return ( as not being defign’d to bq 
excern’dj either into the Arteries y and fo pafs by 
other thereof, or f which is more ready 

and natural j keep its courfe into the Veins, So^ 
the two Riddles (that I have known fome Troui 
Thyficians amaz’d at, tho’ but Trifles ) of Alum and 
Vitriol caufing the Spittle, &c, to come out, in* 
flead of ftopping it by their Afiringency^ and their 
flopping Bloud at Nofe at the lame time they 
paufe the Snot'^ pr other Humour Sy to runout, are 

15. It is by this mighty Contrarian growing to 
an enormous degree^ that the Animal Spirits being 
violently compreffed, grow exceeding irrequiete; 
as upon Convwfibm in great or very grievou^ 

. ^ Senfa^ 

ijS The Myftertes 

Sen&tiotl at Stomachy &c, while the fenfitive Soul 
compreffing them with mighty Force^ and (bme- 
what dilbrderly and unevenly^ becaufe of the Con^ 
fiifton and Hurry he is in to relieve the Animal^ 
chey by their (pringinefs fling up and down with 
great Vigour, This makes convulfiv^ Motions have 
great Strength. 

14. The Body under this Contradlion is ma- 
iiifeftly fhrunk by meafure, elpecially when the 
Senlation is very grievous , but moft of all if they 
cade a general Convuljton • which I manifeftly ob- 
ferved in a little Bitch, that was convulfive all over 
for three Hours, and was juft expiring, when I 
gave her the Sal Volat, Okof. of Opium , which 
perfedlly reftored her by relaxing the Veflels. 

Some may think it ftrange , That Hature fhould 
contrive a more nice and Imart Senlation (which 
the ContraElion of the VeJJels of the Animal Spirits 
muft caule by comprefjing them, &c.) in Fain^ and 
by it ; which becomes lb much the more acute j 
whereas one would judge. That Nature would ra- 
ther contrive its Eafe than improve its Smart. 

You are to know, That the Fain is in order to 
relieve the Animaly by exciting all its Powers to 
defend , expel ^ or reje<ft the Caufe • and that , 
without a grievous Senfation , the fenptive Soul is 
neither minded nor excited to do it 5 and the 
more the Pain is, the more it is ftirr’d up to Self, 
prefervationy and ( as was ihewn ) the more vi- 
gorous do its Motions grow by the CompreJJion of 
die elafikk Spirits to perform that Work 4 lb Na. 
twrey not regarding the Fain ( which is rather for 
good ) as much as taking away the Caufe, advan- 
ces that, for this Purpofe\ like a wife Phyfidany 
who finding a Grievance at Stomachy not liifficient 
to excite e&<ftual Vomitingy to throw away the 
grieving Caufe, adds to the Grievance by giving 
a j which becaufe (as was laid) Nature is 


of Opium Reusatd. ,13^ 

proportionably excited to , and ^ invigorated for 
Selfprefervation, fufficiently follicites and enables 
it, by a ftronger Contrdilon^ to rejeft the grkving 

As the greater the Relaxation is, the more is 
the Reft of all Parts; and the weaker the Anlmd 
Spirits (becaule lefs comprelTedJ the gentler are 
all Motions, fas you fee in Sleep) confequently 
the le(s is the Expence of Spirits ; fo that in Sleep 
we generate more than we (pend, and are there- 
by recruited : So the more the ContraUion is, 
the more violent is the Motion of the Hearty 
tefiines^ and of all Parts, and conlequently the 
Expence of Spirits is the greater. 

Therefore it can be no Wonder, That Centra^ 
Biom do caule great Commotions 'of Spirits^ Diary 
Fevers^ &c. when you confider, 

1. That the fenfitive Soul is, by the grievous Sen^ 
fations^ Scc. that caufe them, put upon a great 
Fret^ Concern^ and Hurry ^ to defend the Animaf 
and lays about him all manner of ways for Self^ 
prefervation, , 

2. That the Animal Spirits are, by means of 
great Comprejfon caufed by the Aefenfive Contra^ 
BioTiy in a very forcible Springine/y which cau(es 
all the Adions that are continual, involuntary, and 
of courfe, to be perform’d with great Violence, 
proportionable to its compreCed Elafticity. Be- 
fides that, 

3 . The Syfioles of the Heart areoftener repeated. 
All which confpire to caufe greater Commotions 
upon grievom Senfatkns^ whereby Diary Fever s^ &c. 
are caufed, which are eafily and naturally cured by 
Sleepy or Re//?«^fw»,atprefent compofe and quiet 
thofe Perturbations, Who knows ftho’ it is not 
my Bufinef to difeufe it at prefent) but that the 
^ontr anions in the coU lits pf Agm^ have a great 


The Myjieries 

hand in caufing the hot ona ? How otherwife 
fhould Opium, by only taking away the grievous 
Senfation o^the cold Fits, take oflT, or prevent the 
hot Fits alio? But of this, in my often- mentioned 
TraS^y ( though not fo often as it grieves me that 
it is not publiflied.) ' 

How reafonably may we now expec^t, That 
pleafent Senfation may caufe quite contrary Ef. 
fe^ts to that of grievous Senfation viz,. Relaxa- 
tion, and all its E fe^s, ( which have been in feme 
njeafure enumerated in the Cafe of Natural Sleep 
in this Chapter) wiz, SatufaBion, Compofure oi Frets 
and Commotions ; as of diary Fevers, hyflerick Fits, 
&C. Ferfpiration^ quieting of Vomitings , Hiccoughs, 
lejjening of Feeling, and confequently a nop 
and moderation of all Fluxes that depend upon Ir- 
ritation of Humours, as Diarrhea- s, Dyfenteries, Ca- 
tarrhs, Vomitings, Drinefi of the Mouth, (pism Sleep, 
for want ojf the ContraBion to fqueeze the Spittle 
out of the Glandules into the Mouth) NoBurnal 
ToUutions, &c. But of the Nature and EffeBs of 
Tkafure, you’ll find more in the next Chapter. 

Befides the Vigilative and Defenjive ContraBions, 
f which (eem to be Things of courfe upon Waking 
and Grievances ) the fenfrive Soul has a ContraBion 
at Wid, as that of the Fupilla, when an Animal is 
intent upon Seeing ; of the Tympan, when intent 
upon Hearing ; of the Mufcles of the Legs, when 
intent upon Walking ; and ib of all the Mufcles of 
the Body, which I call Intent m ContraBion , that 
he canperform either along with, or without theo- 
thzt ContraBions, ov without any degree there- 

of, as when one is confiderably relaxed with the 
Fleafure of Wme, very good News, See. nay, Ibme-r 
times even in Sleep, as is manifeft by the NoBam- 
(or-fuch as walk in their Sleep) and fuch as 

of Opium ReveaPd. 145 

fpeak, ftrike, &c. while afleep : And as the 
fevjtve Contra^ion does all it can in our Defence^ 
without the Dire^lion of the Will, as in Vomit 
Sneezings Turgingy 8cc. upon fenjible Irritation * fo 
this Intentive ContraBion does all it can to the 
lame Purpofe, by xh^DireBion and DiBates there*; 

NotCy That inlenfile growing Things that do 
not move, as Trees^ &c, have none of thefe Con- 
traBionsy but what happens by Coldy and Compref- 
fion of the Atmofpherey which are fufficient it feems 
for Nutritiony but not for Senfe and Motion^ it 
follows , That in compleat Syncopes , when the 
fenftthi 5<?«^ives over all ContraBions ^ that we 
are much in the date of a Plant. 

All thole three ContraAions^vias. the VigUathe^ 
D^enjivcy and Intentive do, becaufe they promote 
Motion, and caufe It more or leG, (as you find 
the Vigilative caufes much more of it than Sleeps 
and t& D^enfive more than that, &c,) (pend the 
SpiritSy caufe fVearineJIy See. 

The Vigilati've ContraBion does of it (elf^ with- 
out any confiderablc Grievance or Labour y that is, 
without the Denfenfive or Intentive ContraBiony tire 
the fenjitive Soul in about 1 6 Hours : Hence it is 
that the idleft Perfon, that is moft free from Care^ 
Trouble^ or Vahy cannot well hold out without 
the Recruit of Sleep any longer. 

The Defenfeve ContraBiony or that of Grievances^ 
being added to the Vtgilatwe ContraBion , the 
Spirits are fafter fjDent, and the Perlbn tired pro- 
portionably (boner , according as the Grievance 
is more or lejl, and confequently the Endeavours of 
the fen^tive Soul to be rid thereof 


14 ^ The Myfteties 

To both which ContraBionSy ( viz, the Vigihtiv^ 
^ni Defenfive) if you add the Intentivey (or La^ 
hour) then arc you Iboner and more tired than 
by only thole two former ContraBions ; for this laft 
Gale is labouring in Tainy (or under a Grievance) 
which notoriouffy tires Man or Beaft Iboner than 
ordinary : The dired contrary to which, is fleep- 
ing Ibundly and fweetly, without Trouble, Pain^ 
or Dreams ; for a dreaming Condition has too 
much of the vigilativ^ ContraBion in it, to be pure 
Relaxation and Recruit, 

Now according as thefe ContraBions are^ or 
are not added one to another, we are Iboner or 
later before we are tired, (fpeaking generally, and 
not confidering Cufiomzni which concerns 
us not.) 

You lee that all the three ContraBions cotir 
curring, do loon and fadly tire us , that no two 
of them tire us as much as the three together ; that 
is, neither the Vigilative and befenfive^ without 
the Intentive ; nor the Violative and Intentive^ 
without the Defenfive ; aira' the Figilative alone 
leaft of all : Yet allowance muft be made for 
the Intenlhels of the befenfive and Intentive 5 for 
cither of thele two being very intenfe, may tire 
as much as both, in a moderate degree: Thus a 
Man may be tired with violent Labour in four 
Hours, tho’ not in Pain as much as one that 
moderately labours in fome finall Pain for the 
fame time* 

OhfervCy That we recruit in eight Hours ( gene- 
rally (peaking) as much by relaxation in Sleepy as 
we ^nd by vigilative ContraBion in fixteen : I 
take the Rcalbn of that to be. That Relaxation 
widening all the Paffages of the Body^ the Nutri- 
ment is admitted into them more fully and freely^* 


cf Opium ReveaVd. 143 

as the Bloud is into the Skin in and all Relaxom 

tions<^ which caufe an Effimfcence thereof in thofe . 
Cafes. Hence it is that we are lb much recruited 
and nourifhed in Sleep 5 that Children groM# 
more than others proportionably ^ that Rclaxef^ 
caufe the Breafis^ &c, to grow. 

Mre, What a mighty Refiaurative Relaxation is ! 
By its help, for ei^t Hours in twenty fottr^ we cati 
watch all, and labour moft of the other fixteen^ all 
the days of our Life : it follows. That if we could 
any way half relax the '&igilative ContraQkn white 
we Labour^ take a Journey^ or the like, that we 
might perform prodigioufly, without being tired* 
Hence it is^ That becaufe Vleafure (as has been in- 
timated relaxes^ as Grievanees contrary ( of which 
you may exped farther Troof in the next Chapter^ 
that ftich as work, or travel, plealantly diverted all 
the time, are tired very little or nothing in a long 
time; and that Ibmerwill dance whole Nighti 
with Iweet Mufick, and agreeable beloved Com' 
pany, without being lb much tired, as they 
would be if they us’d the fame Motions for a quar- 
ter of the fiwf without either of the pleafant Diverfi^ 
ons. The like is to be Kd of any other Thafure^ as 
drinking a good of generous Wine every half 
hour , or fb often as to continue the fenfe of its 
Plea/ure at Stomach all the time they labour or trtu 
'oel ; for ’tis a %iulgar Errour^ (tho^ the univer&I 
Sentiment of Mankind, both Learned and Un- 
learned) That Wine^ Cordials^ &e. do comfort^ 
elevate, and excite the Spirits, ( as ’cis call’d) by 
adding their Spirits to, or joining them with ours § 
whereas it is only by caufing a pleafant Senfation^ 
particularly at Stomach : For which Paradox, 1 am 
obliged (tho’ in great hafte to come to the Ex^ 
plication of Opium) to give my Reafons, which are 
as follows, viz,. 

K ^ 

fi44 ^ Myfienei 

1. Ic cannot be imagined how ^fettfitive Crea^ 
iure^ as fiich , can conceive any Confort^ or be 
fenfible thereof, but by Senfation : To fay he is 
comforted^ and not fenfible of the Comfort^ is a 
ContradiBion ; for Comfort ^ as (iich, belongs to a 
(Perceiving Being ; and an Animal^ as fiich, per- 
ceives nothing but by the Senfes ; and thereford 
there can be no Comfort but by fleafant Senfation 5 
nay, as fuch it is his Comfort : So Muftck^ fleafant 
Sights^ Odours^ and agreeable Objeds of all the 
Senles, are comfortable, becaufe fleafant. I hope 
that none will lay. That Mujick^ Sights^ good News ^ 

( which highly comfort) have any Sfirits to 
add to ours : I he truth is, That God Nature 
have given us our Senfes for that end, and prefent 
^efetlion in Cafes of Faintnef, Defrejjion of Sfirits ; 
And what more proper to convey Comfort to usv 
than what is fenfible of it? 

2. It is another thing to add by way of Nutria 
tion to our Spirits^ ( which are infenfible Things, 
and therefore never properly comforted any more 
than a P W, that is nourilhed as well as they :) But 
thQ fenjitive Soul being pleafed, muft needs con- 
ceive Sattsfatliony Comfort^ Joy^ &c. How he can 
be pleafed when fenfible of nothing, I know not ; 
nor how he can be comforted without being firft 
pleafed, nor how pleafed but by Senfation. 

5. The Ejfence of Animal Comfort dees not coii^ 
fift in having many Spirits * for one in moft grie- 
vous Pain and Mtfery^ by which he is much difi 
comforted, caft down , depreffed in Spirit, &c. 
may have great plenty of 8 pints ; and one that 
has not half as many, highly comforted, by plea«* 
ling Ohf^s Senfe^ good News^ 6cc. 

4. If we ftaid for Confort by a Meal of Meat^ 
&c. till it added to our Spirits^ *we might flay 
long enough j nay, if vve ftaid for Comfort, tilf 

of O'^mmReveaPJ, 14 § 

We found k by that Addition^ we Ihould never find 
it ; for we cannot in that cafe find what we do 
not feel : We poflibly^ after two or three days 
eating and drinking, may find our felves ftronger ^ 
but ( after all ) fuppole us in very great mifery at 
the fame time^* Where’s the Comfort of it, when 
the Spirits are otherwife deprelTed by Pdny ill 
News ? dec. 

y. Hunger is a grk'uous Senfation at Stdrtlach ; 
which is cured, and we comforted^ by caufing a 
fleafaM Senfation by Meat , IVinsy &c. infiead 
thereof $ and not by adding Sprits^ which is a 
great Mifiake. It is true indeed , that we are 
comforted, birT it is mofi: manifefily by pleafing 
the exquifite Senfation at Stomachy which God has 
placed there for that End : Heiice it is that all 
Cordials muft be pleafing to the Stomach, or elle 
they are no Cordials \ and that TVine^ and all luch 
Things as pleafe the Stomach , are ape to take 
away much of the Sharpnef of Hanger ^ for a time 
at lead:. 

6, How fhould Wine^ which has a great Aci- 
dity in it, and fo very good for Digefiion^ cure a 
cafiine Appetite^ which is a grkvom Senfation^ but 
by caufing a pleafant one in its room , by which 
tnems the grievous Senfation is taken off ? For Plea.^ 
fare and Grievance, (or Difpleafure) which are 
Contraries, cannot be in the fame SuhjeH at om 
time. Thus it is that Opium takes off Hunger^ 
canine Appetite, &c. But of this hereafter. 

How fhould a X^uart of Wine-, drank la a 
minute or two, have all the comfortable Effdis of 
IVine in a quarter of an hour while it is at Sto?nacb, 
if it were to flay for this Comfort till it added 
Spirits to ours,. fince the matter of Effluvia, or 
Fumes paffing into the Blotdd^ is difproved ? 


i4<? The t/iyfterm 

8. Wfcy fhould our Ccn^ort be lb great while k 
is at Stomach, and none by that time it is got into 
the Blond, but that the Stomach being very fenfile, 
the Spirits of the JVlne do highly pleafe by their 
^grceahknef thereunto ? It matters not whether 
it had Spirits or no,fo it cauled a plcafag Senfation 
for a Draught of IVater in a high Fever, and when 
vre arc very faint with Thirfi, very much comforts 
us without any Spirits, as does a Venilbn-Pafty a 
hungry Perlbn^ by agretable Senfation taking off 
tliQ grievous Senfation (called Hunger) and all its 
conlequent Faintnels, &c, before it can add any 
Spirits by Nutrition. 

9- What need we leek any farther ? Do not 
. we find a pleafng Senfation at Stomach, when we 
are comforted with any thing, and the Confort to 
bear a Proportion to the fkafure ? 

lo. Are not vjq prompt, blithe, gay, and brave ^ 
while the iVme is at Stomach i And very often fit 
for nothing, duU, heavy, mopif), &c. by that time 
it is got into the Bloud ? 

- Therefore we may fafely conclude, That the 
Spirits of the Wine do comfort us, by caufing a 
pleafing Senfation, and not by adding its Spirits to 
ours, according to the fettled Sentiment of the 
Worlds that is not yet arrived to the Learning or 
K7wwkdge why the moll common Cordial com- 
forts them. What Spirits has a Grain of Opium, 
while at Stomach, to add to ours; or can it add, 
if it had them ? Yet no Wme comforts us as much 
as Opium, becaufe it pleales us lb much, (as was 
and will be yet much more fully fhewn.) 

Note, That befides what was laid of the Grie> 
voufnefs of the three Ccntrc&icns, to tiie the animal 
or fenftive Soul, he is much depreft and caff down, 
upon the Perception of Grievances^ as Hunger, 
Pain, &c. Becaufe they, i. Affect him with Grief 

of Opium Rer/eaP cf. 1 47 

and Difpleajure, and corifequently with Difcomfort^ 
Anxiety^ &c. bccaufc of the very Dolour, 2. With 
Cara and Solicitude how to be rid of it. 3. With 
the Toil of Defenjive ContraBion to endeavour it. 

All which caufes Helanchly^ Defrejfion Spirits^ 
’Pufillanimity^ Perturbations^ FretSj Difcompofure y Dijl 
fattsfaBiony Anxiety^ Solicitude y Peevijlmejfy Difcom^ 
pofurCy DifcomforSSy Lifilefnej^^ &C. as yOU fee iri 
fuch as Hungry y or in Pain ^ to which if you 
add the Fatigue and EjfeBs of the Defenjlve Con- 
trafllony and the Intenti'ucy as far as it is exercifed 
for Self-prefervation in this Cafe, you may (obf^r- 
ving what has been faid) cafily fblve all the Phenol 
mencPs of grievoi^ Senfationy and as eafily conclude 
what mult be tne Phenomena's and EffMs of plea^ 
fant Senfationy by the Rules of Contraries, 'vlz,, Sd* 
tisfaPHion, good Humour y Eafe^ Comfort ^ Ovation of 
Spirits'^ Relaxation y See. of which we are going to 


14 ^ The My fierier 


Of the Nature of Senftlve Pkafure^ aud its 
Effeds upn the Anifnal^ as fat' as it con^^ 
cerns our prefect Pnrpofe. ' 

S Efftive Tleafure is a Complacency of the fetijitlve 
Scu\ refultivg from the Agreeahlenef of the Ohje^ 
to the 'Organ of Senfation : Thus are we pleafed with 
what is agreeable to the Eye^ Ear^'Tonguey Stomachy 
bic. And what js agreeable to thofe Organs, is 
agreeable to the Animal in general : i. Becaufc 
God has made and appointed them ( efpecially the 
fcnfile Membrane at Stomach) to be as it were the 
Touchflone of what is agreeable to the Animal, 
2. Becaufe the Membranes (or Organs ) are of the 
lame aBlve Frincipks with the AnimaH Body in 
genera] ; otherwife they would not be fit Tafiersy. 
Triers, or Touchftones pf what is good or bad for 
the Body in general. 

Now the abdive Principles of the Membranes, (or 
Organs) are Volatile Salt and oily Parts, or a Sal 
Volatile Oho fum y which is predominant in them, 
and all the Parts of the Body ; therefore fuel? 
Things as have a Volatile Salt join’d with (bme 
oily Parts, muft be in a fpecial manner agreeable 
fing to the Membranes-*^ for fimtle ftmill 

it is, That what abound in Volatile Sait, 
Snails, Eartbmorms, and Things that kind, 
are ftich fine Anodynes, and lb pleafing to the 
Membranes, &€. That the Seed of Animals, whidi 
is a Sal Volatile Oleofum , and Things of that na- 
ure, as Onions, Garlkk, Rocket, Sives, Bears Gar^ 



oj Revear d. 14 ^ 

hck^ OjfierSj Cockles, Shallot, &c. do lb pleafe and 
tickle the Venereal Membranes^ and thereby excite 
Vemrj'^ and that fuch Things are generally fo 
very agreeable to the Stomach,^ ( with which we 
are mainly concerned;, as the Chief Judge of what 
is agreeable to the Animal) and lb main Ingre- 
dients of Relifics^ Sauces , &c. to render them 
pleafing to it. 

Here it is obvious to note^ ( what is alfo very 
commonly obferved ) That the moft pleafing 
Things to the Stomachy Venereal Aiemhranes^ Scc. 
have tbofe Frmdpks more ax^f ive warm , and 

ticklings than the Aden^hranes themielves^ becaufe 
• the fenjitive is highly pleafed with what fii^e- 
ly aduates, tickles, and caufb an Ovation of the 
Spiritiis irtfiti of the Adembranes. Flence bare 
Warmth is fo very pleafing, as are alfo gentle 
Fri^ions of the Head^ Back, 2cc. for the fame 

- J. The oily Parts fas all know) do pleafo the 
Feeling ( with which we have to do ) by their 
fmootli, gentle , and fofc touch. Thus Milk^ 
Emul/ions, and other Anodynes, as the Root and 
Flower of Water Lily, White Lily, 6CC, become 
agreeable to the Adembranes, and therefore relax 
and eafe Tain. Hence it is that all Aliments have 
an agreeable ‘Sweetneis , the Pleafure whereof 
takes off the grievous Senfation called Hunger. 

But the Pleafure of oily Parts, becaufe they do 
not fo aduace, flir, and titillate the Spiritus infiti, 
is but flat, flow, and dull, without they are joined 
with fome other Particles that are pkafing to the 
Adembranes , that aduate and finely titillate the 
Membranes, and SpHtus infiti; therefore to make 
them highly and charmingly pleafingj they fliould 
have join’d therewith, 

- L 3 zWola- 

150 The Myfteries 

2. Volatile Salt being a more aBlve agr^eahU 
Trmcifle^ which may finely ai\fl plcafingly eicite, 
actuate, tidllate, and caufe an Ovation in the 
Sftritt^s injiti^ as Onions^ &c. at Stomachy Sem, Ani- 
maU upon t!ie Venereal Membranes^ &c. 

But, as was faid of the Oily Farts, That they 
cannot caufe fb exalted a Plsafure without the 
Volatile Salt^ fo the Volatile Salt alone, or too 
little qualified, and fmoothM over with Oily 
Parts, is too rude, pungent, or acrimonious, a? 
in Cantharides, Bees, Fifmire, Afarabacca, Spear- 
'warty Crowsfoot, a.nd Other Vomitory Volatiles, which 
becomes fo by over-ftinging the Membranes, and 
ftirring the Spiritus inpti overmuch intp a fort of- 
Vary, inftead of an agreeable Ovation, 

It follows therefore. That it is neither Oily Farts 
alone, which if too much, often naufeates the 
Stomachy nor Volatile Salt alone, no nor every 
Mixture thereof, but a certain due Froportion of 
both, fb as to have the Volatile Salt fbmewhat 
more predominant than in our Mernbranes, that 
it may comfortably aEluate^ titillate, and excite 
our Spirits, as Warmth, Vrlcations, &‘c, do, muft 
caufe the moft charming and exalted Fleafure : For. 
Things ‘exadly of the fame degree of Oil and 
Volatile Salt, with our Membranes, can caufe but 4 
flow Senfation, becaufethey make little or no Alte- 
ration therein, which is one of the great Reqmjitet 
of Senfation ; for that which makes no Alteration^ 
ks the Saliva \nxht Mouth, hxnG degree Light 

that is in the Eye, of Sound as in xhtEar already, 
cannot be perceiv’d, becaufo where no 
is made, nothing can be perceiv’d, for the Organ 
is affeded but as it was before the ObjeU was of 
fer’d, and confequently we cannot perceive that 
any new thing was objeded, and therefore can- 
not be at all fcnfible thereof; fo if it makes bii? 

of Opium ReveatJ. 151 

a fmall Dif crjncey the Senfation can be but flow, 
and flight Proportionably, as of a little degree of 
Light more than is in the &c. for it is only 
that little that is perceived ; for (as is notorious 
to all who underlfand any Thing of thefe Mat- 
ters of Senfation) it is^ only the Excefs of Imprefion 
to what was upon the Organ before, that is per- 
ceived ; for that is all that is new above what was 
thereon before, and therefore ail that is to be, or 
can be perceived more than was before (as was 
faid. j Hence it is, that Flejh or other Things^ that 
have^- the Sd-Vulatile-Oleofumy or the lame Prin~ 
cifUs, that the Membranes of the Stomachy Vene- 
r^al Varts^ c^'r. have, in much the lame degree^ 
affed them but with a gentle Pleafure. There- 
fore we mdt have ftch a mixture wherein the 
Volatile Salt^ as in Semlne Animaliy Onions^ cVc. is 
lenfibly more adive than in our Membranes^ to 
sduate the Spirit us infiti of the Membranes^ and 
caule an Ovation therein, which is (as was laid 
of Comfortable Warmth^ Frications^ &c ) very 
agreeable and pleafant to the Senftive Soul^ who 
looks upon fuch as friendly and active Auxlliaiies 
to our Spirit Sy whereas the other are as Lizy 
Friends^ wherein he takes not the like Cojnpla^ 
cency ; You may perceive much of the Difference 
in this Cafe in Mufiums^ (or ntw ■ unfermented 
Wmes) which indeed do lazily pleafe by their 
acceptable fweetnefs, but do not fo atluate the Spi- 
ritus infiti as the fame Oily Parts when rendered 
aBive^ fpirituom^ and nearer the Nature of aBuil 
Heat after Fermentation • which then being very 
readily aduated by the Heat of the Stomachy do 
briskly and chearfuliy return the Kindnefs by a8u^ 
ating our Spirits^ and putting them into a pleafing 
Ovation^ of which I could give you a very pat 
and pregnant Inlfance in a Thing aduated into 
a v^ry high degree of pleafing by Frkation and 

L 4 Agita^ 

1 5 2 The Myfteries 

Azitation^ which was otherwiie almoft infenfible i 
bat Modefty forbids me. 

T^ote^ How the fluggifh Oily Parts in MuJ^umi 
^o, by being by .Fermentation^ as it 

were, fupply the place of Volatile Salt in aSlmt- 
V'lg^ and in feme meafiire titillating^ tho’ not to 
that high degree as the more poinant Volatile fait 
in Semine Virili^ and the like^ becaufe the Sulpha^ 
reous Oily Particles, however feparated, diigre- 
gated, and (et at at liberty by Fermentation^ re- 
tain much of their Imoothnefs, and never can 
arrive at the titillating Power of Volatile Salts^ as 
is evident in Amphrodlfiach upon the Account of 
Volatile Salts, as Cantharides, Bees, Pifmire, 
which Wine in loo times the quantity cannot e- 
qual in Titillation, 

Nor is it enough to have the Sal Volatile Oka. 
fum duely qualified, as to the Qiiantity and Quality 
of both the Oily and Saline Tarts, and thele pre- 
dominant, and of a fine brisk and gently tickling 
Adivity ^ 

But the Oleous and Salino Volatile Parts fhould 
(to make a compleat and permanent T/ea/er of 
the Memhrams J be very intimately combined, fo 
as not eafily to feparate one from the ocher, o- 
therwiie they will not duely confpire and co-ope- 
rate to caufe the Pleafire^ but the Volatile Salt will 
ad: feparately as (iich, that is irritating, and not 
finely and pleaftntly Tickling, as Semen Huma^ 
num, &c, wherein the Oil and Volatile Salt gre 
firmly join’d together. 

I therefore conclude. That the moft excellent 
Thing to plcafe the Membranes, muft be (uch as 
^smsn that is, not top Oily^ (for then 

of Oi^iximReTjearj. 153 

it would not fufficiently pleale by a fine TttiUa- 
tkn^ and aduating of our Spirits) nor too full of 
Volatile Salt^ as Mufard, Afarabacccty nor 
have too accrimonious a Volatile fait with too little 
Oleous Parts to corred: it, for in both thefe laft 
Cafes the Irritation would be grk'vous ; nor have 
the Oleous and Volatile loofely combined. But, 

That it fliould be a Sal Volatile Oleofum, where^ 
in the Volatile Parts are brisker^ and fomewhat more 
a&ive than ours^ yet fo corrected by Oleous Parts 
intimately combined therewith^ as to render it of a 
mojt agreeable and pleafant Titillation, fuch as would 
pleafe aU Membranes^ but efpecially thofe that have 
mo(t accute Senfation, as the Stomach, and Vene- 
real Membranes, (both which Opium moft fen- 
hbly pleafes) which are ordered fo to be for Pre- 
fervation of the Individuum^ and Species^ the one 
to invite us to Eat, and the other to Procreate • 
But to fetisfie you yet farther, as to the Stomach, 
which concerns us moftly. 

Note I. That the mofe evalted and intenfe the 
Pleafure is, the higher are its EfeQs upon the Sen^ 
fitive Soul in pleahng^ comforting, and elevating 
it ,• and upon the Body^ in relaxing all the Senfik 
Parts thereof, as that of fVim is higher than that 
of Mufium, dt'c. 

Note 2, That the better the is dilpofed 
for Senfation, the higher the Pleafure or Difpleafure 
is ; for he that has his Nofe, Hongite, Ear, Mem^ 
hranes, &c. ill dilpofed for Smelling, Tafiing, Hear^ 
ing^ Feeling, &c. has not fo much Pleafure in fweet 
Odours, good Tafies, Mufick, Pkafers of the Feel* 
ing, &c, nor fo much 'Difpleafure in bad Scent s^&c. 
It follows, 

154 The Myftmes 

. Note That cnjus eft Dolor ejufdem efi Folaptar^ 
that is, the Part or Membrane that is capable of 
intenfe Pleafure, is fo of intenfe Pain or Difpkafure, 
For Instance ^ If the Stomach be capable of great 
Grievances ^ it is fo of great Pleafurey God having 
diftributed them al(b equally. 

Note 4. That, fince the great Ufe^ End^ and 
Bufinefs of Senfation^ is to give notice^ and inform 
the Animal of what is, or is not good and a- 
greeable to it, it follows, diat the Wifdom that 
made us would place the moft exquifitely and 
critically dilpofed Organ (or Membrane) of Sen- 
fationy where fuch notice is moft requifite and ufe- 
ful ; and confequently there muft be more Pleafure 
or Difpleafure conceiv’d at Things agreeable or 
difagreeable , that the defcending and relieving 
Motions and Comfort y may be proportionable. 

Note 5. That luch exquifite, exadt, and nice 
Notice is moft requifite at Stomach, 

Firfiy Becaufe all our Nutriment, good and 
bad, is to pafs that Way to be Judged of. 

Secondly y Becaufe it is^che iaft Part that it ar- 
rives at before it receives a confiderable change ; 
for when it is changed, no fuch true and finceie 
Judgment can be given thereof, as could be be- 

Thirdly^ Becaufe the Faults, Defe(fts, or Negli- 
gences of the Tafley and the External Senfesy are 
to be remedied and correded there, or no where, 
therefore the Stomach is as the laft Judge of Ap,. 
fsaly and fhould be moft exad and infallible in 
Judging s qr as the laft inner, or Main Guard in a 
Forty Towny or Cafley which if the Enemy pafs^ 
the whole is endanger’d, if not loft. 

Fourthly y Becaufe the Concern being (b great, 
Senfation ftiould be the more exquifite there, to 
excite the Animal Powers to make Defence, by 

of opium Reveat d. 155 

repelling, rejeding, or detruding the Ummy^ 
which Vowen (as has been intimated) are excited 
according to the degreQ of Sensation ^ efpecially 
feeing there is no voluntary Vowzr^ or ContraBion 
of the Stomach.^ but only the Natural^ which is 
always excited by Senfation in fuch Cafes, or not 
at all. 

Fifthly, Senfation fhould be critical and accurate 
at Stomachy to inform us precifely when we fhould 
Eat or Drink. 

Sixthly^ To inform us exadly when we have 
Eaten or Drank enough ; for all this is done by 

Therefore God has placed a moil Senfile Mem. 
hrane at th^ Stomach.^ as moft manifeflly ap- 

Firfiy By its taking, and giving notice of (uch 
Minute Things^ that no Senfe, Tart^ Q gan^ Of 
Membrane can ; for it takes notice and informs 
the Senfitive Soul (as has been faid ) of the Vomi- 
tory Particles of the Crocus and Regulus of Anti- 
movy, which are fb indefinitely finall, that no o- 
ther Membrane or Organ of Senfation, but that at 
Stomachy can take notice thereof, becaufe the 
Crocus and Regulus^ after they have afforded 1000 
Fomits from their Bodies, are not fenfibly dimi- 
nifhed either in Weight ov Bulk'.^ nor doth the 
Stomach take and give a flight, but very remark- 
able notice thereof, that is fufficiently powerful to 
excite not only all the Natural Towers of the 
Part, and of all tlie Auxiliary Mufcles that ufeally 
afEft to Vomit ^ but to caufe a ContrafXion (and 
that very often ftrongly Convulfive) of all, or 
moft of the Mufcles.^ and Membranes of the whole 
Body, fo great is the Sway.^ or Regimen of the 
Stomachy by vertue of its exquijite fen^ility. 

15^ The Myfieries 

Secondly^ By its giving notice of inimicom Tar- 
ticlesy and very tenaious Effluvias^ that fiy in the 
Air^ which no Organ of Senfation^ or Membrane^ 
but that at Stomachy can oblerve. For Infiance^ 
Some that hate Cats very much, will know, that 
there is a Cat in the lame Room with them, tho’ 
lilent, and fiiut up in a Trunk or Cupboard^ where 
neither the Eye^ Ear, Nofe, Tafie, or immediate 
Feeling, can be at all concerned or affeded. 
That it is the Stomach that is affeded, is apparent, 
(tho’ a Thing not thought of ; J i. Becaufe the 
firfi notice they have is plainly at Stomach by a 
a kind of faint Dijhefs^ not unlike a beginning 
Naufea\ If. the Curious will enquire, they will 
find it to be as I fay. 2 . Becaufe all Perception of 
Material Things is by Senfation, and that it is 
evident no other Organ of Senfation^ or Membrane, 
is concerned. 5 . Becaufe, if the Cat continues 
in the Room, and is not removed, they.fall a 
Vomiting, or into A?sxieties or great Difir at 
Stomach, Or Paintings and Syncspes,^ which are the 
common and known Effeth of a grieved or op- 
preffed Stomachs 

Juft fo does it (tho’ thefe Things are not, or 
not duely obferved) take, and give notice of Pe^ 
fiilential Effluvias, which caufe the like Paintings, 
or a kind of Naufea sli Stomach •, Thus People 
dilcern that they are (as they call it) Plague (truck, 
and often fall (as in the Cafe of the Effluvias of 
the Cat ) into dangerous Deliquiums and Syncopes, 
of which many in Plague Times fuddenly dye, 
as Cat Haters would (for ought I know) if they 
continue long in the lame Room with a Cat, as 
they do with Pe fiilential Effluvias Therefore it 
were good prelently to remove them from the 
Plate wherein they were ftruck, becaufe the Air 
(as the Rpom wherein the Cjt is) is fill’d with the . 

of Opium ReveaPd. 157 

pernicious Particles ; for you fee in the Cafe of 
the Caty that removing the Man or the Cat gives 
Relief^ and it were better removing the but 
that he is more Cumberfom, becaufe the R^om 
IS already tainted with the Effluvlas^ and in the 
Cafe of the Vlague it is only the Perfon that can 
be well removed. This proves how ufeful Re- 
movals may be, and how convenient in Vlagu€ 
Time it would be to remove to the Wind fide of a 
Town or City that is tainted, -according ^ the 
Wind changes, and how convenient Winds are 
to convey away the Efflaviams^ and good Sto- 
machick Cordials, that are warm and pleafent, 
to fortifie the Stomachy and open the Tares^f which 
all Things ^at caufe a fenfe of Pleafare do, as 
Wke^ Spirits^ &c. to which if fomc good Prepa' 
ration of Opium were added, it would be moft 
convenient. How many Stories have we of Per- 
fons well fail’d with Wine^ who wonderfully 
efcaped InfeBion ; I pray God this Hint may be 
improv’d to the Prefervation pf Mankind ; There- 
fore I add, that much may be in a good Quantity 
of Wine in this Cafe \ i. Becaufe, Quod intus efi 
probibet alknum^ that is. What is within hinders in^ 
grefs of another Thing, 2. Becaufe the Perfpira* 
tion will be the greater, both upon the Account 
of the greater opening of the Pores by the Plea-. 
fure of the Wine., and the greater -Quantity of 
Matter to be perfpired carry off the ^enemom 
Particles. Senfiiive Soul is thereby 

much comforted, refrefhed, and invigorated ; 
but 1 would have the Wine fo ufed, as to keep a 
continual Warmth,^ Pleafure, and Comfort at Sto^ 
mach^ which is the main Caufe of all the good ; 
I think a Glafs every Hour, after taking 2 or 3 
at firfl, may hit the Mark beft, the Realbn of 
which will appear hereafter. 


158 The Myfteries 

Thirdly y The Stomach's ex^ui^te Difpo/ttion to 
Senfation^ above all ot\\Qt Organs and Membranes^ 
appears by this, ^iz,* That the Offences of the 
other Organs of Senfation (even by their proper 
OhejeUs) do often affec^l the Stomach more than 
thofe very Senfes or Organs themfelves. For In. 
fiance^ If we fmell a great Stench, the Stomach is 
often more offended thereat than the Nofe^ as is 
manifeff from the V omitings^ Paintings , and Deli, 
quiums that are caufed by the Stomach upon that. 
Account H fo the h^XQ Seeing^ Feelings znd Tafting 
of a nafty Thing, do caufe Naufeas^ &c. at Sto. 
mach^ yea^ the very naming of fuch Things has 
much offended it, and caufed fuch Efe^ls^ which 
may be thought very ffrange, confidering that 
there pafs no Effluvias from the found of Wordsy 
but the Rcafon will appear in the following Vara^ 

Fourthly^ All FaJJionSy Commotions^ and Pertur^ 
lationsy that happen in the Body, do often affed: 
the Stomachy and Ibmetimes fb grievoufly, as to 
caufe Naufeas^ Vomitings^ great Anxieties at Sto. 
ma'ch^ Faint ingSy &c. Thus Fear^ Terr our ^ Surprizes^ 
Anger, Griefs Pain in other Parts, d^c. caufing 
fome Motion in the Animal more than ordi- 
nary, (of which the Stomach being fenfible) do 
caufe the aforefaid Diffurbances *, Therefore it is 
no Wonder, if the Hearing one mention a Naffy 
Thing, which eaufes an Abhorrence, and the Mo- 
tions confequcnt thereunto, fhould (as was faid 
in the precedent Paragraph) caufe the nice Stomach 
to be offended. 

It is moft raanifeft from the Premifes, that no 
Organ or Membrane, Can compare with the Sto. 
mach, as to its exe^uifite Difpojition for 'Senfation • it 
follows then. 

of Opium Reveal’ cf. 15^ 

That Grievances or Fleafure at Stomach mufi have, 
the greater Effe^is j 

ic Becaufe the Intenfenefs of either will be 
proportionable to the Senfation, 

2. Becaufe the Towers of the Animal that are 
to defend it (which are ContraBions') are affeded 
according to xhQ Senfation^ and that it is there moft 
requifite lenfibly to afFed them. 

3. Becaufe what affeds the Stomach influences 
the whole Animal^ more than the Senfation of 
any other Part. 

4. Becaufe of the confiderable Stay that Things 
make at Stom^h to caufe Grievance or Tleafure^ 

' whereas that di Tleafare is generally very momen- 
tary in other Cafes. 

y. Becaufe^ being within the we carry 
our Fleafure or Grievance with us^ (as a Vade Me^ 
cum ) 'wherever we go^ and therefore^ 

6. It is a Fleafure^ &c, that cannot fb well be 
taken away from us, as that of the Tongue^ Ear^ 
Nofe^Eye^ S’c, may, by removing the OhjeBs • and 
therefore it remains with us in our very Skef^ as 
far as we are capable of Senfation at that Time, 
caufing pleafant Dreams^ &c. and fb agreeably 
entertaining us Sleeping or IVaUng^ when the Plea- 
fure of all the other Senfes fails us. Which will 
appear farther hereafter. 

The Fleafure at Stomach excells even that of 
Venery^ if npc in Intenfenefs^ yet in feverai other Re^ 
fpeBs^ viz,. 

I. Becaufe of its duration that of Venus being 
momentary.^ but that oi PVine at Stomach lafls a 
good while, and that of Opium many hours, ’cis 
therefore chat the EffeBs o{ chefe Two are more 
remarkable and taken notice of 

2* Be- 

1^0 The Myjlerm 

2. Becaufe, that at Stomach m^yhtcontimzA 
as long as we pleafe, by a new fnpply of Wine^ 
Opifim^ Cordials^ &c. 

3. Bccaufe it may be excited, when, and as 
often as we pleafe, if we have thofe Cordials at 

4. Becaule it is not attended with any Expence 
of Strength^ Deprejjion of Spirits^ as that of 
Veneryy but the quite contrary, vix,. with more 
Vigour Elevation of the Spirits^ &c. one being 
by Emiffiony and the other upon AdmiJJlon of what 
is agreeable. 

It is for the fever al Reafons contain’d in the Pre^ 
mifesy that the EffeBs of Grievance y as Hunger y ^c. 
or Pkafurcy are more confiderahle and remarkable 
at Stomachy and that Things agreeable thereto 
have, by way of Eminence^ gain’d the Name of 
Cordials ; That Wincy SpiritSy Opium, &c. do 
caufe a more permanent and notable Gaity, Plea, 
fantnefsy Good Humour ^ Serenity^ Promptitude, O- 
vation of the Spirits, (or Senfitive Soul) Bravery, 
Courage, Magnanimity, Euphory, or eafie under- 
going of Bufinefsy Relaxation^ with all its Efre(fl:s, 
as Deadneft of the Eye, Dilatation of the Papilla^ 
Terfpiration, §ic. which are hardly noted in other 
Jhort Pleafures, unlefe it be in that eminent (tho* 
fhort) one of Venus, which is a Pleafure of the 
fame fenfe of Feeling, as that of Opium and Wme 

Therefore pleafing the Stomach is one of the 
greateft Things to be regarded in the PraBke of 
Phyfck, to Comfort, Satisfie, or Compofe the 
Spirits ; by which Means I have often performed 
fuch Cures, that neither I, nor (I fuppofe) any 
other, could otherwife perform, namely, DejeBL 
ons of Appetite, Untoii^ardneft at Stomach, %co, 


of Opium Reveal* J. t6i 

Whert all the ordinary and ufaal Means have 
failed, by asking them what they nioftly defined 
or long’d for, and letting them have it *, or if 
they could hot tell of any Thittg that th^y long*d 
for, I have mentioned to them all the Relifiiihg 
Things that I coiild think of, and fuch as were 
grateful to the Stomach, till they faftenM upon 
fomewhat that they liked or fancied, arid then 
being given them, it generally had thedefired 

The Stomch is grieved (for it will concern us 
to know how, becaufe Opium f^c,) 

generally fpeakmg ; 

T . My Things hard of Digefiion^ M heavy Brtad^ 
H^ujhromsy R^nsi and fuch like. 

2, By Things acrimonious or pungent ; as Vortii-^ 
tOries of Afarabacca^ Gromdfil^ Squills^ &C, which 
abound with Volatile fah. 

3. By Things that fiick to the Stomachy which 
often caufe moft difmal and tedious Vomitings, 
and (when they fail to relieve, by rejecting the 
grieving Matter) Hiccoughs^ Anxieties^ 'DidreJJ'es.^ 
Syncopes, and fbmetirncs fatal Succumbencks^ fea- 
ture and all Endeavour failing to Work any farther 
for the AnimaPs Relief ; Thefe Things happen 
moft commonly when indigefiible Rofirt ftieks to 
the Stomachy elpeciaily if they be Join’d with 
any Fmgent, Volatile J or Acrimoniom F ankles. 
Hence it is, that Rejinom Vomits are quite bani/h’d 
out of the VraBice of Thjfick^ and it were well 
if Ref nous Purgets were fo allb, efpecially fiich as 
have confiderable Acrimony^ unlels given with the 
Telk of an Egg, Lixivials, or in TinBures, with 
Spirituous Things to keep the Refinous Particles from 
Code feme ^ and adhering to ih^itomach^ &c, 

T. Note^ 


i 62 The Myfieries 

1. Note^ (for we fhall have (bme Occafion for 
it) That Refinous Things, join’d with Volatile ir- 
ritating V articles^ have all the ill Qualities afore- 
mentioned, 'vi'Z^. Hardnefs of Digefion^ Aftitude 
to fiick to the Stomachy and Volatile Particles to 
irritate and tear its Coats all the timexhty fo ftick 
to it ; and therefore fuch Things have difinal 

efpecially in weak Stomachs that cannot 
E>igefi them. 

2. I^ote^ That the Difireffes at Stomachy cauled by 
a grievous Senfationy are of Two forts \ i . Such as 
are the Endeavours of NaturCy or the Senjitive 
Souly in Defence of the Animaly as all VomitingSy 
EurgingSy ConvuJfionSy Hiccoughsy Throws^ Strugs 
glingSy Agitationsy ContraSlionSy Watchings^ 0*c, 
which are accompanied with Melancholy y Fretful^ 
fte/sy ill Humour y (frc. becaufe of the Grievance. 
2. Such as follow the Yielding and Succumbency 
of Nature, or the Senjitive Souly after being tired 
and over-born by the Fatigue of Defenfive Con» 
traBion j as Faint ingSy DiJlreJJeSy Agonies y Syncope Sy 
and Leipothymies. 

Note y'ThgiX Syncope Sy ov LeipothymieSy are caufed 
by the Senjitive Sours being over-born, (as was 
faid) tired, and (pent, and giving over his fruit* 
lefi Contra&ionSy J^efenfivey and V tgilativCy upon a 
fudden, as being to no Purpojey as he does gently 
and gradually give over Vigilative Contrahion to 
caufe Sleep ; fb chat Syncopes are only greater, 
fcddener, and more abfolute DereliHions of the - 
whole Concern of ContraBions x Hence it is, that 
Verfpiration is greater in Syncopes or Leipothymiej 
than in Sleepy the LaAtj of the Cornea and the 
whole Body greater, the Feeling lefe, or quite 
gone, that all Motions become much flower, or 
none, by the want of Comprejfwn of the Animal 
Spirit Sy and difinal Derel'Mions of all Contractions by 
the Senjitive Soul. Hence it is, that all the EfFeds of 
" Skep are yet greater in Syncopes, 4. Note^ 

of opium 'keveafd, 1 

4 . 'Note^ That therefora it ieems^ all th 6 Differ 
fence between Sleef^ and a Leifothymy^ is, that iri 
this the Senptive Soul quite throws the Reins of 
ContraBions gLWSLji and in Sleep keeps hold thereof^ 
and only lets them loofe^ and as Refc&hn is made^ 
flraightens them more arid more, till they come 
to the Degree of Vtgilative Co^rattiony which per* 
fedly awakes them ; Therefore Sleep grows 
flighter fcward Morning, becatufe Contrarian gra- 
dually comes on. Here you may fee (but I rhuR 
ftop left 1 run tod far) why every Thing that 
eaufes Contrarian of the Senfile Parts, as Painy and 
all Grievances^ are apt to awake People, and keep 
them lb, as ^elaxers caufe Sleepy and continue 

f. JSlotCy That tho’ 1 have particularly Ipokeri 
of the Somachy as being moft eoncernM, and the 
beft Example of any Membrane, yet do not J ex- 
clude any Membrane from being capable of Pleas 
fure by the like Things^ 

As for the Eff’ers of Pkafure upon the Script iv^ 
Souly I have upon feveral Oecafions laid, dr in* 
timated enough concerning them ^ and even the 
f^ulgar know, that Pleafurcy Or being pleafed, 
makes People good, and gay humour'd ; That it 
elevates the Spirits, raifing Courage, (as Wine 
does) and enables every Animal to Labour, or 
Travel the better, as Horfes by the Sound of 
Bells ^ efpecially if tunable, and in Company with 
another Horfe that they have a kindneff for ; How 
Soldiers March more eafily with Merry Comrades^ 
that are full of Jefis, and fk^fant Storks, Or with 
DruJ^s, Jrumpets, Kettle Drums, Hautboys^ and ^ 
Other Mtipck that p^afe the Ear } Hov/ niiich 
niore brisk and blith are we in a fair Stmihine.^ 
which pleafes the Eye, than at other times ? Some 
think, (according to the Vulgar Errour) that it 

M a is 

1^4 Myfteries 

h the Goodmfs of the Air does it ; but it is plainly 
otherwife, for you find the change moft remark- 
able in your lelf juft upon going out of Doors into 
the Sun-fhine^ whereas you bad tlie lame in 
your Chamber ; nor is that fine Lightnefs of Hu^ 
mour to be founds if it be Cloudy, tho^ the Air be 
better, as may be obferv’d by the Barometer, and 
other JVeatherXjlajfes *, nor .in the Night Time, nor 
where the Sun does not come, nor are blind 
People fo affected, therefore it is thi^ Vkafurcoi 
the bright Sunfinne that caufes it 

If Mean, Slight, Tranfient, and External Plea^ 
fures, caufe fuch Effects ^ how much more then 
will an intenfe, internal, and continued Pleafure, 
upon the moft exquifitely difpofed Part for Sen- 
fation of all the whole Bodj, which is mainly de- 
lign’d for thofe Purpoles of Pleafing and Cohort- 
ing, to invite us to nourilh our lelves, and to fa- 
tisfie the grievous Senfations of Hunger and Thirjt 
by the Pleafure of Meat and Drink, fuch Plealant 
Effecfts ? Thus the Fretfulnep^ Peevijhnefs, ill Hu^ 
mour. Melancholy, PuJiUanimity, Inaptitude, and Lifi- 
nefnefs, that attend the grievous Senfation of Hun^ 
ger, are taken off, and cured, by the pleafant Sen* 
fation that a good Meal, or fome Glajfes of PPsne, 
do caufe ; Hence it is that we cannot Sleep when 
Hungry, l>ecaufe grievous Senfation contrails the 
Senlile Parts, and arc apt to it after Meals (the 
Plealiire of which relaxes' us) if we fit, or lie 
quietly, and filently ; but if we do not, we are 
more lively, and fit for Bufinefe htftances of thk 
Kind are fo numerous and notorious, that I need 
lay no more of the E^e^s of Pleajure, in caufing 
a good Humonr, Elevation of the Spirits, SatisfaCli- 
on. Content, Compofure, &C9 

■ h 


o/ Opium ReveaFcl. 1^5 

Is it poQSble that one fhould be highly pleafeJ^ 
and not take Comfort therein ; take Comfort^ and 
not be elevated in Spirit ^ well (atisfied, and COH' 
tented ? 

Therefore it is firan^re^ and very firange^ that 
People fhould leave IVme^ Cordials^ Meats^ Spi- 
rits, &c, adually^ and fenfibly pleafing, (atisfying, 
and comforting us at Stomach, (where there is a 
Membrane moft exquificely difpofed for SenfatioH) 
and run after Fumes and Effluvias, (chat were 
never in our Cafe in being) to Brain, or 
Bfoud, that have no fenfe to entertain them, and 
confequently can receive no fenfible Comfort by 
them ; If tlil^be not feeking a Needle in a Bottle 
of Ha/, where it never was, when it flicks moft 
fenfibly in their Fingers, nothing is. We fhould 
think it a ftrange ridiculous ABion in a Child or 
Natural Fool ^ but great is the Vrivilege and Au» 
thority of the Learned ! So much may fiiffice as 
to the Effects of Pleafiire upon the Senfitive Soul, 

As for the EffeSls of Tkafure upon the . Body^ 
it is Relaxation of all the Senfle Farts thereof, as 
appears ; 

1. Becaufe it’s contrary, viz, Dlfpleafure, or 
fenfitive Grievance, caufes ContraBion, ( as has been 
manifeflly fhewn.) 

2. Becaufe it caufes a liberal Verfpiration, which 
is a certain EjfeB of Relaxation, fas the Want of 
it is of ConfriBion ) and that it caufes Perfpiration 
is moft certain by Statick Experiments, and Demon- 
^rations, SanBorius, SeB. 7. Aph, 1 9. &'c, 

3. Becaufe the Pleafure of JVme, and the Fene- 
real AB, manifeftly loofens all the Limbs, as 
Sleep does. 

the Myfieries 

4* BecauJe, that in thofe Pleafitres^ as alfo upoi^ 
the fight of a Beloved Miltref^ &c. the Ej/es 
look deadi^h^ by reafon of the Laxity of the Cor^ 
nea^ and that the VufiUa is dilated. 

f. The Skin (as has been intimated) looks 
tlorid^ which made the 4ncietfts (ay. That the 
Bloud and Spirits caine outward to meet the good 
and agreeable Things. 

6 . Becaufe airP/^^y»re that is conliftent with 

lying or fitting fiill in a filent ^uiet manner, in^ 
Clines us to as ld»fck, pleafant Frication of 

the Head^ Backy or any itching Party fweet and 
acceptable Odours^ a Thing pf 'very acceptable 
tide held in the Mouthy Wine^ Moats^ Kww, the 

fleafant found of the fall of fFdters, Whirling Windsy 
J^ocking^ Undulating in Hammocks^ ^c. 

7. Becaufe in Qoition it relaxes the Neck of the 

Wornh to admit the Animal Elixir Vita: 5 of which 
we have pioft evident Proofs and fovnQ eminent 
infancesy that 1 forb'eaf the Relation of out of 
Modedy. ‘ - ^ 

S. Pleafure paufes a large and wide a^ 
Relaxation always does. ' ' ' 

p. A Lofs or great Dirpjnution of Senfation, 
as in the Venereal (which if it w^ere of con., 
dnuance, would exaftly imitate Opium in its PS- 
feds) upon Drinking Winey the Effeds of 
which being of greater duration y and by taking 
(pmewhat into the Stomaph, fas upturn is) are 
very like that pf Qpium. ^ " 

10, IntonfQ ' PUafure^ Joyy do frequently 
caufe RefiafieSy Syncopesy feipothymtesy which are 
pnly gr eat Relaxations (as ha^been (hewn.) 

I I. You iee that the Pleafure pf Wine caufes 
faltring of the Tongue^ which is the Effed of Rel* 
lastationy as in Slesp^ and rela:^es thf 

Vf^leBody,'^ ^ . . v-' ^ 

o/ opium Reveatd. 1^7 

12. Wine alfo prevents La(ficude, /as all plea- 
fanc Diver fions do) and caules all the Ef.hi of 
Relaxation^ as taking away Valn^ caufing a Dead-- 
nefs of the Eyes^ Dilatation of the Papilla^ Fiori- 
dity of the Skin^ Perfpiration^ Diminution of Sen- 
fat ion, Mirth, good Humour, Sleep, &‘c. 

Note, That Pleafure being generally from Ex- 
ternal Obje^s, and alfo ftort, flight, and tranfi- 
tory, is the true Reafon of the great Penury of 
Things that bear any compleat Analogy to Opium 
in its great Effects, which made it (eem more amax- 
ing, and confound People; whereas all the Dffl<^ 
rence is nothing but its cauflng an internal, in» 
tenfi, and permanent Pleafure : All Pleafures have 
the fame EjpMi, but that they are ftort, flighr^^ 
fading, external, inoonfidcrable, intermitting, in- 
terrupted by fome grievous Objects, thoughts, Paf 
fans, as Fear, Care, Solicitude, Melancholy, 
but the Pleafure of Opium we carry within us con- 
tinually, whether we will or no, waking and 
fleeping, without any intermifSon or interruption, 
and that in a high degree for many hours. 

Doubtlefi that of Fenus, if it were half as lad- 
ing, would be as dangerous as that of a great 
Do(e of Opium, or Wine drank in a vaft C^an- 
tity, which is in a manner as dangerous as O- 
fium, and for the fame Reafon, vixj^ by over- 
doling, a great Relaxer by the Pleafure itcaufes. 

The Caules why the Pleafure of the Venereal 
aict, as a large Dfe of Wine, Opium, &c, take 
away Pain, are ; 

I. Becaufe the Senfitive Soul cannot attend to 
Two Things at once ; therefore when a Senle of 
Pleafure is introduced, there cannot be at the 
fame time a Senfe of Pain, which tho’ not noted 
in ffort, tranfant, and defultory Pleafures, (as al- 
moft all are befides that of Wine and Opium ) yet 
the more permanent do exad oni; Notice and Jt^ 

M 4 tenHoh^ 

the Myjierie$ 

tmtion^ becaufe they exclude Pain for fb confider- 
able a” time that they ama^e us. 

2. Becaufe the Sevfitive Soul attends more wil- 
jingly to Pleafure than to faftty fo that Pleafure 
ehgrofles his Attenudn (as was intimated.) 

’3. Becaufe Pleafure and ^ain (or Di/pleafure) 
are Contraries, and cannot co-exift in the fame 
Subje< 5 i: (or Senjhi'ue Soul \ ) therefore when Plea-^ 
fure affects it. Pain cannot. 

4. Becaufe Relaxation ( which is t\iQ Mechanical 
and main Reafon ) gives fuch Liberty to' the Ani- 
mal Spirits to expand, that they become unfit for 
want of CorhprelTure; to convey any Imprefliohs 
fmartly, which is requifite to caufe a fenfe of Pain, 
that is cauled by a (mart Imprejjlon, To which 
you may add, That 

5. Pleafure and Relaxation, where they conti- 

nue, (as in the Cafe pf jhne and Opium) do 
highly improve one another, becaufe they mu- 
tually caufe one ' another » for Pleafure caufes 
Relaxation^ and R^elaxation^ as you find in a fweet 
S jjmber, &c, Pleafure ; fo that permanent Pleafure 
rfiuft highly advance Relaxation, which takes away 
Pain by preventing all fmartnefs ot hnfrejjlonhy 
the now yielding Natun of the expanded Animal 
Spirits, which are, as Air in a Gut half full, or a 
Jlowl of Carded Gotten ov' WooU, fit only to carry 
a 'gentle of no Imprefliorj to the farther 
thereof. ‘ ' 

' So that upon the giving of Opium when the 
PAn does once begin to diminifli, it is not long 
aft^rvvard before it goes q\iite off; for if the Plea, 
fur'edoes but take off one in ten of the Pain, it is a 
fign, that it vvi'li be an eafie niatter for it (that is, 
h'pon the Improvement for the Rcafons aforefaid) to 
pvercpme one in nine-! and yet much eafier to over-' 
ct)me one in eight, and fb on; Therefore itk a 
Certain tnat you have given enough to take 
. ‘ away 

. of Opium Reveard. 169 

away the Tain^ if it once fenfibly dccreafes ; and 
conlequently all Vhyfidans Ihould then net givea^ 
more Opium, tho’ the Fain is not yet quite off; 
For if the Relaxation^ caufed by Fleafant Senfation, 
was of force enough to overcome the greater 
Contradion by the greater Fain^ which oppofed 
it more ftrongly* it will fuffice to overcome the 
le(s. This intimates^ (and ’tis Experienc’d) that; 
jpofes muft be proportioned to the Fain for tho’ 
a few Qlaffes of U^ne m^y take off the (enfe of a 
fmall Fain^ more muft be drank to take off a 
greater; and Fo Opium ^ becaule tliQ Contradion 
by Fain refills the Relaxation by P lea fur e. 

Having Ihe^n how Sleep and Fleafure take a^' 
way Fain by Relaxation^ permitting rhe Animal 
Spirits to expand,, and grow unfit to carry /w- 
prejjions finartly, and that therefore Sleep flops or 
moderates all Fluxes that depend upon hritation 
pf the fenfile Farts to caufe them to Contraefi; 
and fqueefe out the Humours that caufe the Flux^ 
whie the fame Relaxation opens the Fores^ and fo 
lets out the Fumes of the Body, which only (like 
Smoak in a Chirpney) require an openPaflagC 
by reafbn of their Le'vity which carries them off; 
it plainly appears how Fleafure^ that takes away 
the fenfe of Fain or Irritations by the like Relaxa. 
tion^ muff ffop the firff fort of Fluxes^ that require 
the Irritations to contra^ the Paris^ and promote 
that of Ferfpirationy (as iq Sleep) which requires 
only the opening of the Fores f fo th^t I need add 
ho more Words about it, for the fame Caufe muft 
have' the fame therefore an intenfe and per^^ 
manent Fleafure muff have all, or much of the 
EffeHs of Sleep in general (as has been fhewn : ) 
It cannot therefore be any Wonder that Opium 
caufes Sleep. Yet is there Difference between 
Sleep and Fleafure upon other Accounts, tho*^ 


1 70 The Mjifteries 

not upon the Account of Relaxation^ viz,, be- 
caufe ; 

L That Sleep requires alfo a reft of Spirits^ (or 
the fenfidve Soul) whereas Relaxation by F leaf ure 
is confiftenc with motion of the Spirit, either by 
outward A^ion^ or internal motion thereof, by fome 
inward Csufes. Hence it is ; 

Firfi,f That we can Labour ^ Travel^ Dance^ &c. 
and enjoy Fleafure and its Relaxation: Voluntary 
motion,^ which requires only a particular Contractu 
on of fome Parts by the Dictates of the Ifill or 
Appetite^ being COnfiftent with the general Relaxa^ 
Sion by Reafon of the Prerogative of the IViU. 
Thus do we move, tho’ more relaxed, or when 
moft Merry and pleafed with Wine ; nay,- fome 
will walk in their Sleeps (when extreamly intent 
upon a Thing) as when awake ; which ihews 
the ruling Power of intentive Contraction^ that may 
be exercifed with Relaxations and other Contractu 
ons as the Will it felf may, or intentive Appetite. 

Secondly^ That Fain is often taken away by O. 
fium by the Diverfion and Relaxation caufed by 
Pleafure^ and its Inconfiftence with Painy without 
Sleepy which requires the aforelaid Rcfi ^ That 
bare Relaxation^ as fuch, does not include, tho* 
Relaxation fuffices to take away Fain, 

Thirdlyy That Opium does by its Heaty active 
Particles^ &c, hinder fome Perfons to Sleep, yet 
have you in both thcfo laft Cafes all other Effects 
of Opi^nty as Pleafurgy IndolencCy Relaxations y FsLQ, 
which fliews how far Sleep is from being a com 
fianty and the moft genuine Effect of Opiunty as is 
generally imagined ; however we muft allow it 
(as has been fhcwn) to be a mighty Difpofer of 
us towards Sleepy becauie 6f the Relaxation that it 
caufesi which is the main Requijite of Sleep. 

II That 

cf Opium ReveaP d. 17 1 

n. That Vleafure does, without Nutritive Re^ 
feEiion^ by the Complacency it caufes in the fen- 
fa ive Souly produce Comfort ^ Satxsfa^ion^ Compo^ 
JurCy Elevation of the Spirits^ Euphorjfy of 
which Sleep is either not at all capaWe, or but 
in a low degreey proportionable to the fenfation 
that it has, which is but little ; however a Flea* 
fure that remains within us, even in our Sleep, as 
that of Opium, may well cau(e Pleafant Dreams^ 

The Reader may ohferve , that in all Tlaces, 
where I mention, that Relaxation caules the open- 
ing of the Fores, that I fpeak only of Perjpiration^ 
as the EffeB the;^f, without mentioning Sweat, 

!• Becau^ Verfpiration is the only conjtant ZTli 
infaUihle EffcB thereof, by reafon that the Levity 
of the Fumes caufes them as certainly to pals at 
the Fores \ybcn open, as Smoak palTes up at an 
open Chimney. 

2. Becaule Sweat is an uncertain EffeB thereof^ 
for it requires that the Body be well filfd with 
moifture, tho’ there is a Relaxation or Opening of 
the Fores • as Hippocrates very rightly intimates 
in that Apborifm of his that I cited in the lalt 
Chapter. 1. Becaufe Sweat has not that Levity 
that the Fumes have, to caufe it readily to mov^ 
as (bon as the Fores are open, 2^ Becaufe Re* 
taxation is more apt to receive, detain y md fufpend 
Humours. 5, Becaufe the procrufiye Motion qf the 
Heart is weaker in all Relaxations-, and all fee 
how much its Vigorous frotrufon contributes to 
Sweat upon ABioh, 4. Becaufe a, Heartfull of 
Bloud does not make fuch a Fujh forward when 
the Arteries are widen’d by Relaxation, f. Sweat 
^vingmoreof Continuity, Confiftencc, and Vife 
ddicy^ cannot flqw out lb readily at thePgre^ ^ 
" ' ^ 

17 ® The Myfieries 

a meer Vapour. However, if the Body fae fulf 
of Moifiure^ and the Pores open, there being a 
Natural Courfe that JVay^ and the Heart conti- 
nually protruding it farther and farther, a Sweat 
follows, and that whether they Sleep or not. 

3 . Becaufe Sweat (as was in Ibme fort intima- 
ted) is fometimes caufcd by the firong Protrufion 
of the Heart, as in MotiotSy &c. and upon that 
Account comes more under the Title of Fluxes 
cauled by ContraBiony than Relaxation, of which 
Ferfpiration is a conftant EIFed^. 

4, Becaufe Sweat is fometimes cauled by ano- 
ther fort of ContraBion, 'viz». the Comprejlon of 
the whole Body by a violent Defevfive ContraBion, 
as in great Terroury Agonies, and the like j cauling 
thereby (as was fhewn) by the G^parifon of 
a wet Sheet wrung, (whole out fide is cold) a 
cold Sweaty which that of Alum or Vitriol, cauf- 
ing an Exudation of the Spittle into the Mouth 
by conftringing the Parts, does illuftrate ver> 

Therefore you fee I had juft Caufo not to 
mention Sweat as a certain and proper EffeB of 
Relaxationy without good 'DifiinBions firft made j 
tho* unwary Authors that talk any Thing one 
after another, not knowing what they lay, make 
it their common faying. That Sleep and Opium 
flops all Fluxes but Sweat , whereas they Ihould 
have rather laid, but Ferfpiration ; for Opium and 
Sleep alfo will fometimes hinder Sweat, that 
from Fainy Terroury &c, and that as happens juft 
upon awaking by the ftronger Syfi^k of the Heart, 
and ContraBion of the whole Body, and that alfo 
upon motion, unlcfs the Body be (as was laid) 
full of Humoursy or Moifture. Therefore it is a 
Vulgar Errour to lay Sweat ioftead of Ferfpiration 
inthcCafeaforcfeid . 

ofO^iximReveaPd. 175 

You may remember, that in the Beginning of 
this Chaffer I concluded, that a SaLVolatileX>leofunt^ 
^fiich as Semen Humanum^ wherein the Oily and 
Volatile Tarts are ftri(5tly combined, and the Vo^ 
latik Ibmewhat more amve (or acrimonious than 
that in our Membranes in general, muft be molt 
pleafing to the Membranes by a ^ntTitillation^&c, 
therefore if Ofium Ihould prove to be (uch, 
we need not wonder at its titillating to Venery^ 
nor indeed its caufing a high fenle of Fleafure 
upon any Membrane, (they being all of the feme 
Nature) but eljDecially upon the moft exquifitely 
difpofed Membrane of the Stomach, and the Ve* 
nereal Tarts, nor confequently its caufing all the 
aforementioneji^Ejfe^i intense Tleafure, as Com» 
fort, SatisfaBion, Ovation, &c, of the fenfitive 
Soul, (or Spirits) and Relaxation of all the fenfle 
Parts ; which will eafily Iblve all the Thenomenas 
of Opium, however numerous, myfterious, and 
, feemingly contradiftory, as you’ll find. 

Let us therefore now lee, "whether Opium he 
fucb a Sal-Volatile-Oleofum, wherein the Volatile 
Particles are fomewhat more aBive or acrimonious 
than OUTS', and the Oily and Volatile Parts firiBly 
combined ? If fo, the Bufinejs is done, the Nail is 
hit on the Head, and I may fay "'Bvferj. 



1 74 The Myfteries 

C H A P. XV. 

Shewt vphat are the Principles of Opium, and 
which caufe the good and had EffeSs 

H Aving tried (if not tired) youf Patienccy 
and prcmifed what 1 thought neceffary in 
the foregoing Cbafters^l now reaffume the Thread 
of my Dffcourfe* 

for the pafive Trincifles of Opium ^ which do 
Ot fignific little or nothings we need not be foli- 
citous, only tell you that it has much of Earth and 
tFater in it, and more or lefs of that according to 
its Poulnefsy and of this according to its Moifnefs 
or Drtnefs j and that it always has more Water in 
it in moif Weather^ for I never knew any Thing 
fo apt to take in moilhire, and to alter accord- 
ingly in its fubfance^ (tho* not in 'vertue) info- 
much, that I have ufod it as an Indicator of the 
Weather y and it never fails to fhew the degree of 
moifiure in tlie if it be kept in a convenient 
Place, where Acddents, as the Sun^ Fire^ &c, 
may not alter the Cafe, and always in the fame 

Our Bufinefs therefore being to e|||bre after 
the adive Principles of Opium, I ihall^pfceed in 
this Plain arri Natural Method, Tlhall En- 
quire ; 

I, Which are the predominant active Principles of 
Opium ? And how combined, &c, 

a. Which 

Reveard. 175 

2. Which of them freduce tbe^ood and laudahlt 
Effebs of Opium 7 ^nd why I 

$. Which of them froduce its iU Effe^s ? j4nd 
why ? 

I. As CO ks tiSive Trincipks which are fredomU 

Eirfi^ It manifeftly appears. That Opium is 
highly impregnated with Volatik 

I. By its hiting,f and pungent Tafie, which is 
the certain Ejfdl of Volatile Salt ; as in Mufiard^ 
Horfe^RadiJhy "^Crejfes^ Arum^' (or Wake Robin) 
Scurvigrafsy Rochet ^ Spearwort, Crowsfoot^ SquiUs^ 
Radijh^ Arfmarty Onions^ Garlicky and very many 
Plants of the fame Kindy which have their biting 
and pungent Tafie (as all know and allow) from 
their Volatile Salt ; and fo have all Plants of the 
like Tafte^ which are therefore commonly eftccm’d 
to be Antifcorbuticks, 

a. By its rank and vehement Smelly being fuch^ 
as is by the common Confent of the Learned 
always attributed to Volatile Salt alone, or join’d 
with fome Oily Tarts, as the fhiell of Semen Virile^ 
(to which I take that of Opium to be moft like) 
of burnt Hoofs, Horns, Skins, Membranes, 
Garlick, Onions, Rocket, Tifmire, Soot,d^c. 

5. By its ready Difolution in IVater^ moifi Air, 
&c, which muft be from its Volatile Salt, becaufe 
it has very little Fixed Salt, and becaufe Volatile 
Salt is the moft diflblvable Salt that is in Vege- 
tables before they have paffed the Fire. 

4. By its Dijfolution in Spirit of Wine, which 
Volatile Salts are nibre apt to do than Fixed Salts; 
and this is one Reafon why it is fo apt to diflblve 
III all Menfr^ums , elpedally the Three main 


The Myfteriei 

ones, 'vlzi The fVatery^ the Salino-Volatlley (as 
Sprit of Salt Ammoniac, Spirit of Harts-Horn^&c,') 
and the Spirituo-Salphureous, as Spirit of IVinCy 
Brandy, &c. in which lafl: Things its Sulphur that 
is join’d with the Volatile Salt, doth much help it 
to diffolve* 

y. By its inciding and difcujjing Quality, when 
externally applied *, which Qualities muft be attri- 
buted to \ts Volatile Salt, it having no Other Prin- 
ciple that can cau(e thofe Qualities^ efpecially in 
that eminent degree as Opium has them, and fee- 
ing it is not a Thing that has undergone 
tation, as Vinous Spirits, and that it has but one 
in 32 of the Fixed Salt in its Mafs, asthemoft 
Excellent Dr. Creiv proves. 

6. By its refolving Quality, being externally ap- 
plied ; for Refolution is caufed by foch Parts as 
eafily penetrate and mix with our Skin, Flcfh, 
and fuch as do fb muft be of like aTlive Principles 
with our Parts ^ for all know, that eafinefs of mix^ 
ture is by likeneft of Parts, and the aSiive Prin- 
ciples of our Skin, Flejh, &c, are Volatile Salt^ 
join’d with fome Oily Particles, (as has been laid O 
Therefore Opium muft have (iich Principles to be 
lb great a Refoher. Hence it is, That Gum Am- 
montacum. Hemlock, and feveral Gums^ Plants, 
that are laturated with Volatile Salts, are fuch good 
Refolvers* but it is worth a very particular Re- 
mark, That all Narcotick Plants are very eminent^ 
yea, the very beft Refolvers of bard Tumors, and 
the like, as Solanum lethale, (or deadly Night- 
fhade) Hemlock, Henbane, Mandrake * and the 
more Narcotick they are, the more Refolving, 

(which is but a ftronger fort of Refomtion of Parts ;) 
which the beft and ftrongeft Opium that is ga- 
thered by Drops out of the Incifions of the 
Poppies Heads, (as Authors tefifie) and the beft 

of opium Ret/eaFc/. i 77 

Wc havd (as Ibme lay) will do upon very tender 
Skins^ or at Icaft rubify, ^ MujL^rJ^ &c. will; 
which mofl: evidently proves its Folatfk sJt ; for 
all Bliferers’^ aS Cantharides^ tifmire^ Crowifdot^ 
Speam/ortj Garlkk, &c. do it Upon the Account 
ol their Volatile Sak^ unlels it be LexiviJs which 
have paffed the Fire, which Opium has not. 

8. Its offending the Eyes, as Onions^ Muftardi 
&c. do, when it is applied thereto, argues its 
Volatile Salt. 

NotCy That the very beft Opium y as the Turks^ 
Aiaftacby d^c. does caule this Effed: moft of all^ 
which manifeftiy proves, that the Vertue of Opium 
does mainly depend upon Volatile Salt ^ which is 
moft certainly the Caufe of that EffeSl of exuke- 
ratings (or hlifiering) as all do allow ill Thing% 
that have not paffed the Fire. 

9. Its ffilothrick Quality p*roVes the fame, for 
it caufes the Hair to fall by the lame Principles, 

10. Its eminent Tit illation to Venerjy as Cantha^ 
rides^ BeeSy Pifmirey Sem. Virile y Garlicky Onions^ 
Leeks y Horfe RadijJiy Mufiardy Rochet ^ Bafily Oijiersy 
Bears Garlicky Grows Garlicky &c. do moft ihfaU 
libly argue the Abundance of its. Volatile Salty by 
which thofe Things, and all other Plants that 
have much Volatile Salty excite to Vemry, 

11. Its Aptitude to evaporate and flie aWay, 
argues its Volatility. 

12. Its caufing a Tickling y and Itching inthe 5 &«, 
does moft directly prove the lame ; nor does ariy 
Thing that is taken inwardly caufe it more : it 
muft have a very Titillating Volatile Salty that will, 
in lb fmall a Quantity as Opium is ufually taken, 
caufe luch violent Itchings fas it does) in the Skin, 
after it has paffed all DigejHons and Concoctions, 


13. Its 

ijt TheM^eries 

13. Its Blttervefs proves the lame : For the Cn» 

rious and moft Pcifpieacious Dr. Grew lays, Thae 
Bitterneft proceeds from Sulphur well mpreg^ 
Tiated with alcaline or acid Salt ^ackled with Earth 
but it is certain, that it is not an acid in Opium^ 
for the Rea fins given, and to be added.. 

He allb lays, 7bat when Sulphur and the Alcaline 
are more equal ^ thej produce a tawny colour * and 
Opium rudely torn is ta^vny^ till the Air alters it. 
All which Sylvius confirms, where he lays, Bran. 
Med. L, 11 . C^p. XXV I. 80, Omnia amara volatili 
fale abundant^ ad quod conjbituendum oleum quoque 
concurrit^ five Sulphur, That is, AH hkter Things 
abound with Volatile Salt^ to confiitute which Oil ( or 
Sulphur) concurs^ I cannot ehufe (tho’ I do not 
much depend upon Authority in the general) but 
value the Afleitions of fueh Men, by way of 
Concurrence at leaft. 

14. - The Acrimonious Sweats that itcaules, proves 
the lame. 

I It is allb Diureticky as, and after the fame 
manner with Cantharides^ Bees^ Fifmire^ Millepedes^ 
Scurvygrafs^ Horfie Radijhy &c. that is, by Titilla^ 
tion upom die Account of the Volatile Salt^ which- 
appears by its exciting to Venery at the fame time, 
as all thole Volatiles do. 

1 6. Its caufing Vomitings ( as it often does) is^ 
an undoubted' fign of its Volatile Salfy for all Ve,, 
getahle Vomits are Uch upon that Account, unlefs 
k be fuch as may move Vomiting meerly by 
their being loathed, or naufeated, which only 
caufe Ibme particular Perfons to Vomit ; butfucb 
as are confiant Vomitories are fo upon the Account 
of their Volatile falt^ as Afarahoceay Groundfil^ Fox<» 
fiovesy Squills given in a fufficient Quantity. 

‘ 17. Its lively Effebls^ as Courage, &c^ prove the 

< ■ 

i8. M 

of Opium Reveat 

18. All Authors that have been Curious, do 
agree, that Opium abounds with Vdatik Salt^ as 
Helmont^ Lemery^ Le Fehure, WtdelmSy and in- 
deed every one that ever"! read, tho’ moft of 
them attribute its EfFeds to a Sulphur^ which 
makes their Teflimony o{\tsFolatileSalt theftrongerj 
as being forced to confefs it agairift their Hypothec 

19. After its Ferment at lonmxh Leaven in a Sand 
Heat for 14 days, it affords a Volatile Salt in good 
Quantity, but miK with O//, which is feparated 
from it by Diffoliuion in Water, Filtring, &c. 

20. Its Spirit ferments with Acids, therefore h 

Volatile, - 

Lafily^ (to Pin Up all) if you either QhymlcaUy 
Analyfc it by Fire, or fet it to Cryltalize, after it 
is evaporated to a due Condition fo to do, it af- 
fords a great Quantity of Volatile Salt, 

Therefore it is part all mariner of doubt, (for 
which Fnd I have the longer, and more parti- 
cularly inflfted upon this Point) that it is highly" 
impregnated with Volatile Salt % But, as 1 laid irt 
the la II Chapter^ it is not enough for it to have 
Volatile Salt ^ but it mufl: be fueh as exceeds our 
own, or other Animals in Activity ^ Brisknefs^ &ts 
by Reafbn of Quantity or Quality., or both, that 
it may tickle up, excite, and cauie a fine and 
agreeable Ovation^ or glowing in our Spirits^ 
which (as was fhewn) is very p^eafant, (as in 
the Cafe of Sem^ViriL) efpecially when agitated 
by Warmth^ Frkations^ or fiich A6l^ing Caufes. 

Secondly^ It nlanifefily appears, That the 
Volatile Salt of Opium exceeds ours 
in Adivity, Brisknels, &e^ 

i8d The MyAeries 

1. By Its exulcer at ivg (or bliflering) QUaliij, 
clpccially if it be very good Opium. 

2. By its fjtlot brick Quality, to caufe the Hair 

3. By Its irritating to Venery in lb eminent a De<» 
grccy as Cantharides^ Bees, Tijmire, &c. do, and even 
beyond the ordinary Courfe of Sem. Virile, which 
is moft faturaced with Volatile Salt of any Vart of 
the Animal, as appears by its DifTolutron (like 
Opium) in fVatery Menfiruums^ its rank fmeil, its 
titillating CO Venerf^ its V^aight^ &c. which is much 
the fame with that of Opiun?^ both finking in Wa- 
ter, &C. 

4. By its gUAt Irritations to make Water, like 
Cantharides^ Bees, Pifmire, Millepedes, when 
SC is taken in a good Quantity, or often. 

f . By its caufing Vomitings m a very (evcrc 
manner, which it would not do without a very 
poinant Volatile Saltt 

6 . By its caufing (uch violent Irchings in the 
Skin (efpecially if taken in any (^ntity) after 
it has paft all Digefiions and ConcoBions, And, 

n* By its caujing acrimonious Sweats, after it has 
paft thole Digestions and ConcoBions. 

8. By its caufing a 'uery pleafant Senfation at Sto^ 
mach, far above any Flejh, Jellies, or any Animal 

9. By its offending the Eyes fo rtiuch by its Atri<^ 
mony, as Mufiard^ Onions, Horfe Radifi, &c. do. 

10. By its very pungent sind acrimonious Tafie 
above all Flefh or Ftib. 

1 1. By its ^ry rank and vehement Scent, equal 
to, if not exdUdtng that of Semen Virile, 

12. By its Chymical Analyfis, whereby it affords 
fi very acumoniotts Volatile Salt in great plenty, 
which Helmont^ Wedehm^ and others, do con- 


oj Opium ReveaF d. 1 8 1 

Therefore it is alfo paft doubtj That the V ')latile 
Salt of Opium is more a^ive, acrimoniom, and tL 
tiliating^ than thofe in our Membrams^ or in Sem^ 
Virile it felf. But feeing it is not Volatile Salt alone, 
(as was (hewn ) which agrees only with one of 
the aGive VrincipUt of our Membranes^ (and may 
be, and is of it felf too acrimonious and rude for 
Membranes^ without its being fweetned up, and 
finooth^d into a more gentle and plcafing ^gree^ 
abknefs by Oily Parts) we mud lee, whether it 
is not alfb 0 ;/y, (or Sulphureous) and confequentfy 
a Sal.Volatile-Oleofum^ agreeing in both the ablive 
Vrinciples of our Membranes^ that it may thereby 
be the n^e deledable, gentle, and agreeable. 

Thirdly^ It is very obvious atd evident 
That Opium is Sulphureous, 

1. Becaufe the Juice of the "Poppy , whereof it 
is made, is of it felf, when it drops out of the 
Incifionsy Milk-white ^ which colour in Liquids 
(efpecially the Juice of Plants) proceeds from 
Sulphureous 'Particle: mixt with PVater ( or Phlegm) 
as Milk, Emul(hn.% Chyle ^ Cinnamon PVater, and 
the TtnGures cl ail Sulphureous Things dropt into 
Water, do evince, 

2. Becaufe it is inflammable •y for nothing is (b 
but what is Sulphureous, 

g. Becaufe Qpiuny will fbftcn with a dry Warmth, 
which all, and only. Sulphureous Things will do ; as 
all Rofins, Tallows, Pitches^ Turpentines, Oils, and 
luch Sulphureous Things, 

4. Becaule it is very bitter^ and that Oleofe 
Particles are always (as Dr. Grew and Sylvius 
truely lay) one Ingredient of a hitter Tafie, 

y. Its tawny colour does alfb (as was (aid accord- 
ing to DF,Qrew) argue much Sulphur, 

N 3 

jBa The Myjleries 

6. Its hot Tafle proves the fame; for a proper 
hot Tafie is from Sulphur ^ as the biting^ or pungent 
is from Volatile Salt. 

7. Beqaufe of its pungent and ftrong Smell, 
which denotes Sulphur. 

8. Its being fo dilTolvable as it is in Spirit of 
Wine, Brandy, and other Sulphureous Menfiruums^ 
proves the lame. 

’ 9. Its dijjohing ^ality argues, that it has the 
lame Principles with our Skin and Flejh, which are 
Qleofe as well as SaUno- ‘volatile., and that nothing 
is a compleat Dijphery but fugh as have both ; 
becaufe Agreeablenefs in Principles being the Bpfis 
pf Diflplution, (as you lee in Menfiruumsy and ths 
Things diflblv’d) there is no good, 

hind, or compleat DifTolvent of our Flelh, &c, 
but what participates of both ; becaule otherwife 
there would be a Difagreement in one Refpe^i:. 

10. It appears by Autop^e upon the Chymioal 
Analyjys pf Opiumy &c. that it has a very confide- 
rable Quantity of Sulphur. 

11. So if you only dilTolve it in Water, you*U 
find much S^lphureo^s Subftance undHTolved at 
^he hottoni. 

i 2. All for mofl y of the Modern Authors at- 
tribute its Operation to Sulphury agreeing, tha^ 
it is well impregnated therewith. 

Therefore Opium cpnfifts very much, as to ita 
Erincipksy pf a SaWolatile-Sulphureum y but 
iiili thh does not compfeat a moll agreeable 
SahVolatile-Oleofum ; i. Becaule it may be a SaL 
VolatiU^BefinoJumy and yet be a Sal-Volatile.Sul^ 
fhureum. 2. If k b® a Sd-Volatile-Oleofumy the. 
Oil and the Volatile Salt may be fo disjoin’d, as, 
npt to conlpire and co-operate to pleafe the 
Membranesy but a^ feparately, as Oil and Volatile 
Salt |iven P^t of divers S^onsy and cauf^ pp more 

«/ Opium ReveaP d. i S 3 

than Oil of Olives and Sprit of Sal Am- 
moniack taken inwardly^ one aAing too fbfcly, 
lazily, and grealily, to caufe any brisk and agree- 
able Ovation of the Spirit $y and the other too 
rudely flinging the Membranes 5 therefore we 
txjuft proceed in our Enquiry, ' 

Fourthly^ Opium has a Ibrt of Refinous Suh 
phur^ that is loofe, and not united 
with the Volatile Salt \ which 
plainly appears j 

5. Bccaufc;, if you diflblve Opium in Water ^ 
cold or hot, or any Watery Menfiruum, you*ll 
find a good quantity of Rofin undiflblved at hou 
tom, wh^ the Volatile Salt is all or moft diflblved 
in the Water, (efpecially if the Water be often 
repeated) and quite feparated from the Refim^ss 
Part which fubfides, without any more trouble ^ 
which ftiews^ that the Volatile Salt and it are not- 
combined^ but in a very loole and diftin< 5 i: mail' 

2. Becaufe, if you firfl diflblve Opium in Spu 
tit of Wine, wlich imbibes the Rofin, it is eafily 
again precipitated by plain Water^ leaving behind 
it all or moft of the Volatile Salt in the Form of 
a red TinUure in the Menfiruum^ as it does allb 
in the former Cafe. 

Note, That the Refinous Part of Opium has no 
EfFed as an Opiate, for if it be well wafhed with 
Water ( as was faid) it has no Operation of that 
kind, or fb little, that it is not worth the minding, 
but all the Vertue, Specifick Tafie , Smell, dt'c, is car» 
tied away in that red JinBure, which has all the 
good EffeBs of Opium j as Experience alFurcs 


3. Be- 

184 The Myfteries 

Becaufe, If Opium be very much torrefied, 
rnotf of the (Volatile Salt is evaporated, and with 
it moft, if not all, the Vertue of Opuim ; but the 
Rojin remains as a deadifh Stuff in Refpec^ of 
the good EfftUs of Opium^ tho’ it is (as fhatl be 
proved) the Producer of the ill Effeils thereof. 
Therefore this Rofin muft be wholly rejedted. 

fifthly^ The Red TinBure aforefaid has all, 
or r^oft of the Volatile Salt in it. 

I. Becaule Water is the Proper Menftruum for 
Saline Things, and that the TinElure reduced to 
an Extraa gives very much in tnoi^ Weather ^ 
whiph Quality itnauft have from th^Volatik Sak^ 
becaule it has very little Fixed Salt. 

а. Becaule the Specifick Bitternefs which pro- 
ceeds from Volatile fak^ and QHy Tarts^ is wholly 
in thatR^i Tinclure. 

3 . Becaule that Ttniture has allb the Speeifick Rank- 
nefs of Smell that the Volatile Salt (as was Ihewn) 
gives the O^ium, by the Help of Ibme Oily Farts, 

4.. Becaufe thsLt-ThiSfure^ reduced toanExtradl^ 
has the kiting Tafte of Ooiumy which (as was 
Ihewn) proceeds from its 

Becaule that Extract incides^ difeuffes^ refol^.es^ 

Ffilothrick^ titillates to Venerjy caules Itchings in 
pe Skin, acrimonious Sweats^ &e, all which are 
(as wa$ Ihewn j the Efiefts of Volatile Salt, 

But what need I infill fq much upon its E^e^s 
tqprofe it? When^ 

б, It appears by Cryfializ^ation of the faid 
XtnVluTe^ alter it has been evaporated to a due de- 

^hat jt contains the Volatile Salt in it, tyhich 
In ^ qoQl piace Iho^ to elegant an4 

of O^wxcci Revearj. 185 

7. It is found therein by Cbjmicd Optration by 


Sixthly^ The faid Tin^ure is Okofe, 

j. Becaufe the Rednefi of the Tln<9:ure muft 
be from Oily Farts • for pure fincere Volatile Salt 
gives no fuch Tindurc. 

z. Beeaufe it is bitter ^ one Ingredient of which 
Tafie is ever Oily Parts (as was laid) 

5. Becaufe of its rank fmell like Sem. Viril. 
whicli proves it to be Sulphureous ; for the Volatile 
Salt alone has only a quick fmell, or Urinous at 
fart heft. 

4. Becaufe it is of a Hot Jafie when reducod to 
an Exwf^which of 7^/^ confidcred di- 
ftiniaiy from its pungent, or biting Tafie^ muft 
be from Sulphureous or Oily Tarts, 

f . Becaufe Spirit of IVincy and other Spirituo. 
fulphurecus Menftruums y do readily diffolve it 
when reduced to an Extract, 

6. Becaufe the ExtraQ fbfeens with dry warmth, 
as Sulphureous or Oily Things do. 

7 . Becaufe a true SaUVolatile-Oliofum^ wKcrein 
the Volatile Salt and Oily Tarts are intimately com* 
bined, ( as you find in all Blonds^ TtnUures of fe. 
veral Plants that have fcch a SalVolatile Oleojum) 
•js red. 

8. Becaufe it could not otherwife lb finely 
pleafe the MemhraneSy caufe Sleepy compofe the Spi- 
rits^ &c, if'it were all Volatile Salty which is wholly 
pungent and acrimonious y mightily oppofes’^ -Sleep yOxA 
caufes a great ftir in the Bloud and Spirits., 

But, (as I faid as to its Volatile fait) wfiat D^d 
I iqfift upon its ^ When, 

io« Iti 

tB6 The Myfteries 

10. Its Infiammahility f after it is reduced to an 
Extract and dried) puts it out of all C^eftion ; 
And that, 

I !• An Oil may be (eparated from the Volatile 
Sak^ tho’ not without Trouble, becaufe that, (as 
is requifite to compleat it in the higheft degree) 

Seventhly^ The Oily Parts, and Volatile Salt^ 
are very jntimately, and ftridly 
combin’d, as fairly appears, 

1. By the Difficulty to feparate them. 

2 . By the Rednefsoi t\\QTin^ure^ (asinJB/W, 
&C.') for when Oily for Sulphureous) Particles 
are loole therein, they make either a white Colour, 
as the Ropn does in the Drops .that fall out of the 
Incifions in the Heads of the Poppies^ which are 
Milk white j or leave the Volatile Spirit perlpicu- 
ous, as in a Ibrt of artificial SalVolatile-Oleofum 
that is fold at the ^apothecaries Shops in London, 

Becaufe it imparts its TinUure^ which depends 
upon both, to all Menfiruums. 

4. Becaufe it imparts its Vertue, which depends 
upon both, to all Mtnfiruums. 

y. Becaufe it imparts its Specifick Smelly which 
depends upon both, to all Menftruumr, 

6. Becaufe it imparts its Specifick, hot, and hit- 
ing Tafte, which depend upon both the Oily and 
Volatile Particles^ to all Menflruums, 

7. Becaufe it will hold its Vertue many years, 
which it could not,if th^Volatile Salt and Oily Parts 
were not very ftridly combined. 

8. Becaufe, that notwithftanding the Digefihn 
at Stomachy it has held its Specifick Vertue^ Smell 
and Tajle^ after it has been in it 4, y, 6, 7, 8, 
P, 10, II, 12, 18, or more Hours, as appear’d 
by its Operating fo long, and afteward its being 
yomited up with the fame Tafie and Smell that it 

of Opium Reveatd. 1 87 

had at firft ; than which there cannot be a greater 

9. Becaufe it has been carried off by Stools, 
which had its Specifick Smell after many Hours re- 
maining in the Stomach. 

10. Becaufe its Operation in general lafts long. 
Char as mentions one that it Operated with for 
about 30 Hours ; and iVedelifts another, whom 
Opium cauled to Vomit conftantly about i8 Hours 
after it was taken. 

11. Becaufe it has its Effe^s upon the Venereal 
Membranes after it has pafled the Digefiion at Sto» 
mach^ the Effects of the Cholery and Succus JPan-. 
creatus in the Duodenum^ been ftrained through 
the Coats of the Intefiines into the L&tXials , and 
through tho^landules of th^ Mefenterj, mixed and 
circulated with the Bloud^ &c. 

1 2. Becaufe, after all that, it has its EjfeU upon 
the Skin, by caufing an Itching therein. 

13. - Becaufe it not only caufes Acrimonious > 

Sn^eats, but filch as evidently fmcU thereof, whidi 
argues. That the Specifick Combination of the Oily 
and Volatile Tarts baffles all CoBions, Digefiions^ 
Circulations^ and Tercolations^ that have happened 
in the Body. Diofeorides and fpeaking of 

Opium, fey, (pa,p(/ 4 K@- </> gAs to 

Iac fiJblds, that is. The fmell of the Medicament is 
expanded over the whole Body. Which Things of 
its Nature do^ as Garlicky Onions^ Semen Animale^ 
which caufes Rankneft all over Male Creatures, 
as Rams^ Boars^ Buds, &c. 

14. Le Febure^ in his Chymiftryy Tart 1. p. 33* 
feys. That Opium has a Volatile Salt infeperably mix$ 
with Sulphur (or Oily Parts.) 

ly. iVedelius^ in his Opiohgia.^ Lib, 2. SeB. i. 
Cap. 4. P. 91. fpeaking of Opium.^ feys, Sal ejus 
fum fulphure intime combinatum fudores efficit, that is, 
Jfis fait being intimately combmd with fulphur^ (or 


i88 The Myfieries 

Oil) caufes Sweat, And, Lih, 2. P. 14^. 
cbtimit non facile diffipabikmi^ that is. It has a con. 
texture not eafily dijjipable, 

1 8. All know how apt Volatile Salt and Oily 
Farts are to combine ; Therefore 

Opium a< 3 :s and produces its ufual good Effe< 5 ls 
by a SalVolatile-Okofumy (bmewhat more adive 
than that in our Membranes, whole Principles 
are moft intimately and ltri(^ly combined, and 
(b. that it is qualified in the higheft degree for our 
Purpole \ Becaufe, 

1. It agrees in Frincipks with our Mem- 

2. That its SaUVblatile.Okofum is moreaifijv e 
and vigorous than that of the Membrane s,^ to actu- 
ate and excite the Spiritus infiti, and finely to tickle 
and gratifie the Membranes. 

5. That the Volatile Salt and Oily Parts being 
fo intimately combined, do delicioufly qualifie 
one the other for that Purpole ; While the Oily 
Imooths and lenifies the Volatile Salt^ and the Vo- 
latik Salt atSluatcs and quickens the Oily ; And 
that being lb combined, 

4. Both confpire to a permanent and exalted 
Pkafure of the Membranes^ elpecially at Stomachy 
and the Venereal PartSy where they are lb exqui- 
lirely difpofed for Senfation. 

Therefore the SaLVolatik-Okofum of Opiums 
feparated from its Ro/tny is moft conliimmate, and 
belt qualified, that pofllbly can be imagined, to 
pkafe, gratifie^ and finely to titillate our Membranes^ 
or Organs of Senfatm j which was the Thing re- 

^ {cam 

of Opium ReveaPd. 

I cannot better illuftrate its Nature, than by the 
mod exalted Thing in an Animal, 'viz,, its Semen: 
Therefore for Confirmation of its Vrinciflesy and 
Excellency therein, I will eonfider its Likenefs and 
Agreement therewith ; 

1. In being both a Sal Volatih-Oleofum, 

2. In having a morea<dive, vigorous, and ex- 
alted SalVolatile.Okofumy than any Part of the 

3. In having the Volatile Salt and OkousVar^ 
tides intimately combined, for Semen Animak 
will (as Opium) keep very long uncorrupted, as 
appears by its long day in the V ejicula feminales 
of fome A^imalsy that do not excern it in many 

4. In that both are apt to mix with all forts of 
Menfiruumsy and both Mole minimay Virtute maxi- 

5*. In having much the lame Smell, ny/ss. a rank 
and vehement one. 

6 . In tainting the Body therewith (as has been 

7. In being much of the lame Weighty as ap- 
pears by both finking in Water^ &c, 

8. The Tafe mud (in all Probability) have a 
Ranknels in it like that of Opium y becaule it gives 
a rank Tafie to the whole Body of Male Creatures, 

p. Both excite Venery, caufe Erections, Vene* 
real Fury, and NoBurnal Pollutions., 

10. Both caufe Boldnefsy Courage, and Magna- 
nimity, which arc reckon’d among the Effeds of 
Opium, and are the common Effeds of Plenitude of 
Seed in Animals (ihsx SLtQOthQvmik pufiUanimous) 
in Times of Copulation • fo Modeft and Sheepifh 
Boys grow much more aJJUred, bold, and (as they 
commonly call Manlike, upon Puberty ; and 
Girls grow more Womanlike in their Difpofitions % 


ipo The Myfteries 

and ’ds my Ohfervation^ That the Men who breed 
moft of the Sem. Virile^ are generally, if not al- 
ways, the moft Valiant, 

1 1. Both do caule a great Relaxation upon the 
Tkafurs thereof, as appears after a good Dofe of 
Ofium^ and upon Emifflon of the ocher ; by the 
Deadnefs of the Eyes^ for Laxity of the Cornea) 
in both Cafes, Dilatation of the PttpUl^ Floridity of 
the Skin^ large Perfpiration^ laxity of the Limh^ 
Skepinefs^ lojs of Memory and Senfe, alienation of 
the Mindy a wide Pulfey Indolence^ lofs of Feeling 
in both Gafes, and other Signs of Relaxation, 

12. Both Opium and Puberty caule a growth 
of the Penisy Breajlsy and increafe Milky by 
Realbn of the Relaxation that they caule, which 
(as in Sleepy) caules the greater Nutrition; but 
of the manner how it happens upon Relaxationy 
more hereafter, if there be occaiion. Hence it 


1 3. That both Opium and Puberty are apt to 
bring down the Menfisy and open the VitCy by the 
Relaxation ; and that Marriage ( or the Plealure of 
Venereal aUs) do by the like Relaxation promote 
the Menfes ; That both Opium and liich A<fts are 
apt to caule Milcarriages by relaxing the Neck of 
the Womb, &c. 

14. Both caule Sadnefs and Deje&ion when the 
Operation is over, as indeed Pkafure generally 
does, elpeciallyif intenle. 

I Both Opium and Sem, Animale prevent Laf 
ptudey and caufe Euphory^ or eafier Undergoing 
of Labour ; Hence it is, that Stone Horfes will not 
be lb (bon tired when full thereof, and quickly re- 
cover if tired *, which might doubtlcfs beobferved 
in other Animalsy but that they are not uled to 
Labour, and lb not obvious to be obfcrved. 

1 5 . Au^. 

cf opium ReveaPif. ipi 

j6; Authors do fay. That Sem, Virile takes of 
Venereal Impotence^ procures Love^ &c. 'which 
doubtlefs muft be by exciting to Vemry^ as Opiun^ 
does. Thus the Genitals of Bucks^ Boars^ Bucks 
of Hares ^ Cocks ^ &c, do (as Opium) excite Ve» 
nery • and the Seed of Animals ^ as of a Camel, 
and the aforefaid Creatures, come to be efteemed 
Hypnoticks ; and (doubtleisj allv Animat Seedy et 
pecially of the more Saiaceous is an 

Opiate in Ibme degree. 

To he Jhorty The main (if not all) the Difference 
in their Effe^s arifes only, 

1. From the Different Tarts that they afFe<a§ 
becaufe Opium afFeds the Stomachy the Venereal^ 
and all the Membranes in general • and Sem, Ani- 
male only the Venereal Tarts immediately, tho’ an 
intenle Pleafure of one Part does afed: the 

2. That Opium does affed with a Senle of 
Plealure more permanent, 'viz,, for many Hours^ 
(as has been faid) and that the Pleafure of the 
other is Momentary, 

Therefore Opium aUs hy caufing an intenfe^ per- 
manent y and charming Pleafure of the Membranes 
in generaly hut more particularly of the Stomach 
and Venereal Parts, as being more escquiftely dif- 
pofed for Senfationfor the Prefervation of the Indi* 
viduum and Species. 

It cannot be much wondred at, confidering 
our Active Principles are a SahVolatile^Oleofum, 
and that Opium is liich, and that we naturally 
carry an Opiate within us, that in fome Cafes 
our ordinary SaUVolatik'Oleofumy or that of the 
Cholery Semen y &c, being by fome accident ex- 

ipi ' The Myfteries 

alted towards the Nature of may have 

the Effed of an Opiate upon us^ by caufing So* 
porsy and Letbargick Difiempers^ Furor uterlms by 
TitiUstiotty &c. 

Thus the Spume of fome Male Animals^ Mum- 
my^ are reputed Opiates. Borellus (peaks of 
a Sopor if erous Aura^ that proceeded from ones 
Tiumb^ cured by a Caufiick. I have read of a 
Cataphora from Worms ^ a Sopor if erous Fume from 
the and very many fuch forts of Inftances, 
which Things are now eafily conceived \ for ’tis 
but foppofing a Fume of the Nature of Sem. AnU 
male^ or its Aura^ (for I can no longer doubt but 
it is an Opiate) and it would have much the lame 
EffeBs with Opium ^ if it were fit to ufe it after 
the fame manner. 

Having fhewn, i. Whkh are the predominant 
aBive Principles in Opium, and how combined^ &c* 
2. Which of them produces the ufual and laudable 
EffeBs of Opium ; And why in general ; I come 
now to the Third Particular, vit, to Ihew, 

III, Which of them produces its ill EffeBs • And 

Its ill EffeBs are thefo, Naufeas^ Fbmitings^ 
which are generally very difmal, with great di- 
flrefs, and fometimes dangerous ; Swimmingxn the 
Head^ Hiccoughsy DiflrefJeSy Anxietks^ Convulfions^^ 
Faintings^ Leipothymlesy Syncopes^ &;c. 

I. JSfote^ That its grievous EffeBs slvq ora-^ 
bout the Region of the Stomachy or particularly 
the Mouth (or Pit) thereof, or thence arifing by 

2 . i^ote^ 


of Opium ReveaPJ. 

2. Note^ That ((eeingthere is nothing (b good^ 
but may caule evil EfeBs in an exceffive 

tity) this Enquiry is more * properly, What Vrin- 
ciple^ or Principles of Opium^ do caufe thofe ill 
EjfeBs in an ordinary Dofe ? for what will in a 
derate Dofe^ will (be (ure) caufe them in an ex-> 
cejjive Dofe, 

3. Note^ That all the confiant EffeBs Opium 
f as you may obferve in the Enumeration thereof 
in the Fourth Chapter) are good and laudable Ef-^ 
feBs : it follows therefore^ that the had are accu 

1. It is not the Earthy, or Phkgmatkk Part of 
Opium that caufes thofe ill EjftBs^ becaufe they 
are Pajfive Principles^ and confequently have not 
filch a Power ^ behdes that they are known to be 

2. Opium has all thole ill %vhen botli 

the Earthy and Phkgmatkk Parts are feparaced 

-from it, as. when an Extract of well tornfed 
Opium is made in Spirit of Wine, for by that 
means the Phlegmatkk Part is dried up, and the 
Earthy Parts fubfide , and are feparated ; yea, 
filch ExtraBs made by Spirit of PPine, do caufe 
tliofe evil EjfeBs rather more than crude Opium 
with its Earth and Phlegm in it, as Experience af 
fiires us, and Reafon will plainly confirm by and, 
by, however fond the World is of fiich Prepa- 

3. It is evident from the Fremlfes., that the Sal- 
Volatile-Oleofum of Opium cannot caufe .thofe Fo- 
mitings, Hiccoughs, &c. for they are the Efft:Bs~o^ 
grievous Senfation at Stomach but tho Sal- Folatile^ 
Oleofum caufcs a moli agreeable and pleapnz Senfa- 
tion at Stomach, 


4. No- ' 

1^4 Myfleries 

4. Nothing quiets Vomitings^ Qonvulfiom^ Me- 
coughs^ See. more than that SaLVolatik-Oieofum of 

5“. Experience informs us^ That the Sal Volatile- 
CMe&fum of Opiujfti feparated from all other Farts^ 
and Principles thereof, never caules fuch evil Ef~ 
as I> and another Fhyfician in London^ can 
tcitific f as does alfo Le Mcrt^ in the moft Learned 
Dr. Love*% ColicCianea^ where he fays of fuch a 
Preparation diereof, as contains only the Sal- 
Volatile-Oieofum^ That Nunquam Anxietates circa 
Pracordia^ out Phantajias conciliat ; That is. It ne- 
ver caufes Anxieties about the Mouth of the Sto- 
machy 8 cc, for that is moft properly to be under- 
ftood by (Fr^cordia ; ) Ifedelius teftifies the lil^e 
of fuch another Preparation, and fo do lever a! 
Authors,, tho’^ they did not (in the leaftj fenow 
why, but only by Experience. 

— 6 . Its Pixt Salt k innocent in its Nature y and but 
the 3 2d Part of Opiujn, which is too iaconfide- 
rable in an ordinary moderate Dole to cai^e any 

It follows therefore. That it muft be the Repneus 
Pan of Opiumy which it has m a confiderabl© 
Quantity, that maft caufe thofe ill EffeSis, This 
manifeftly appears ; 

T. Becaufe a Tw^ure of Opium in Water, which 
takes up none of the Rofin^ but lets it fall into the 
bottom, mver caufes any fuch ill Effeth •, which 
it does not alfo, if reduced to an ExtraB by 
f oration, yet have they all the ufual good EfeBs of 
Opium, > 

— " 2. JVedelius in his Opiolog, affures the fame of 
dve like Preparation in Phlegm of diftilled Vinegar^ 
L. 2. Sect, I.' C. y, P. 92. 

of O'pmmReveaPd^ ip5 

3 • An Extract of Opium in Spirit of Wine does 
often caufe thofe ill Effects^ and no other Prepara* 
tion caufes them as often. Wedelius ibid, A Lau- 
“ dano opiate cum Spiritu Vini correct o folum ferb ■ 
obferva^imus ortos Vomitus ^ a nojtro *verOy ^liod 
cum Phlegm ate Aceti diftillati fieri diximus^ nun-- 
quam Vomitum^ •vel Naafeam fialtemy contigijjl 
meminimm, We have obferved Vomitings 

‘‘ almo^ only from Laudanum prepared with Spirit 
of Wine, hat never any Vomiting or Naufea from 
that prepared in Phlegm of difiilPd Vinegar, 
Which he confirms, L. i, fect,i. c,^ p,62, fay* 
ing fin Latine ) That a curious Obfervation is to be 
‘‘ notedy by which it appears^ that an Extract of 
Opium, Spirit of Wine, jhews more Nar^ 
cotick Foref^ by which he means. That it caafes 
more ill Effects than prepared in di filled Vinegar • 
Whereas that in Spirit of Wine has nothing more 
in it than that in Vinegar^ befides the Kfinous Parts: 
Therefore thefe do caufe all the Mlfchlf, 

JSb}te alfb. That an Extract mS pir it of Wine has 

in it (^Quantity for Quantity) more of the Refinous 
Parts than Crude Opium^ both becaule the Earthy 
Parts, that helpM to make up the Bulk, are taken 
away in that Preparation, and becaufethe5;>/>/> 
of Winy imbibes the more greedily than ocher 
Principles of the Opium ; fo that every Dofe muft 
in Proportion have much more Rofin in it thmCrude 
Opium. Therefore it is no v/onderdiat it caufes 
thofe ill Effects more frequently, fince the Ro/in is 
moff certainly the Caufe thereof, as has been, and 
fhail be more fully, and beyond all contradidion, 

Yet is this the Preparation boafled of by the 
blind and inadvertent World *, it would amaze, 
nay (jsrrifie a Man to fee what great Care is taken 

O 2 to 

1^6 The Myfteries 

be fure to render mi(chievous^ by foil- 

citoufly ufing of IVms in extradting Lat^^ 

damms ; and then, and not till then, they boaft of 
the Vreparation^ as Chartis and very many others 
ck), calling it, not without great Oflentation, 
(and defperate Folly') their Laudanum : May it be 
theirs^ and none others ; a Turk would be a Mad- 
man to uie it for Crude Opium, becaufe it has 
much more of the pernicious Principle in it ; It 
is the common, and much efteemed way, 
ro extrad it out of Water ^ (and then it is very 
good, laudable and innocent) but thought no- 
thing worth till they extraB the Rofin (that is all 
left behind by the Water ) in Spirit of Wine, and 
add it to the other; then do they with great 
Authority praife it,/tHat is, when they have wifely 
added the Voifon to the Vanace^-, It is as if they 
added Ratsbane to a Cordial, and not think the 
Cordial worthy Commendation till they have 
done fo. 

— 4. It appears. That the Rofin is the Caufe of 
thofe III EffeBs, in that they happen at Stomach, 
or from it by confent, {mcQ Opium has nothing 
in it that can offend the Stomach but the Rofin ^ of 
which it was (hewn in Chap, 14. how very offen- 
iive it is to the Stomach by its Indigefiihknefs and 
{ticking to it, but even intolerable if alfa arm’d 
with pungent Fart ides, foch as Volatile Salts have, 
with which Opium abounds. 

5’. It has been never obferved, that any Tre^ 
pafation of Opium, that was feparated from the 
Refinom Farts, did ever caufe any fuch ill EfeBs. 

6 . It has been often obferved, That if Crude 
^ Opium, or a Refinous Freparation thereof, was given 
alone in the Form of Fills, or any folid Form, 
that it was very apt to caufe thofe EffeBs : Wede-> 
Bus fays, That he never obferved thofe Mif chiefs 


of Opium Reveal'd. 

but after Preparations thereof in the Form of Pills ; 
and it follows from what he has laid before, that 
it was either Cruise Opium, or that horrid Extract 
out of Spirit of Wine^ both which are Repnous, 

Note^ That fince the very Form that it is givqri 
in doth lb much alter the Cafe, it follows, that 
it is not poilbnous in it felf as fuch. 

7. It is oblerved, That Crude Opium ^ Extracts 
in Spirit of Wine^ and luch Rcfmous Preparations^ 
Hay very long at Stomach, viz,. 4 , 5*, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 1 12, nay, fomeiimes i 8 or 20 Hours, 
as Char as himfelf intimates in reference to a 
Gentleman ^at took half a Drachm of his Extract 
2 or 3 times a V/.eek, That he Vomited if he 
took a Clyper before 20 Hours were expired after 
the taking of it ^ That certainly argues, that it, 
or a great part thereof, was [till at Stomach, which 
pay is a moll grievous Tiding to the Stomach when 
it is beyond the ufual time that Things are di~ 
gelled in it. Noiv fuch a pay can be attributed 
to nothing but the R fm flicking to the Coat of 
the Stomach, for that Preparation of Charas had 
nothing in it but what was diflblved in IVater^ 
(which, is therefore always diffolvable at Stomach) 
and the Rofin extfafled out of the spirit of Wme • 
therefore it was indiffolvahle and vifckl Ro(in that 
caufed lb long a pay, tho’ that Gentleman did;, 
by flrength of Digepion, conquer it at lafl, and 
that without Vommng^ unlels he (as waslaid^ 
took a Clyper within the 20 Hours : Its long flay 
at Stomach is manifefl alfo, in that after 20 Hours 
it purged him, and not before ; which Purging 
(as (hail be (hewn hereafter, and has been in Ibme 
meafure hinted ) happens by the Difolution of thp 
Rofin by a flrong Digepion ; and therefore it 
happens only \yhen Ref nous Preparations are givefi 
. O 3 in 

ip8 The Myfieries 

in good Quantity to Men that have fuch a Dige^ 
fiiofty or a Canine Appetite y as an Experienced 
Terfon in the Matter of Opium informed me, and 
I fince obferved to be very true. 

8. It muft be fomewhat in Opium that is indi- 
gcftible and flicking to the Stomach, or elfe it 
could not caufe Vomiting lb long as it does, that 
is, 12, 14, 16, or more Hours, whereas other 
Vomits do generally operate but for 2 or ; Hours 
at fartheft, and Opium has nothing in it indige* 
ftible and flicking but its Rcfin. ^ - 

^ p. It is to be noted^ That when Opium is pre- 
pared, join’d, or given, with ftch Things as 
deftroy or prevent the flicking of its Rofin to the 
StomJichy and help its DiJfoTution, Digefliovy or 
flipping qut of the Stomachy it caules no liich 
ill EffeBsy tho’ Crude Opium^ or a Rtfinous Trepan, 
ration^ be given. Thus if you prepare it by LixL 
jialsy which alter the nature of the* Kcyiw by fas 
It were) Soapifying it, and thereby tike away its 
flicking Quality y and rendring it (as Soap is) difl 
Iblvable, flippery, and paflable at Stomachy'' it 
caufes no fuch Difiurhancef. Hence it is that ^Jixj,^ 
*viah are found to be liich xxsxt Correct on of opium y 
(tho’ the Re^on has not been confidered, as will 
appear here^er) and that the Sapo Tartare makes 
Matthewh (or Starkefs) Tilly and the Tilula pas, 
dfcsy lb fafe, and free from ill EffeBs\ as allb 
Salt of Tartar does Libavius*s and Langelon\ few 
mous Trtiparations : Of which expert more when 
I come to fpeak of the Freparation- of Opium in 
Chap, 26, So, ^ 

10, If you liibdue p yon do Rojins 2nd 

Turpmtimsy with the Tolk of an Egg, before you 
give it, it becomes fife, becaule you, by that 
means, diflblve its Rofln^ and prevent its adher- 
ing to the Coat of the Stomachy and render it> 
digeflible 2 nd pajjabky which is a moft Certain 
^at its Rofin caules chofe iU t fe 

^ Opium Reveal d. 

xr, Ic is for the lame Reafon, ih^t Opinm finely 
powdered, and mixed with other Things that, 
keep its Rejinous Parts from a Coalefcence^ as in Pe» 
nice Treacle^ &c^ that k is not (b apt to eaufc 
chofe evil EffeBs ; This (I doubt not) made the 
Ancients, who had no better IP'ayy give it in £« 
ieBuaries finely divided among other Things^ 
which they did fb frequently, that all EkSluaries 
came to be call'd Opiates ; This (upon Experience 
I fuppofe) made Galen fay. That Optum was not 
lafe al0ne,but mix’d wkh other Things k became 
a good Medicament, 

12. IVedelitis fays, That it leldom caufes ill Ef. - 
feBs when given in a fine Powder with other 
Things ; yet is it the fame in Subftance, and to 
all Intents, but that the Rejinous Parts being fegre- 
gated ancT^ fcattered, become more fubduable, 
and lefs liable to Coalefcence • whereas if it be giv^ 
alone in the Form of a P///, all the P^ojin 
gether upon one Part of the So?nach^ and chert 
iticks. Therefore Crude or Re(inous Opium fhould 
never be given alone in the Form of a Pill, 

1 ^. The Blundering Ancients giving Wine to 
corred (as they thought) the cold ^ality of 
Opium j found by Experience^ that old generous JVme 
taken pretty freely after Opium^ did ve^ y much 
prevent chofe HI EffeBs ; but it could not be by 
correcting the cold Quality of Opium ^ which it has 
not, nor indeed for any imaginable Reafon^ but 
that being a Sulphureous Menfirmm it helped the 
Dijjulution ai^d Digejlion di the Rofin^ and the more 
for being dd (as all know) becaufe more foiritu- 
ous, defecated, and vigorous ; whereas had it not 
been for that Reafin^ Wine mufl: have rather in- 
creafed its Effects ihan otherwife- as being an 

200 the Myjieries 

14. It is for the fame Reafon, that a 
of Opium in Spirk of Wme is found to be much 
fafer than the made out of it, tho’the 

Subiianee is the fame^ becaufe that in the TMure 
the F articles of the Rofin are finely divided and 
fcattered, and fo fubduable^ and not like to fiick 
to the Coat of the Stomach, 

- 1 5 . Opium in Clyfiers has kill’d People by flick- 
ing to the Inteftinum rethm^ whereas it has no- 
thing in it, as is apparent from the Fremifes^ that 
can hurt, by flicking to them, but its Refinous 
Parts ; much rnore then may it grieve the more 
exquifitely fenfile Stomach by the fame means. 

From what is faid it will be obvious how duely 
to prepare and corred Opium^ tho’ there has been 
no true Conception thereof hitherto, but meet 
groundlefs and phantaflick Imaginations. 

Ohje^ion. Some may lay (for the Folly of the 
World is great) Why fhould not an Extrad ogt 
of Spirit of Wine be good ? For fince Wine cor- 
reds it, much more fhould Spirit of Wine do it 
by its more adive Sulphureous Spirit ? 

Anfwer. So it will, if you pour .it upon, it in 
the Stomachy or a Digefling Pot, for then it will 
much contribute to its Divifion, Digefiiony and 
taking off its Vifcidityy as Spirit of U^me does in 
any wherein you pour it upon Rofm s but 

it is quite another Matter when reduced and re- 
united into the Form of an ExtvaSi again, and all 
the Spirit of IVine evaporated (or other wife fe- 
parated) from it, for then the Ref nous Parts are 
in Statu quo of Coakfcence, and want to be fepa- 
rated by IVine or Spirit of iVme^ Lixivialsy Tol^ 
ff an much as evefo . . 

of Opium Reveatd. 2oi- 

' Ohj, It may be faid. That tlig Rofin of Opium 
is but as other Rcfms, therefore why fhould it of- 
fend lb much in the Cafe of Opium. 

Anf. For Three very manifell Realbns ; 

I. That it is a Rofin of a peculiar Clammmefs and 
Vifcidtty. 2. That it has Acrimony in’t^, as ap- • 
pears by its Purging Quality if it be given in any 
Quantity, and that the Stomach diflolves it (as 
was fhewn.) ’g.^that it is join’d with the pun- 
gent Particles of the Volatile Salt of the Opiumy 
which, when it flicks to the Stomachy it holds to 
It, tearing it too long and continually with thofe 
Toints upon the fame' Farty which muft caufe Di-- 
'firefs and Vomitings in Stomachs that cannot 

digeft it, add that fometimes to no Purpofcy where- 
upon follows ConvulfidnSy Hkcdughsy &c. and al! 
Endeavours failings anTieldingot Succumhencj’y fol- 
lowed by FaimingSy Syncopesy LeipothymieSy &C. 
and Ibmetimes Death k lelf, for it inuft be a moft 
grievous Thing to be lb continually flung in the 
fame Part of the moft fenfile Membrane of the 
Stomach without Remedy or Redrels,^ If Ibme 
have died of a little Gum Ammoniacum^ or Saga- 
fenumy flicking to the Inteftinum ReBum or Colony 
which are the Sink of the Rody'y and fitted for 
and ufed to bear all Foeces and Trajhy much more 
muft the nice and exquifitely dilpoled Membrane 
at Stomach be grieved by pointed Rofiny as 
that #of OpiuWy flicking to Ibme Part thereof ; 

• befides, that the Stomach does peculiarly hate 
and loath, that any Thing, how gentle foever, 
fliould flay too long in it, Which creates frequent 
and fad Difiurhances in fuch whofe Stomachs arb 
relaxed, (as kis alfo in the Cafe of Opium) and 
cannot in due time dilcharge themfelves of the 
grieving Matter: Therefore fuch as are moftly 
troubled with thole difmal Symptoms after Refimm 

202 The Myfteriei 

Opium^ are People that have fine Texturei^ and 
ill D gefiionsy With whom it inuft, and does deal 
for a good while, as a Pleafer of the Stomachy till 
the indigeflible Rofin that is ftuck to it, does there- 
fore^ and becaule it holds the Points of the Fola^ 
tile Salt fo tedioully and importunately to one 
Part, grievoufly teaz and urge the Stomach to Vo^ 
mit^ &c, which it does in fome fooner, in others 
later, according to their refpel^ive Difpoption of 
Stomach. Hence it is that it gperatcs^^leafingly 
in fome for fever al Hours before it excites a 
fea,&c. viz.. 4, y, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, it, 12, 
15, 14, 15, 1(5, 17, 18, and more Hours, and 
in fuch as have a fturdy Texture^ and frong 
Digeftion, operates; only pleafingly all the time, 
becaufe their Senfation is not fo nice, and that 
they gradually digeft the Ro^n, which, if the 
Opium was given in a large Dofe, does (as Rojtns 
diflbived are apt to do, eipccially if they have 
any Acrimony as this has) turn into a Purger^ 
which brings down Ordure that fmells of the 
Opium, and fo the Danger is over : How com- 
mon is it, that Vomitories, being much fobdued 
in fome Stomach, turn to he Purgeirs ? 

— Thus it happens with Oogs^ that have a rohufi 
Texture^ and firong Dige(lion ; but foch Refinous 
Opium deals leverely with Cats, and commonly 
kHl^thenl. You may foe from the Premifes, why 
it caufos ill Symptoms oftner in Women, and Chil- 
dren^ than in Men, and in fine textur’*d Men, than 
the robujl, and in fuch as have weak Digefiions, 
rather than in them that have firong ; why it 
caufos all the Symptoms of pleaftng Senfation at 
firfi, and thrill EffeSls afterward ; why fome havQ 
no ill Effe6l after it, even in a large Quantity, 
unlefs you’il call Purging an ill Effe^; why 
fuch as Purge after a great Dofe efcape the Dan- 


of Opium Tt^eafd. 203 

ger, as T>ogs^ &c, why their Vomits^ efpecially 
the firftj fmell, &c, of the Ofium^ tho’ the Vq>, 
m 'tttng happens after many Hours j why the Vomiu 
ings are lb very tedious and fevere^ 'viz. becauie of 
the ftubborn Adherence of the Rofin to the Sto^ 
mach^ why it operatjes lb Jong a time mfbme^ in 
comparilbn of othei*^, 'viz,. by flaying lb long at 

1. All which feem to me a good Argument^ ^ — ■H' 
That fuch as dye with Opium^ dye while it is at 
Stomachy and conlequently, becaufe of the Rofin 
which muft needs be fatal in great Dofes^ feeing 

it' is Ibmetimes lb very grievous in Dofes of a 
Grain or JJvo^ that bring Veople even to Death'*! 

Door with Vomitmgs^ DifireJjeSy Syncopes^ ^c, yea, 
and has kill’d Ibme, even in that fmall Quantity, 
as I am irifpmi’d. 

2 . Some evidently dye while it is at Stom0ch^ 
becauie they dye foon after they X^omited up 
ibme what that Imelled of it, thb’ poffibly tnc 
Rofin flill ftuck to it. ‘ 

5. Becauie others evidently dye of the Vomiting 
and its plain Effeds at Stomach, 

4. Becauie they commonly dye with a Hie* 
cough, ^ . - . ; ' 

y. Men dye of it within theuliial time that it 
flays at Stomaci)^ which is Ibmetimes 20 Hours 
for certain ; whatever more it may be when large 
Dofes are taken ; and to me it feems an 
ment of it? killing at Stomachy when they dye 
after 20 Houts^ becaufe if k did not flkk at 
Stomach all that time, the Operation muft have 
been over, or, at leafl, much declined, and con« 
fequently the Height of the paft. 

6 . I cannot find that any have died of Opium 

when the Repn was leparated from it, tho* 1 d® 

not deny but tfiat it may kiU^ent as an immo- 
> . ' •■■•3 v : . ^r, - derate 

204 The Myfteries 

derate Quantity of Wine has done. But this I 
can tell, that one did, at Mr. Banksh the Chymljt, 
In l^lhrook in the City of London, drink fas 
Mr. Banks inform’d me} a Vint and a Half of 
(uch a Liquid Preparation of Opium, that had 
the Rofin Separated from it, that had the Power 
of 3 Ounces of Opium in it, and it nev'er harmed 
nor difeompofed him, but that he Vomited about 
an Hour after it was taken ; whether he did lb 
by Realbn of the Opium, or becaule the Perfon 
was Crop-fick, (as they call it) by Realbn he had 
drank much Wine before, or both, I cannot de- 

Now (I hope) that my inqulfitive Reader is fully 

1. That Opium does not ad by a Cold Quality ^ 
nor by the Means of Fumes, nor any how by 
dimlnfhing 0or di fabling the Spirits, (except it be 
that the perniemts Rofin may do Ibmething of that 
kind by its aforefaid ill Effeds) but by plealantly 
affedling the Membranes at Stomach, Venereal Parts, 

2. That Sleep is cauled by Relaxation, and 
quieting the Spirits. 

3. That Vleafure, elpecially if intenfe and laft- 
ing, as that by Opium, comforts, enlivens^ encode 
rages, and caufes an Ovation of the fenfitive Soul 
and Spirits • and Difpleafure caules Sadnefs, De- 
jeGion, &c, 

4. How Vleafure muft caufe Complacency, Sa^ 
tisfaUion, Content, Acquiefcence, and Compofure cS 
the fenfitive Soul and Spirits, as Grievances caulq 
the contrary. 

5* . How Vleafure, elevating and keeping up the 
Spirits, and caufing an entire Relaxation of the 
Defenfive^ and a great Rekxation of the Vigilative 


of opium ReveaPd. 2 0 5 

ContraBlon^ which tire the fetifitive Soul^ muft caufe 
Eufhory^ or eafie • undergoing of Labour^ Jour^ 
mys^ C^c. without LaJJitude^ as Experkffce (hews. 

6. How Pleafirj caufes Relaxation of all the 
fenjtle Parts, 

7. How the faid Relaxation (as in Sleep) does, 
by fuffering the Animal Spirits to expand, and 
thereby making them unfit to carry ImpreJJions 
fmartly, which is necefiTary to convey a fenle of 
Pain^ (for a [mart ImpreJJion 'ls the very caufe of it) 
take away Pain : To which you may add, That 
the fenjitive Soah attending willingly to the Senfe 
of Pleafuroy is diverted from Pain^ i and that a 
Senfe of Pain cannot be in the fameSubjed: with 
Pleafiire^ which being therefore once excited. 
Pain muft difappear ^ but that cf taking away 
all fmartnefs of ImpreJJion by Relaxation^ is a plain 
Mechanical Gaufe, 

8. Hpw therefore all Fluxes that are caufed by, 
or require a grievous Senfation^ or Irritation by 
Quantity or ^ality^ to maintain and continue 
them^ by caufing a ContraUion of the Parts to 
fqueefe out the Humours^ muft be moderated for 
want of Senfation (upon fiich Relaxation) to irrh 
rate the Parts, as it happens in Sleeps or in any 
Gafe where Relaxation^ and thereby Expanjion of 
the Animal Spirits^ incapacitates them to carry 
ImpreJ/ions immly-t which is of the EJJence of Pfin^ 
(as^ has been ftiewn.) 

9. How Perfpiration muft be promoted by 
L-ixation^ which opens the Pores, 

\o. How, that by the fame Means, Sjvcat 
alfb 'inuft be promoted, if the Body be' full of 

1 1. How Opium (or Semen Animak) being of 
the fame Principles^ and of like Principles with 
Cantharides^ Pifmire^ Bees^ Garlicky ^c, muft ex* 
cite to Vevery^ caufe Itchhgs of Skin ^ &c, 

12. How 


206 The Myfteries 

12; How Opium may, by too high an Ovation 
of the SfiritSy caufe IVatchingy while Pleafure 
caufing Relaxation^ ^c. may take away i for 
Relaxation^ as in Sleeps Syncoper, &c. is enough to 
take away Pain ; but to Sleep, Quktnefs of the Spi- 
rits is al(o required, as well as their Expanfion by 
Relaxation ; fo that Pain may^very well be taken 
off without Sleepy as it often is by Opium that ai- 
rways relaxes. 

ij. How the Pleafffr(^.th^tOpium csLufcSy is (as 
was faid) by the lame Prindplesy and therefiore of 
the lame Nature with that which Animal Seed 
caules upon the Membranes y but that Animal Seed 
caufesit only upon one Part, and bpium upon the 
Membranes of the Stomao^y Venereal PartSy and 
all other in generaly and that only for a Moment y 
but oi Opium for many Hoursy by which Means 
the Effeds of Rclaxtion by Pleafure come to be 
more remarkable ; as after much Winoy whole 
Effeds is fomcwhac lading and internaly as that of 
Opium is. 

14. How the Rofin of Opium caufes its ill Ef* 
feBs by its Indigejliblenefsy adhering j^alityy and 
tedious (tinging of the exquifitcly nice Coat of the 
Stomachy by continually teazing and urging it by 
its Acrimony and acute Volatile Points or Spiada. 

Therefore having, i. A mojt perfdl and compleat 
Sol- Volatile' Oleofum mOpiumy of the lame pleafing 
Prmciples as to all Membranes y (as Animal Seed is 
to the Membranes of Venus) whereby they rnuft 
be pleafedy tkkledy and relaxed ^ 2» A pernicious 
Rofin indigeftible, flicking, and arm’d with acrk 
monious and flinging Point Sy Which muft highly 
offend the mo^fen/ile Coat at the Stomach • 1 am 
now ready (by God*s Ajfifiance) to explain every 
PhenomenoVy or Ejfed of Opiumy however Amaz,- 
ini and Myfieriousy hoping they will not remain 
long fo, 0 CHAP, 

cf Opium ReveaPd. 207 


The Explication of the Effe&s of Opium nfed 

I TS Effeifls Extcrn;>lly uled are of Two Ibrts, 


L As an Opiate, or fTeapng Tickler of the Mem» 
itanes 5 

II. As an Alterative of the Parts that it is ap» 
pli^d to. 

Fiffiy As an Opiate or Tleafer of the Memhranesy 
it has the fame Effect as Opium ufed internally, 
and for the feme Reafon ; therefore the Caufe of 
its Operation, in this Cafe, will be better feen 
by the Explication of its Internal EffeHs^ which 
are far more perfect, compleat, and certain. 

Secondly^ As an Alterative of the Parts that it is 
applied to, which are the following, viz, 

I. It incidesy refolveSy and difcujfes by its point- 
ed, penetrating, and volatile Salt^ inliniiating it 
felf into the Faru and Humours of the Animaly 
becaufe its Particles are fine, minute, and agree- 
able thereto, ( as Msnfiruums to the Things to be 
diffolved ; ) Then by its Volatility it difcujjks whae 
it has fo incided and refolved, 

2, It moUefies and relaxes by its Sal-VolcfiHe-Oleo^ 
fum fo refolving the Farts and Humours, and 
thereby kindly loolening them ; Thus Opiates, as 


' 20 8 The Myjieries 

Solamm Lethale^ (or deadly Night Shade) Hem. 
hck^ Mandrake^ &c, come to be of excellent Ufe 
in hard 'tumours of the Spleen^ Topboufnefs^ dTc. 

3. It Maturates and Suppurates for theaforefaid 
Reafons^ for nothing can better difpofe towards 
Maturation and Suppuration than relaxing^ molk^ 

and refolding. ^ 

4. It exulcer ates or caufes or at leafl: 

Yuhifies tender Skins^ if it bo very ftr^ong, becaufe 
of its Volatile Salty as Cantharides^ Spearwort^ and 
other Things do upon the fame Account. Bat 
this EffeTl belongs mainly to the true Mafiack^ or 

that drops from the Incijions made in the 
Heads of the Foppies^ more elpecially the Theban^ 
which affords a rnoft powerful Juke^ for Exulce- 
rating or Buffering is but a ftronger, fuller, and 
therefore painful Refolution, as you fee by the 
Cuticle upon Blifters refblved into a kind of 

y. It is Pfilothrick for the fame Reafbns, for 
while it Ib refblves the Parts, it loofens the Roots 
of the Hair, and fb caufes its fliedding. 

6. It hurts the Eyes^ becaufe of its Acrimony, 
by Reafon of the Volatile Salt. 

7. It caufes Itching in the Skin by the tit illation 
of the fame Volatile Salt.^ as you find by the Ap* 
plication of Squills^ and the like. 

8. It excites Venery^ by the fame Jiiillation^ on 
the Veneral Membranes: 


of Opiii(§t Revealed. 20^ 

M — 


The Explication: of the Effe&s of Opium ufed 
internally in a moderate Doje* 

N Ote^ That becaufe Ofiam has been generally 
hitherto ufed either Crude, or with its Rfn 
in it;, the EffeBs of Opium are accordingly conh- 
dered as common Experience thereupon has given 
Opportunity of Obferving them ; but as I proceed 
I lhall fbew you where the Rehnous Part of Opium 
is concern’din the 

I. It is manifeO: why Opium may well ope-* 
rate in a very /ma// Quantity, as it ufually does^ 
becaufe the lead Matter imaginable nfWn the 
Senfes, (as has been ihewn,*) for the Thoufandth 
Part of a grain of Amhergnfe^ Musk, &c. alTeds 
the Smelling, the Hundredth Parc of a Gram of 
very acrimonious Things the Taife, which caufes 
very fenfible Vleafrre, or Difpleafure, according as 
it is agreeable^or not j much eafier may theexqui- 
ficely difpoled Membrane at Sio7nach, vfriich is af- 
feded with Things fo indehnicely fiiallj that no 
ocher Senfe, or Membrane, can take notice of, as 
the Particles of Crocus Metallorum in l^omits, Ef 
fluvias from a Cats Body, pefiiferom Efjlu^ias, and 
the like 5 of all which the Stomach is fo fenfibiej 
that they thereby caufe moil: violent Symptoms_> 
which are ( as was (hewn) proportioned to the 
Senikion. Therefore it can be no wonder, that 
a Grain, or kfs, of Opium, lliouid affed the ienfile 
Coat of the Stomach, and thereby caufe a Senfe 
of Pleafure • for that which is nice to difeera 
grieving Particles, is fo CO difcern pleafmg ones^ 

P (as 

210 The Mffbries 

(as has been laid.) Cujzfsj^ Dolor ejufJem efi Vo^ 
luftm^ th%t is^ Vleajure^ %d Difpleafure^ belong 
to the lame Part, and (as was ihewn) in e^ual 

This proves, That it muft Operate by plea- 
lingly aU'eding the Stomachy for it were other wife 
impoffible, that fo little a Qitantity Ihould caufe 
fuch remarkable Effebls^ and that before the Opium 
is out of the Stomach ; but it is ordinary for the 
Stomach to caufe mighty Effe^s by its Senfation of 
very fmall Things, otherwife infenfible and incon. 
liderable as to the Produdion of any obfervable 
Effebls • and therefore it would be a Miracle, if 
it did any other lEay caufe iuch great and nume- 
rous EffeSls, Helmont obferved, That Vro Remedto 
reflaurativo Archai ( Jive Ajuma fenJitiViS ) non re- 
quiritur Unciarum & Drachnarum Quantitas^ fed 
fauca Grana ^ That is. Very little forces to comfort 
the Archaus (or Senfitive Soul-,) becaufe it is done 
by Senfation^ fas I have proved.) 

2. It is as evident how a hot, brisk, and Sa^ 
Um-'volattle Thing, as Opium is, muft affed the 
fenfile Coat of the Stomach in a foort Time^ as Vo. 
mits^^ Vurgersy &c, do j which it does much in 
the lame Time with thofe Things, that is, as loon 
as they infinuate themfelves through the Crufia 
Carnofa of the Stomachy and reach its fenfile Coat^ 
which is the Realbn that Ofmm^ Vomits^ Pur. 
gers^ &c. make fome, and like Delays before they 
Operate j which is alfo a Proof, that all of them 
Operate by affeding the fenfile Coat oi the Sto. 
mach^ all the Difference being, that one affeds 
pleafently, as Wine^ Meaty and Cordials^ and the 
other -by a grievous Senfation, 



of Opium 


Th Explication of the Conjlant Effeils of 
Opium f/fid intEYhdUy^ See. 

I. The firfi and leading EffeB of Opium is, 
Caufing a mefi agreeable^ pkafant, and charmmg 
Sen/at ion about the Region of the Stomach, This is 
a Property that belongs to it omni & femper^ and 
indeed foil to Opiates, if the Degree, Duration^ 
and Finenefi of the Pleafmre be coifidered. 

How manifeft is it, from what has been faid of 
the mdft CotBpleacand Confiimmate Sal-Volatile^ 
Oleofum of Opium, which exad:!y agrees in Prin* 
ciples, dYc. with Semen Animale, that fb- highly 
pleafes and titillates the Membranes, with wiiich 
it not only agrees in Principles, (as was lliewn) but 
has them more active, actuating, and titidatv'jg^ 
than any Membrane, that it niuft of oeeeilicy 
highly pleafe all Membranes, more efpecialiy fuefa 
as are mofi: exquifitely difpofed for Senfation^, as 
the moft fenfile Membrane at Stomach is, not only 
by its Agreeahknefs, but by a mod Charming 
and Captivating Titillation, that aiduktes and 
caules a fine Ovation, and fererie glowing of the 
Spiritus infiti of the Stomach, wliich makes it 
pieafing in the higheil manner, having all the Re^- 
qaiftes to caufe a Senfe of P leaf ire / and that is. 
not all, but it being taken into the Body, it caufes a , 
long, continued, and permanent fenfe of Plea fur e, 
which we muf necejjitrlly carry along with us as a 
Vade Mecum, even Sleeping or IVaking, Refing or 
Moving, or whatever we do, or wherever we are j 
by which Means, it far excells all other Fkafares, 
and confequently produces fiich mighty EjftBs ; 
all other Pleafures being momentary, tranfitory, de. 
filtory, or interrupted, except that of Wine, and 

P 2 Cor» 

212 The My/ieries 

Cordials at StG7nach^ which therefore have the Ukefi 
EfftBs to that of Opium^ tho’ they do not equal 
it in the Intenfenefs or Duration' th^PkaJure^ 
unlefs they are repeated, (as indeed they may be) 
which made me to intimate, That drinking a 
good Glafs of TP'ine every Hour^ and by that 
Means keeping the frefh Pleafure thereof conti- 
nually at the Stomachy (like that of Opium) is the 
beft Way to caufe a long Euphory of Labour^ 
Journeys, &c, which may come near the Perfor- 
mance of our Divine SalVolatile-Oleofum of Opium,, 
tho’ never equal it for Reafons already fufficiently 
hinted, viz., becaule Wine wants its moft agree- 
able Compofition, and fine TBillation of the Vo~ 
latiU Salt that Opium and Animal Seed have. 

Note^ That the Pkafure of Opium may, tofbme 
inadvertent Perfons, feem very indefinite, tho' it 
is at Stomachy (as it mufi: be ) becaule the Pkafure 
immediately relaxing all Parts, and gratifying the 
Senfitive Soul, which informs the whole, feems to 
be general, tho’ Originally only at Stomach, 

2 . Our Confummate Sal-Volatile.Oleofum mull 
caufe ^ a blith, gay, and good Himour ; for being 
p’ealed with any Thing (as is the Vulgar Obfer* 
vatson) caufes a good Humour^ how much more 
niuit lucii an intenfe, agreeable, and continual Plea- 
fur e, that we always, and every where carry a- 
long with us, fo do ! How common a Saying is it. 
He was pkafed with fomewkat, for I found him in a 
good Humour / 

The like is to be laid of its cauflng Prompfk 
tude. Serenity^ Alacrity, and E^peditenefs in Dif 
patching and Mmagmg of Bufenefs ; for thele are 
but natural and neceffary Conlequences of a 
hllth, gay, and good Elumour, and therefore al- 
ways go together , lor th^fenfitive Soul being put 


of Opium Reveatd. 2 1 3 

in a fine Ovation^ by the continual Fleafure^ is 
moreadive; and having thereupon (aswasfhewn) 
wholly excufed himfeif from the Care^ and foli- 
citude of the Defenfive ContraBion^ and, in great 
Meafiire, of the Vigilative C ont ration is more 

at lei/ure to attend the Managery of other Affairs 
without DifiraBion ; befides, that he is aBuated 
and enliverdd by the aforefaid Ovation of the 
Spirits, and pleafing Tit illation into an Alacrity 
and Promptitude for any Bufinefs ^ with which alfb 
he is Icfs tired^ becaufc* he has ( as was faid j rid 
himlelf of the Fatigue of the ContraBlons, that 
fas was manifeffly proved) do caufe Lajjitude, 
which otherwife can hardly touch or affed him at 
all in the State of Relaxation. 

4 , It mufi^ufe AjJUrance, Ovation of the Spirits., 
Courage, Magnanimity, (as does) by elevating 
the fenfitive Soul by Pleafure, and a high Titillation 
of the Splritus infiti, by its l^clatHe Parts actuating 
them, as the Animal Semen does all Creatures in 
Times of Copulation, tho' it immediately affed's 
only the Venereal Membranes, but ours does aduate 
them not only in thofe Membranes, but alfb in the 
more exquisitely difpofed Membranes forSenfapon 
at Stomach, and foon after, all over the Body. 

5 . It prevents and takes away Grief, Fear, Anxie.. 
ties, Peevijhnefs, Fretfulnefs, d^c. for the aforefaid 
Reafons, which caufe a blith, gay, and good Hu- 
mour., Promptitude, Courage., &c, for it is impof 
fible to be gay, and good Humoudd, Serene, Chear^ 
ful. Courageous, and Magnanimous, and at the fame 
Time Sorrowful, Fearful, Peevijh, Fretful, dt^c. 
If the bare Senfe of an ordinary Meal of Meat at 
Stomach, which caufes but a flow Pleafure in com- 
parifbn with Opium, takes off the Peevijlmef, 
Fretfulnefs, d^c, that the grievous Senfation of Hun^ 
ger caufes, how much more muft the intenfe and 
charming Pleafure caufed by Opium.^ that is fo agree- 

P 3 able. 

214 The Myfteries 

able, even far beyond TVins it felf, (as has been 
fet forth) take away all ill Humoursy Fretfulnefsy 

Ohj, But it may be laid. That Skefinefs, which 
depends allb upon Relaxation^ as the EffeBs of 
Tleafure do, caufes a Peevtjh^ Fretful Humour ^ as 
is commonly obferved. 

Anf. It is lb far otherwife in the Cale of O- 
fium, that it is quite contrary ; for, i. The 
Sleepy are not Peeviih, iinlefs you put them by 
Ibme Means out of the Tleafure of enjoying Sleep 
or Relaxation^ for if you let them alone they will 
not trouble you with Peevifhneft, nor any ill Hu- 
mour ; but it is the calling them from their relaxed 
Condition^ to the grievous Task of ContraBions ^ 
that vexes them ; lb that it is Ti\^ Want of conti- 
nuing under the Relaxation that frets them, and 
the more, becaule the Fatigue and Tedium of Con- 
traction did put them upon the Relief of Sleeps of 
which if difappointed, they are much vexed; 

But in the Cafe of Opiums you cannot lb eafily 
rob them of their Tleafure^ which they carry con* 
tinually within them in an uninterrupted manner, 
unlefs fome very grievous Thing happens, which 
caufes more defenjive Contraction than the Opium 
caufes 'Relaxation ; tho’ even this alio is generally 
foon overcome by the Tleafure continually inviting 
the Relaxation^ ' and promoting it, whereas the 
Interruptions thereof are tranfitory) but at the 
worfl: it is but talking more Opium^ and the Work 
is done *» for, I obferve, that the Dofe of Opium 
maft be' fufficient "to introduce fuch a Senfe of 
Tleafure as caufes a Relaxation of the Contraction 
cauied by the Grievance : Hence it is certain, that 

greater requires a larger Dofe of Opium^ (as 
has been intimated.)"" ^ ^ "6. Alf 

oj Opium ReveaVd. 2 1 5 

6. All know, that Tleafant Diverfions^ as Mufick^ 
Tkafant Je/^s and Storks^ fine Sights^ &c. do 
Caufe Euphory, and an eafie undergoing of Journeys^ 
Labour^ &c. Therefore, if fuch interrupted, tran- 
Hent, and flight Pleafures^ do it fb much, it will 
be eafily granted me, that a continual^ and more 
intenfe Pleafure^ that is always prefent without any 
Interruption or Intermijfion^ (as that of Opium') muft 
caule a more eminent and permanent Euphory^ 
proportioned to the Pkafure, which cauflng Re- 
laxation^ prevents the Fatigue ( or L.nJJitude) that 
is caufed only by Contractions^ either Figllative^ 
Defienfivey or IntemivOy (as I have proved.J 

So that I do not conceive, how tlic NoBainhuU 
(or ftich as^aik in their Sleepj can ever be tired, 
if they Travelled ever fo far, (if they could Eat 
arid Drink) becaufe the Relaxation of the Sleep 
recruits them as much as they ({Dend of Spirit s^&c, 
fa Perfbns that caufe fuch Relaxation by Opiums . 
and fb repeat it as to maintain the Relaxation^ 
can hardly be weary ^ which is the true, plain, 
and Mechanical Reafon^ why tlis Turks^ and other 
Eajlern People ^ do, by the Help of Ophim, per- 
form prodigious Journeys without being tired ; 
'which may therefore (in ARufion to tho Ncdt am- 
hull) be call’d Opiambully ( or Opambuli ) as being 
a kind of Artificial HoSfambuliy becaufe they are 
much relax’d by the Pleafure that Opium caules, as 
the other are by Sleep. Qui Lrstitid ajfichmtur 
(fays S antler ins) nuilam in Itimre Defatigationem 
fentiunt • That is. The Merry are not IVeary^ (as 
the Saying is) becaufe Mirth, being pleafant, 
caufes ReUxationy as Opium does, in feme mea- 

P 4 

21 ^ The Myfieries 

Note, That as to all the krcgoing ferefte and 
brisk EfeSfsy a Full and liberal Verffiration, which 
ft alfocaufes, (as will be fhewn) contributes much 
thereto a fofieriori ^ for, as Fire burns (lowly and 
dully, if the Smoak docs by any means return 
upon it, and very ferem if not, (b it is with the 
Flame of Ltfe^ if clouded with, or clear’d from 
Vapours by Ferfpiration, Sandor. SecSl. 7. Aph. 17. 

lanchoUa fuperatur libera Fetfpiratione, ^ 

30. 31. Edulia aperkntia Gaudium movent ; That is. 
Such as open the Fores^ and caule Ferfpirationy 
caule Joy or A firth. 

7. It lulls., foothsy and, as it ’were, charms the 
Mind' with Confent and Accpuiefcence^ for the fe- 
veral Reafons couched in the Premifes, and be- 
caufe the fine, contimd, and charming Fleafure of 
Opium., (fuch as fome GlaJJes generous /Ti^ecaufes) 
muh needs have fuch an Effect 

8. It quiets., allays, and compofes all Ferturhations 
and Commotions of the fienfittve Soul, Spirits, ^c. 
I. Becaufe it (b lulls, [oaths, and charms the fienfi.. 
tive Soul, (as is aforefaid) who is the Original of 
all Alotions md\^A 7 ilmaL a. Becaufe all 

are, by the Relaxation, proportionably abated (as 
was demondrated.)' Thus Opium takes off Hyfie. 
rick Fits, Fevers from Commotions of .the Spirits, 
Convulfions., Stops Hemorrhages, (or Bleeding) 

9. It caufies a Relaxation of all the fienfile Farts of 
the Body, by Reafon of the great and continual 
Fleafiure that it caufes \ and how Fleafkre caufes 
Relaxatm, I have (hewn in Chap. 14. 

10. It caufes Indolence, or Exemption. from Fain, 
by caufing fb high and lading a Pleafure ; i. Be- 
caufe that Fleafure takes up the Attention of the 
fenftive Soul, who delights in’t. 2. Becaufe a 
fenfe of Pleafure and Fain cai'inot be at the fame 
Tme in the fame Subfile being they are Contraries., 


of Oipium ReveaPef. 217 

3, Becaufe the Membranes being relaxed, and the 
Animal Spirits expanded, the Impreffions of Pain 
cannot be carried to the fenfitiue Soul, becaufe 
they cannot convey Imp-reffions linartly being thus 
relaxed and expanded, (as has been demonffrated 
by the Comparifbn of a Gut half full of Air, &c.) 
and all Imprejjions of Pain niuft be fmart, or elfe 
they are not ImpreJJlons of Vain \ for gentle Im- 
pYeJJions are fuch as belong to Oils, fmooth, and 
foft Things, or when the Animal Spirits can hardly 
carry any Imprefftons, but gently, as in Sleep, and 
ocher Relaxations, as that upon Vleafure,&'c^ which 
is our Cafe. 

Note, That^wiil caufe Indolence without caufing 
Sleep, becaufe Sleep requires Relaxation and Quiet 
of the Spirits, but Indolence requires only Relaxation, 
(as was fhewn) which always follows the charm^ 
ing Pleafure of Opium. 

II. It flops, moderates, or palliates mofl Fluxes, 
and promotes Perfpiration ; becaufe the Relaxation 
takes away the fenfe of the Irritation of Humours, 
which caufes a Contrabiion to Iqueefe them out, 
and that the fame Relaxation opens the Pores, to let 
the Fumes out, which pafs by their own Levity 
upon the opening of the Pores. Nihil magss (fays 
Sanflorim, Sec^i:. 7; Aph. 6.) reddit liber am Perjpi- 
rationem quam Animi Confolatio, ( aut voluptas ) & 
Aph. 1 9. Animi Confolatio, quacunque de caufd, ape^ 
rit meatus, ^ largam Perfpirationem facit . 

Now you may perceive why Opium, and good 
Cordials, do moderate Fluxes by Stool, even be- 
fore they are out of the Stomach, becaufe the 
Pleafure there caufed relaxes all Parts, and thereby 
caufing an Expanflon of the Animal Spirits, the 
fenfe of the Irritation is loft, becaufe the Expanded 

‘ ' Spirits 

2i8 The Myfteries 

Sprits cannot carry the Impreffions fmartly to the 
^jhive Soul^ which muft be, to caufe a fenfe of 
Irritation^ or grievous Senfation : By the fame Rea- 
fon, only warm Trenchers applied to the BeUy^ or 
fitting upon a warm Stool^ &c. moderates a Loofe- 
nefs^ becaule the Vleafure of the Warmth relaxes, . 
and fb takes away a fenfe of the- Irritation by ther 
aforefeid Exp an f on of the Spirits, 

12. J have jufi now jhewn how it promotes infen- 
(ibk Perfpiration, viz. by the Relaxation opening 
the Fores y and letting out the Fumes ; which I 
need not have mentioned again but for Order 
lake, that all may thereby fee, that I evade the 
Explication of no Effed, nor, indeed, need I, for 
they are now obvious enough, even without my 
Explication^ to any Sagacious Per [on ; lb that the 
Flainnefs may give greater caufe to pafs over (bme 
untouched, than the Difficulty \ but it is not fit 
that either fhould caufe any Omiffion in fuch a 
mighty Concern^ that was never Explicated, and 
fcarce ever th(3€ight poffible. 

15. Opium prevents Shiver ings in y^gue Fits, be- 
eaufe that (for the Reafons aforelaid) it takes 
away the fenfe of the Irritating Humours that caufes 

14. It prevents and cures Colds ^ by the Relaxa- 
tion that its Vleafure caufes, whereby the Vores are 
kept very open, and Verfpiration (as was Ihewn) 
promoted. Befides, that it preventing the Sen- 
fation of, hinders it to conftringe the Pores, by 
caufing a grievous Senfation. 

ly. It caufes a larger and flower Vulfe^ becaufe 
of the Relaxation that the intenfe and continual 
Vleafure caufes, by which the Arteries are widened^ 
and the Motion made flower ; i, Becaufe the 
Animal Spirits are weakened by the Relaxation of 
their Venels, and their Expanflon thereupon. . 

2. Becaule the fenfe of Irritation^ by which the 

of Opium Reveatd. 2 1 p 

16. It caufes Drlnefs in the Mouthy (as Sleep 
doth *, J I. Becaufe the Dilatation of the Glan- 
dules, by the Relaxation^ detains and fiifpends the 
Humours ; and 2. Becaule the Senlation bernf^ 
lefTen’d, the Membranes that include the Sailed 
Glandules are not irritated to Contraction to fqueeze 
out the Saliva (or Spittle.) 3. Becaufe the Fulfe 
is flower to caufe an Extruflon of the Humours. 

17 . It has mofi EffeU in warm and moifi IVeather^ 
becaufe both Warmth and Moifture promote Re^ 
laxation, by which Opium does (upon the Account 
of the Pleafere it caufes) perform its Effects. 

18 . It has more EffeCl upon fine and lax Textures^ 
for the fame Reafon, and becaufe their Senfation 
is more nice^ and affeded more with Pleafing or 
Grieving Things : Therefore it afFeds Children 
and Women ^ efpecially the Nice, and Delicate, 
more than Men ; which may be the Reafbn why 
Women do not ufe Opium^ in the Eafiern Countreys y 
as much as Men, 

I p. It caufes an Efflorefcence (or Rednefs) of the 
Skin, (as Sleep or Wine do) becaufe the Skin be- 
ing relaxed, admits the Bloud to come into it very 
freely, as Cold^ Fear, contracting the Farts 
of the Shiny repel it, or fqueefe it out, or back 
again ; Thus Perfens that drink much, get Red 
Nofes, by frequent Relaxations of the Skin, which 
widen the Roads of the Bloud more and more ; 
Hence it is that the Bags at a Turky-Cock’s Neck 
are red when he is pleafed, and loon pale again 
when dilpleafed. 

20. It ajfeCls the Genus Nervofum^ or Animal 
Bpiritsy (which is a common Obfervation) more 
than the Bloudy becaufe it Operates by affeCting 
Senfation^ wherein the Nerves and Membranes are 
rnoft concerned, and not by altering the Bloudy to 
which it bears no Froportiony to caufe any remark- 
able ~ • 


220 The Myfteries 

Note, How plainly this ConceJJion bf all Authors 
confirms what I laid, That it does not ope- 
rate as an Alterative of the Bloud^ c^c, but by af^ 
feeing Senfation^ as I have proved. 

21 , It increafes Seed in fame Meafure^ becaufe it 
adminifters a SalVolatik^Okofum of the fame Na^ 
ture with it, and by its TitiUation folicites and in- 
vites the lending of its Matter that way, as is 
obfervable in fuch asufe much TitiUation \ but to 
Ipeak 'plainly and mechanicaUj^ I think that this 
mainly happens, becaule of the Relaxation of the 
Parts admitting (as was faid of the Efflorefience 
of the Skin by Relaxation') the Bload, or Mate- 
rials of Seed^ more freely into the Tefiiclesy and 
all the Seminary Vejjelsy efpecially, being that the 
TitiUation caules an oftener emptying of the lame, 
in order to receive thole Materials with lels 

Jit tony for Quod intus ejl frohibet alienumy that is. 
What IS within hinders the entrance of other Matter - 
Nothing can receive more than what it can con- 
tain, but what is often emptied can lucceffively 
receive much. 

22. It caufes a great Promptitude to Venery^ E-. 
regions y &c, felpecially if the Dcfe be larger then 
ordinary) becaule being of the lame Principles 
with Animal Seedy arid (in all frohahility) Ibme- 
what more titiUatingy and of like Principles ( tho’ 
more gentle) than Cantbaridesy it muft highly 
titiUate thofe Parts, and confequently caufe a 
great Promptitude to Venery, 


o/ Opium ReveaPJ. 



The Explication of the frequent (tho not 
confiant) Effe&s of Opium, in a Mode-- 
rate Dofe. 

I. TT caufes Skef^ becaufe it highly difpofes 
A thereto by the Relaxation that its Fleafurs 
caufes. Thus Mufick, agreeable Frications^ and 
many other Fleafures^ nay, all that are confident 
with Ipngy px fitting fiilly and filent, incline us to 
Sleep ; but^one can compare with the fweet^ 
continual^ and tranjcendent Pleafure of Opium ^ that 
we .carry along with us for many Hours j 
wliereas other Pleafures are either remifs, or in- 
terrupted, or tranfient in their cojuu 

nuance in gentle Pleafure^ as the fall of Waters^ 
Whirling of Winds^ efeds much towards Sleep, 
lb Intenfenefs does alfb, tho’ momentary^ as that of 
Venus \ how much then mud a continual and in. 
tenfe Pleafure caufe it, efpecially when Refi^ Si- 
lence^ &c, is added thereto. 

NotCj That Sleep is fo far from being a Property 
of Ofium^ that it does not belong to it cmm, foU^ 
or femper s yet People have generally look’d upon 
Sleep as fuch, which caufed many Errours, 

2. It caufes pleafant Dreams^ becaufe the very 
Sleep is caufed and continued by Pleafure^ when 
it is by Opium ; which Pleafure being all the time 
we Sleep within us, mud needs fugged pleafant 
Dreams^ or none, for how can fad and melancholy 
Dreams feife one that is in a gay and pleafmt Condi, 
non, as far as one in Sleep is capable thereof 

3. Jr 

222 The Myjleries 

It flops Vomiting ; a . As it doth other Vluxes^ 
by taking away the [m[e of Irritation. 2. By 
highly pleafing, and thereby quieting and compoflng 
the Commotion ol the Stomach, 3. By relaxing it, 
which oppofe the Contraliiony by which Vomiting 
is perform’d. 

4. It flills Hiccoughs for the lame Reafbns. 

y. It caufes Convulfions ani ContraBions to ceafe. 

1 . Becaufe it induces a Relaxation^ which takes 
them off. 2. By taking off the lenfe which the 
Irritating caules. 3. By compofing the Spirits. 

6. It caufes the Meat to ^ay long at Stomachy (as 
Sleep does;) i. By relaxing the Stomachy fo that 
it is not lubje6t to contraB to fend it our. 2. By 
flilling all Motionsy whereby the Stomach grows 
proportionably unadtive. 3. Becaufe thQ Relaxa- 
tion oppofes the ContraBiony by which the Men- 
ftruum is^ fent into the Stomachy or the Saliva into 
the Mouth ; both which are therefore much want- 
ed in Sleep for the like Reafon (as has been Jhewn.) 

It moderates and prevents Hunger • i, Becaufe 
(as was faid) the Menftruum is not (b plentifully 
fent or Iqueefed into the relaxed Stomach, 2. Be- 
caufe it takes away the fenfe of Hunger. 5. Be- 
caufe it leaves the Meat to ttay too long at Sto^ 
machy by Reafon that it is relaxed, more infenfible 
and proportionably languid in motion (as in 
Sleep.') ■ 

8. It caufes Sweaty when the Body is full of moi- 
flurcy (as Sleep doth) bf relaxing, and thereby 
opening the Bores ^ and not (as People com- 
monly talk) by attenuating, and the like, for a 
Grain of Opium bears no Proportion to the Bloud 
and Humours : That it caufes it meerly as Sleep 
does, is manifeft, not only becaufe it bears not a 
due Proportion to the IVorkj as an Alter ativey but 
- becaufe Men do not Sweat in that Cafe (as in 
Sleep) without much moifture in the Bodyy where- 
' as . 

of O'^iumReveaPd. 223 

as much would not be attenuated as loon as lels : 
Therefore it is only an Exudation of the Humours 
upon a Plenty thereof, and opening of the Pores. 
SanBoriuSy SedL i. Afk 22. Inv'tfihiiis Perfpiratio fit 
“ 'vifibilis^ cfuando Islutrimentum efi nimium 5 That 
is, Invifible Ferfpiration becomes 'uifible (Sweat} 
when nourijhment ('or moifiure) ts too much^ which 
exadly agrees with that of Hippocrates cited in 
Chapm 13. 

9. It caufes the Menfes to fiow^ when nothing is 
wanting but the opening or relaxing of the Via 
or Pores they iflue out at, as when they are natu- 
rally too narrow and clofe; as upon the firft Ten- 
dency to th^ in young Girls ^ or when Ifopt by 
Reafon of any undue Contraction thereof, as by 
Pain^ Coldy Sorrow^ or other grievom Pajfions^ all 
which do dole the Pores. Bendes, it does irritate 
thole very lenlile Venereal Parts to EreBion ; and 
I have reafon to think, that it does by a general 
Relaxation^ caufe an Increa/e of Bloifd^ as it does 
of the Breafis^ Milk^ &c. cauling, as it were, an 
Artificial Puberty^ or (at leaft) much promoting 
the Natural^ and therefore is of excellent Ufem 
this Gale in Judicious Hands, tho’ little thought of 
in PraBice^ 

Obj. Here I may be fure of an ObjeBm^ That 
it flops all Fluxes^ but Sweat or Perfpiration. 

Anfi It is 2isfalfe as it is a common faying^ if they 
do not mean only luch Fluxes as proceed from 
grievous Senfation^ and ContraBion thereupon ; for 
how can that which relaxes all Parts, flop any 
Flux that depends upon Relaxation ? as StiUicidium 
TJrina by Relaxation of the SphinBer of the Blad^ 
deVy involuntary Flu^ per Anum by the Relaxation 
of its SphinBer y and fuch like *, lo‘do I fpeak of 
a Flux that may often depend upon Relaxationy 
(as I have Ihewn.) Obj, 

224 Myfteries 

Ohj, But it may htohjeCted^ That it particularly 
flanches Bloud, how then Ihould it promote the 
Menfes / 

Anf, Experience tells me it does^ and Reafon 
confirms it : It Ranches Bloud ^ by compofing the 
Fury of its Motion^ but that does not hinder, 
but it m3,y TQhx the Pores for S-Weaty Menfes^ Lo- 
chia^ &c. to pals : and> why not for the Menfes 
and Lochia^ as well as Srveat^ by opening the Poresy 
1 would fain know ? confidering alfo the Titilla^ 
tion that it caufes upon thole Venereal P art which 
may very much folicite their motion, 

lo. It . caufes the Lochia to flpw for the lame 
Reafbns that it does the Menfesi This I have great 
Experience in, 

NoVey That the Menfes^ Lochia, and Perffiratio??, 
are Natural Evacuations that have Pores defigned 
for them by Nature, the opening of which by Re. 
luxation mull make way for them : Suppole, when 
the Bloud flows fb much into the Skin as to caule 
an Efflorefcence, by the Relaxation thereof, after 
Opium is taken^ that there were Pores to carry out 
Bloud, as there is for Sweat, why Ihould not one 
flow as well as the other ? But there are ftch Pores 
for the Menfes and Lochia, and large ones too, and - 
therefore it muft promote them ; and why ihould 
not Relaxation do it, as well as ContraBion, by Cold, 
Terrour, Grief, d^c, (lop thern ? for the Ejfetls of 
Contraries are contrary, 

IT, If caufes the Stone to pafs* i. Becaufe it re- 
laxes, and (o widens the PaJJage, 2 . Becaule it 
may move with little or no Pain, which contrads 
the Parts, and fo hinders its PaflTage, therefore 
the Nfe of Opium, with fome other Helps, is, the 


of opium ReveaPJ. 225 

greateft Means that can be^ or ever will be^ for the 
^tone^ till the DiJJUution of it is found out, not 
only to give Eafe in the of the Stone ^ but to 
caufe it to pafi ; for both which Turpofes it exceJIs 
all Things, and doth both at once. 

12, h caufes the LuUvery of Womsn^ By relaxing 
the Neck of the IVomh^ as it does that of the 
Bladder to Perlbns of the Stone ^ but in the 

Delivery of Women it is not to be ufed but in par- 
ticular Cafes, and by a very Skilful Hand ; i. Be- 
caufe it is apt to take off all the Womens Pains, 
and Throws, and fo quite difappoint the Delivery 
for a day, 2, 3, 4, or more fometimes. 2. Be- 
caufe it caufing a great Relaxation, the Parts after 
Delivery will^e very unapt to clofe and contrad: 
duely as they ftouid in fuch Cafes, otherwife fe- 
veral Inconveniences may enfue. 3- It may be 
pernicious upon the Account of the Evacuation 
of Bloud that then happens. But thefe Things 
belong more properly to the Ufe of Opium in 

13 . * It caufe 5 Deadnefs of the Eyes, (as in Drun- 
^enefs, c^c.) becaufe the Cornea is relaxed, fo that 
thz ^Humours do not fill it up to a tenfe Rotundity, 
as when ’tis more contracted. 

14. It caufes the Pupilla to dilate, bccaufe of the 

lame Relaxation. ■ . v, 

15 '. caufes a Growth of the Ereafi, Penis, and 
Increafe of Milk, by Reafbn of the feme Relaxa^ 
tion, as the Pleafure of the Semen upon Puberty 
does, or as Emollients and Relaxers applied to the 
Breaps, increafe Milk, by making more Room 
for it, &c, 

16. It ^caufes Venered Dreams, becaufe of the 
Titillation of the Venereal Membranes that it caufes. 

17 It caufes NoBurnal Pollutions for the feme 
Reafon, and becaufe it relaxes the Parts. 


j8. It 

2 26 The Myfieri^s 

1 8. It caiifcs Itchings in the Skin ^ becaule of its 
*Iuillation by its Volatile Salt, 

19. It caufes much Urine,, as Cantharides^ Bees^ 
Tifmire^ Millepdes\ &c. do^ by its Volatile Salt^ 
which titillates and irritates thofe Parts, by its re- 
laxing the Pores of the Kidneys, and rendring 
the Humours more penetrating, in fome meafiire, 
by the Volatile Salt, 

20. It caufes a Naufea^ by its Rofin flicking to, 
and teazing the fenfile Coat of the Stomach. The 
Reafon why it is generally fb long before it caufes 
a Naufea or Vomitings is, that its Pleafure does at 
firfl prevent it, till at lalt the flicking Rofin urges 
it by its long Stay, and vexatious Adherence. 

21. It caufes Swimmings in the Head by Confeilt, 
when the Stomach is grieved by that Ro^n, as you 
find upon Naufeas before Vomitings or when any 
Thing does much offend the Stomach., as much 
Drink or IVme^ which when.they have Vomited, 
thofe Swimmings ceafe. 

22. It caufes Watching in Ibme Perfbns, who 
are of very moveable Spirits^ by aduating and flir- 
ting their Spirits by its atflive Volatile Salt,, tho’ it 
docs at the fame time pleafe the Membranes^ and 
confequently relax the fenfile Parts, and thereby 
caufe Indolence, the Effe( 5 t of Relaxation 5 which 
k alfo does, when People keep themfelves from 
Sleep by voluntary Motion, and therefore takes away . 
Pain, even when Men Travel, &'c. 

Befides, there are forae fort of Perfons, that 
upon Joy, good News, Pleafure, or the like, are 
too much elevated, or have a rejtlefs Ovation of the 
Spirits, which will not fuffer them to Sleep, tho’' 
they are in a Pleafant Condition all the time ; ThIS' 
may be the Caie of fbme that cannot Sleep after 
Opmm, tho* they arc all the Time (as they call itj 
ill a Heavenly Condition, for (as I have (aid) a 



of Opium RevearJ. 227 

^letnefs of the Spirits is requifite to caufe Sleep, 
as well as Rdaxation^ but Relaxation alone, and 
thereby Expanfto?^ of the Spirits, lb that they can- 
not carry Imprejpons finartly, is fufficient to caufe 
Indolence 5 and the Vleafure to caufe a Heavenly (or 
Very pkafant) Condition, Sandor. Stat. Med. Se< 5 t. 
7. Aph. 28. iays, That L^etitia perfeverans-per muU 
tos dies fomnnm inrpedit : Per fevering Vleafure may 
do the feme, by like Reafon^ that is, too much 
Agitation or Ovation of the Spirits, 

Sometimes too large a Bofe caufes Watchings by 
over-aduating and exciting the Spirits : Mcs, 
dicum vini gynerof^ Mlium (feys SanSlorim) 
e^nciliant fomnum^ & Ferfpirationemj fi vero plus 
ju/lo fumantur^ utru?nque prohibent^ perfpirahile tamen 
in Sudorem convertunt^ that is, A little generous 
Wine and Garlick will caufe Sleep and Verjpiration^ 
hut too much hinder bothy yet they convert the perfpp 
Table Matter to a Sweat ; which Wine and Garlick 
have the Nature of Opiates^ and the Realbn why 
they Swejt, is, the Quantity of the Wine affording 
more Moifture, Hippocrates feys. 

25. A dubious State between Sleeping and Wakings 
5 s caufed, when the Relaxation^ upon the Pleafure 
'Of Opium, inclines to Sleep, but the irrequi^re 
Ovation of the Spirits, by the Vleafure and 'Titilla.-^ 
tion^ will hardly fuffer it, yet highly pleafes, and 
puts them in a fweet agreeable Condition. 

O 2 


228 TheM^fteries 


The Explication of the rare EffeSs of Opium 
in a Moderate JDoJe. 

1. "I T caufes temporary Vulfes of the Bladder^ and 
i fometimes of other Parts^ by its over relaxing 
the Parts^ and caufing thereby an Expanjton of the 
Elafhick Spirits^ which ( as was demonftrated ) 
weakens their Moaon, 

2. Fahring of the 'Tongue does (as in Relaxation 
by Drunkenncfs ) proceed froni the fame Caule. 

Loofenefs of the Lower Jaw^ as you fee in the 
Drowfy and Drunken People, is from the lame 


4 * It fometimes prevents Sweat, by caufing a 
very Liberal Perfpiration (as was Ihewn *, ) for ( as 
SanBorius feys^ who Ihould know it) much infcn- 
fible Perfpiration and Sweat cannot confi ft, elpe- 
cially in a Temperate Per (bn, who Eats and 
Drinks moderately ; Therefore, if you keep a 
Perfbn, that Sweats much at Night, in a free 
Perfpiration all Day, by the Help of an Opiate, 
you’ll much lelTen or totally prevent the Sweat at 
Night, as in Confumptive Verfons, &:c. 

It caufes Abortion, by relaxing the Neck of 
the JVomb, which alfo the Pleafure of Coition 
ibmetimes does for the like Reafon, and would 
be much more apt to caufe it if it continued long, 
as that of Opium does. Note the Inconvenience of 
Coition after Impregnation ; This is the great Caufe 
that IVhores are not apt to bear Children, becaufe 
Frequency of Pleafure dx5 over-relax the CoUum 

of Opium Reveal J. 2 zp 

6, It prevents Abortion^ when Fear, Ttrrour^ or 
any contrafting Caufe, as Griefs grievous Vajjiom^ 
or Senfatlom^ do threaten if, by its taking off the 
Contrail ion and Grievance that caules it. 

7 Intumefcence of the Lips is from their Kelaxa^ 
tien^ admitting the Bloud and Humours into them 
in a plentiful manner \ befides, that their Laxity^ 
and the Inadvertency occafioned by the Diverting 
Tleafure or Drowfinefs that follows, letting the 
Lower Lip hang down carelcfly (as is ufual in luc!i 
Cafes) may by expofing much more of that Lip 
(which is mod concern’d in this Effell ) make it 
feem larger, as a hanging Lip does. 

8. It may cure a Dropfy^ (as Dr. TVillis doth in- 

ilance *, ) caufing a free Verfpiration^ which 

is much wanted in thofe Cafes. 2. By rela:sing 
the Poresy and making way for the Humours to pah. 
3. By caufing m\iQh Urine^ as Cantharides^ Mille^ 
pedes^ do, Upon the Account of their 

Sdty with which Opium abounds. 

9. It cures Stupors that proceed from Co77traIii* 
on^ as by Co/J, &c. by relaxing all Parts. 

10. It caufes Anxieties and Dillrejj'es^ by theJ^^^^yT*! 
flicking and teazing the Stomach,. 

11 . Vomitings and Hiccoughs proceed from the 
fame Caufe. 

12. Convitlfions are eaufed by the fame Eofin^ 

while it continually urges the Stomach to grievous 
Vomitings ^ which at lail draw other Parts (as the 
Stomach ufually does when under ^rtat Grievances) 
into violent Contrablions or Convulfions by confent, 
to endeavour its AJJIfiance^ becaufe the defenfive 
Contratlion growing very high by the almoh in- 
tolerable and tedious Grievance at caufes 

a mighty comprejjion of the fpringy Animal Spirits^ 
by which Means they grow very forcible, irre-? 
quiete, and violently fpringy, under the urgency 
of an' enormous Comprejfure^ which caufes fiich 
Convidjlve Motions, (^3 Note^ 


230 The Myfieries 

. No^e^ That fuch a 'violent ComfreJJlon of tha 
A'limal Spirits into a great fpringinefi, is the 
caufe of the Strength of Convulfive Motions^ 1q 
that foinetimes a ftrong Man can hardly hold 
a Child’s Limb in fuch Cafis. 

13 . Syncopes^ Leipothymies^ and Faint ings^ fol- 
low^ vvhen the fenfitive Soul being quite tired^ 
and overhorn by the Fatigue of liich DtjlrejJeSy Fo- 
mttings^ and Difenfive ContralVions^ to reject and 
exculs the faid adhering and teazing Rofin^ yields 
it felf to Refi^ and lets go the Reigns of ContraSlL 
on as being friiklels, and no longer endurable ; 
whereupon all the [ensile Farts being relaxed in 
the highefi: degree^ they thereby grow unfit for 
Senladon^ and the Animal Spirits expand as far as 
the Atmospherical CompreJJiire permits them, lb that 
they grow incapable to convey Imprejjlons, by 
which means Senfe fails, and Motion alfo for the 
Lme Reafon, becaufe the Animal Spirits loole 
their fpringy Endeavours for want of a (ufficient 
CompreJJlon to render them flippant for the Pur- 
pofe ; which is the Caufe (as in Sleep) that Senfe 
and Motion fail together ^ of the great Ferfpira. 
tion^ and all other Effehls of Relaxation in luch 
Syncopes or Lemthymies^ in a yet higher degree 
than in Sleeps wherein the fenfitive Soul does not 
quite let go the Reigns of ContraUion^ as appears 
by the Motions that remain, as of the Hearty In^ 
tefiines, &c, tiio’ far more remifi in Sleep than ia 
a Waking Stale. 

Note^ That fuch Leipothymks are (as was hinted) 
of the fame Nature as Sleep is, but that they ara 
fuddain, more profound^ and not fb ufual, natural, 
and of courfe, as Sleep is, which makes them 
more amazing and furprizing • therefore it follows, 
that they are (as Sleep is) a Means of Recruit^ 


of Opium Reveal'd. 231 

when all working and tugging by Defef>Jtue Con.. 
traHlons fail^ and lb the laft of the fenfitive 

Sotily when over-tired, in order to recover Strength 
for a frefh Engagement with the Enemy ; (as be- 
ing tired at Nighty the fenfi.ive Soul Xookns t\\Q 
Rigns of ContraBion to enable him the better to 
fall to his Work the next Day : ) This you’ll find 
by all Reafon and Experience to be the true 5 tate 
of Leipothymies upon Grievances and Fatigues^ tho* 
not hitherto minded (that I know of.) 

Many true and ufeful Confe<^uences do hence fol- 
low ; as, That we are not always to dillurb them^ 
or put them out of thefe recruiting Leipothymies 
by grievoi^Me^ns, as Prickings.^ Pinchmgs^ ‘ 
but only by Cordials and Refrtjhing Things^ as you 
would Treat a Perfbn much tired ; or by letting 
them take their I>lap (if I may ib call it^ if there 
be not very eminent Danger. But ’tis endlefs^ 
and befides my Purpofe, to make a particular 
Difcourfe of this Matter, which will belong more 
properly to my Tract of Anmal Mechanlfm, 

14 . Death happens Ibmctimes, tho’ very rarely, 
and that in very weak People that take little or no 
S'uJhenancej becaufe either when fallen into fuch 
Syncopes^ they never come out of them, by Reafon 
that they have not within them wherewith to re- 
cruit their Spirits.^ or, that Opium taking them 
much fpent and tired with Diitempers, caufes, as 
in weak and wearied People, a mpft profound So. 
por^ which not recruiting them, who take or di- 
geft no Suftenance, they muff rather grow' weaker 
and weaker, (for Ibme what is fpent while we live) 
and confequently the Sleep or Sopor more and more 
profound.^ till they Sleep their laff, for want of 
Ibme Recruit^ which is the very Thing that natu- 
rally leflens Sleep and awakes us, when there is no 

0^4 other 

232 The Myfteries 

Other apparent Caufc ; fjr as the bdngtired^ and 
7 i^af 7 t of Recruity caules Sleep^ fo the having it 
caules IVakingy or (which is the lame in 
ho farther need of Relaxation for Recruit’s fake» 
lb that the fenfitive Soul fall to his ufeful Work 
of Vigilative Contraction for Sehfe and Motion^s 

15*, It fometimes caufes Purging, which happens 
(as far as I have obferved, or can learn) only 
vvlien it is given in a good Quantity to Perlbiis of 
a firong Digejiion ot canine Appetite. 

The Cafe is thusi When Perfons, that are of 
a firong Digefiion, take a Rcfinous Opiate in good 
Quantity, they do in great mcaliire by their fixed 
Salts at Stomach, and firong Digefiion, lubdue the 
Volatility of the Opium, and diflblve its Rofin^ 
which then (as acrimonious R( fins, or FomUs mb- 
dued by fixt Salt, ufe to do) caufes Pttrging | 
Hence it is, that it generally (if not always) 
Purges Dogs, and People of a high canine Appe- 
tite, and that Ibmerimes meeting luch fixed Salts, 
it Purges the Confumptive. Bartholine lays, That 
Mandrake Juice purges when it meets with aeritno- 
nioHs fixed Salt. Erafius and Quercelan do agree. 
That it has a Purgative Quality, but that it does 
not always exert it^ 1 . Becaufe it takes away the 
Senfe of Irritation. 2. Becaufe it is given in too 
fmall a Quantity. The Reafons are Juft and Right, 
and not only confiftent with^ but confirm what 
I fey. • ' ^ ‘ ' ' 

Note, That this is not intended of the P figging 
that happens after the of its 

which is (as you*U find) from another Catife, 
therefore this does not fmeli of the Opium as the 
other does, becaufe it is paft and gone before that 
in the Declination happens ; Of which more in its 
proper Place^ 

of Opium Reveal J. 335 

X6. It raifes and revives feme Ferfins that are oL 
fneft expiring y in Two Cafes j One is, when fech 
as have been ufed to take it are even expiring for 
want of it (of which more hereafter.) The 
other Cafe is, when violent Contra^ion^ as from 
Fain^ Cold^ Vomitings^ and Grievous Fajjions^ as 
Jerrour^ &c, are the Caufe, that People are almoit 
expiring, for it takes off the Contractions by re- 
laxing, &c, 

1 7. It (tap very long at Stomachy when the RoJIn 
thereof fticks to the Stomachy and is there de- 
tain’d Befides, that the Stomach being relaxed, 
and having little fenfe or motion^ (as in Sleep) does 
not (bon digeft it or difchargeit: It ishnein 
this Cafe,/^nd all other, to obferve how Sensation 
and Motion go Hand in Hand, keeping equal 
Face and equal Froportion^ as it plainly muff be by 
the Principles of Relaxation and Contrabiion^ which 
1 have ftated and proved. 

18. It caufe s floppage of Urine (bmetimes (e(pe- 
cially in old Feople) by over relaxing, and caufmg 
a kind of a temporary Falfie of the Bladder^ (as 
was ftiewn) and taking away the fenfe of the 
Irritation of the \Jrin^^ which (hould contract the 
Bladder to fqueefe it out \ by which Means it 
happens (bmetimes, that Bladder comes toh^ 
lb over extended beyond its due Tone^ that they 
cannot contract it to make IVater • in all which 
Cafes ftrong Contrablers^ as Cold^ Terrours^ 
immediately cures them ; the very putting the 
Scrotum to the Edge of a cold Chamberpot has 
effeded it feveral times by my Advice-^ tho’ (if 
need be) you muft come to Daffihig of cold Wa- 
ter upon the Region of the Bladder^ or Pumping 
on it, or Dipping in it, &c* (o Terrour^ and caufing 
a very (mart PWw, elpecially near thofe Parts, 
will do much) but Cold is the readied and bell 

19 . It 

- 234 Myfteries 

19, It fometimes proves^ dangerous after great He- 
morrhages or Evacuations^ as Tapping in Drop- 
fies, &c. becaufe the Relaxation hinders the Parts 
duely to contrad upon what remains, which may 
caule great Mifchiefs, as Difcontinuation of Moti^ 
on^ e^c, 

) Thus have you all the confant, frequent^ and 
rare Effe^ls of Opium ^ taken internally in z. moderate 
Dofey fb naturally, eafily, plainly, and mechani- 
cally explicated, that People may (in my Judg- 
ment) more admire, how all fail’d of dilcovering 
the manner of their VroduUiony than that I found 
it; as Men are apt to think of Circulation of 
the Bloudy which now (as I hope the Effetls of 
Opium do) feems very obvious ; both which Cafes 
are to me very ftrong Arguments of a Being that 
rules and difpofeSy darkens and illuminates^ e^c. as 
he pleafes, when I confider, that both the Circula. 
tion of the Bloudy and the Caufe of the Operation of 
Opium^ (viz,, Pleafure at Stomachy fell under 
the Senfes of many Millions, who in one Cafe faw 
the Bloud move, and in the other felt the Pleafure^ 
yet was neither difeovered for many Thoufands of 
years; elpecially confidering alfo, that in the 
Cafe of Opium Thoufands of Ingenious Men have 
diligently enquired after the Caufe of its Operationy 
who made no farther ftep in’t than to Bate Things 
that have not as much as Exifience, (viz,, a Cold 
Quality y and Fumes flying from the Stomach to the 
Head) to be the Caufe thereof. Therefore it is 
plain. That neither is he that Planteth any Things 
neither he that Watevethy hut GODy that giveth the 
Increafe,^ of Knowledge, and of other Things ; 
To whom be all Glory, 


of Opium R&veat d. 235 


The Explication of the EjfeHs of the Decli- 
nation of the Operation of Opium in a 
Moderate Doje. 

I. A General Return of all Difeafes and D'tfafiers^ 
when the Operation of Opium is over_, be- 
caule it does not (as was fliewn) operate as an 
Alterative^ but a pleafing Diverter of the fenfitive 
Soul for fome Time-, during which it caufes a ge- 
Tieral Relai^tion of all the fenfile Parts^ whereby 
the Animal Spirits being expanded^ grow unfit 
to convey Imprejfms fmartly, which is requifite to 
caufe a fenie of Pain^, &c, (asi has been often 

But it cures feveral Dif embers, viz,, fuch as 
pleafing and comforting the fenptive Souf compc- 
fng the Spirits^ Relaxation^ Perfpirationy Sweaty 
can quite take away ; Of which more particu- 
larly when we come to fpeak of the Ufe of Opiu-m 
in Cure. 

z. Sweat happens in the Declination of its Ope- 
ration, as Sir Theodore Mayern^ my felf and others^ 
h^ve obfcrved, becauie th^at now all the Parts 
Contracting, which by their Relaxation fufpended 
all Humours during its Operation, do Mechanically 
iqueefe out the congelted Humours , there 
being lefs Room in the Body., as was (aid of Sweat 
upon awaking, by the Return of the Vigilative 
ContraUion after Relaxation during the Sleep, which 
is to be compared to the Relaxation during the 
Operation of Opium^ and the ^turn of the Con- 
' • • ' ' traiTm^ 

The Myftertes » 

tra&hn, when *ds ended ; befides, that both upon 
the Goiffg off of the OperatioTf, and Awalung^ the 
Motion of the Heart growing more vigorous, 
(as it does upon Motion by the IntentiveContraSiu 
on) does more powerfully propel! the Humours 
out at the fores (as happens in Sv^eat upon Mo^ 
tiom ) 

3* Frequent making of Water happens, partly by 
the TitiUation of the Volatile Salt (as by Cantha- 
rides^ &c,) that is' now feparated from the Bloud ; 
partly by the ContraBion of the whole Body Iqueef- 
ing it out at the Kidneys^ as when People are 
they make more Water for that Reafon. 

4. A Loofenefs may, and does happen fome- 
times from the like Contraction (queefing out the 
Humours that were liilpended during the Rdaxation 
by the Opium, which is common fpr luch Con^ 
traElions to caufe, as by Cold, Terr our, &c. and 
becaufe Senfatwn grows more nice and irritable by 
the Humours, by Reafon of the ContraCiion, which 
is the more for the Grievance of failing of the 
Blealiire of Opium, Therefore, 

y. Difeafes, Pains, &c. leem worfe upon the 
Return of the Grievances, becaufe of the great 
Fafe they had during the Operation of the Opium^ 
Contraria inter fe magis elucefcunt ; and it is parti- 
cularly oblerved of Pleafure, That it leaves Men 
worle then it found them. Thus a Man is worfe, 
more (ad, &c. Pofi Coitum, more Melancholy after 
al! (brts of Pleafure,^ inlbmuch that it is grown to 
a Proverb^ viz. After Merry comes Sorry, (or, After 
t^irth comes Sorrow • ) as alfo Minsts gaudthis^ minus 
dokbts. Therefore, > 

6. Melancholy does often (if not always ) hap- 
pen in fome degree^ after its Operation is ended * 
I. Becaufe of the Return of the ContraBions (or 
Toil) of the fenfitive Soul, z. Becaufe (as was 
raid) the Senfe of Pleafure, newly loft, aggra- 

tf Opium ReveaPtf. '237 . 

vatcs the Sorrow, as has been fhewn after 

7. The Pulfi » narrow^ becaufe the ContrMon 
returns with Melancholy ^ and Return of Difafters 
improve when that fo happens, as it generally 

8 . Itching of the Skin happens about this time, 
becaufe that now the Volatile Salt^ which caufes 
Tttillation^ is arrived as far as the Skin upon its 
march out of the Body, 


2 ^^ 

The Myfteries 


The Explication of the EffeSs of Opium ift 
an Excejjive Doje. 

T H E Caufe of mbft of thefe Effe^s will be 
evident from the Explication of the former, 
becaufe the Difference is only in the Quantity of the 
Ofiumy therefore I am often neceflitated to Ipeak 
much the fame as I have done before. 

You cannot exped any good EffeBs from its 
Excefs, any more than you have from PPiney (tho’ 
the beft of Cordials^ next to the Sal-VoUtile.Oleo^ 
fum of Opium) but rather lefs, becaufe Opium is 
join’d to a pernicious Rofin, which you may be 
fcre will be very grievous to the Stomach in great 
Quantities, if it was fo in little. 

The Evil EffeBs in this Cafe, do mainly pro-* 
ceed, either from tdo much Relaxation^ as in Drunken-^ 
nefs^ or^ from the Rofm at Stomach* 

1, A Heat at Stomach is caufed by the intenfe 
Heat of the Opium in a great Quantity^ it being 
fenfibly a very hot Thing. 

2. l^he Senje of Weight at Stomach is caufed by 
the great Relaxation that it caufes, which renders 
the Stomach proportionably weak, and unable to 
endeavour its own Relkff lb that the Rofn, &c^ 
lie heavy upon't ; Thus we find a great Heavinefs 
at Stomachy when any Thing grieves it, that it 
cannot rejed or difeharge. 


3 , Gaity 

of opium ReveaPcf. 23^ 

3. Gaity of Humour is caufed at firfi (^as by the 
Tleafure of a great Quantity of Pl^m) by its plea- 
ling Agreeahknefs to the Membrane at Stomachy till 
the Relaxation grows enormous, as by a great Dofe 
of M'^ine fuddenly drank , to which it is very like in 
all its Effe^s^ except ftch as proceed from the 
Rofin fticking at Stomachy which ffine has not. 

4. Sardonick Laughter is cauled ( as you fee in 
Drunken People ) when they are difabled by the 
great Relaxation^ that they cannot well Exprefs 
themielves by the failing Tongue, they endeavour 
it by a filly kind of fame d or made Laughter^ (^as 
they call it ) while the pleafing Titillation at Sto. 
mach much inclines them to Mirth^ if they knew 
how to manage and carry it on. 

5 ’, Laxity^ and consequently Debility of ^ all Parts^ 
is caufed by the extraordinary Relaxation of them 
by a continual and permanent lenfe of Pleafure^ 
which happens confiderably in the Momentary 
Tleafure of Venus ^ much more in this continual osid 
lafiing Tleafure^ when a great Dofe makes it in- 
tenfe, as in Drunkennefs. 

6 . Alienation of the Mind is caufed (zs in Drun^ 
kennefs ) by an oSQt-Relaxation of the Brain and its 

7 . Lofs of Memory happens by the fame Means, 
( as in Drunkenneft. j So^ 

5. Darknefs of Eyes is caufed by a Relaxation of 
the Coats and Membranes of the Eyes^ but mainly 
by the Expandon of the Animal Spirits by that Re^ 
taxation^ which (as in SleepJ renders them unfit 
to convey the Imprejf/ions of Eighty e^c. 

9. Laxity of the Cornea is from the lame Relax 

10. Appearance of various Colours happens by 

fas was faidj the unevennefs of the Cornea^ &c, 
when lb relaxed, whereas when ’tis duely con- 
traded it is round, even, polite, and truely re- 
prelents Things, 1 1. Dead^ 

24 ® The Myfteries 

1 1 . Deadnefs of the Eyes to tht VkWy is f’as has 
been fhewn ) from the Laxity of the Cornea^ which 
makes it flag, lie loofe, look dully, and not duely 
refle< 5 t a [mart and brisk fpeck of Light, as it docs 
when tenfe, round, aijd folite, by its ContraBion on 
the contained Humours, which then duely fill it. 

12, Faltring of the Tongue is from the fame Re- 
laxation, as in Drunken Perfons, 

15. ^ Sopor is from the fame Relaxation over 
all the fenfile Parts of the Body, by which Means 
Senfe and Motion are diminiflied or loft by the Ex^ 
panfon of the Animal Spirits, which ( as has been 
iaidj being not duely comprefled, become unfit 
for both at the fame time, 

A flow and wide Pulfe_ is from the lame 
Caufe, becaufe the faid Relaxation permits the Ar- 
teries to widen, and the Animal Spirits to expand, 
and confequently renders the motion of the Heart 
flow, which is the caule of the Pulfe. 

A high Colour or Effiorefcence of the Skin, has 
been explain’d. 

16. Loofenefs of the Jaw and Lips is from the 
lame Relaxation, ('as was fhewn ;) and lb is, 

17. Intumefcence of the Lips, (as has been fhewn J 

18. Difficulty of Breathing may be from Two 
different Caiiles ; either by the Relaxation weaken- 
ing the requifite Motions for want of CompreJJure of 
the Animal Spirits, and by the Flaccity of the 
Parts themfelves; Or, by a great Grievance at 
Stomach upon the Account of the Rofin flicking to 
it, and caufing a Convulfion of thofe Parts ; both 
which may happen. 

19. Fury and fdadnefs may alfb happen, either 
by the exalted Pleafure of its Tit illation, as in 
Drunkards, who therefore fcarce know what they 
do, the idind being (as was faid J alienated*. Or 
it may happen ('as I have often known a kind of 
Madnefs to be produc’d j by a great Grievance at 

Stomach • 

of Opium Reveaf d. 241 

Stomach j which may well be from the Rofen * — 
grieving and teazing the nicefy fevJiU Stomach j 
They may be eafily diftinguifhed^ one ('viz. that 
from the Rofin at Stomach) being with great D/V 
ftrejjes^ Anxieties^ Convulfions^ &Ci. and the other 
without any* 

20. Venereal proceeds from the high TitiU 
lation of the Venereal Membraneshy thzVolatile Salt 
of fo much Opium ^ as if Cantharldes^ Bees^ 
were taken internally ; but that thefe cannot fo 
agreeably titillate thofe Parts as Opium does^ whole 
V oUtile ? articles are render’d more plealing by 
oily ones^ and therefore niuch of the Nature of 
Semen Virile^ 

21. Priapifmy^rc cauled by the lame continual 

22. Violent Itchings of the Skin are caufed by 
the fame tickling Volatile Particles in great Aburt* 
dance, proportionable to the excejjt ve Dofe. 

23. Naufeas are caufed by the P<ofin fticking at^ 
and fbliciting the Stomach to Vomit » 

24. Swimmings in the Head are by confent^ be^ 
caule the Stomach is grieved by that Rofin^ as is 
obferved in many Cafes from a grieved Stomach 
upon a Tendency to Vomit ^ as when it is over- 
loaden with PVme^ or indigefiible ViBuals^ or when 
Perlbns are Sea>^ ov CoacLfick^ &c. for it is nor in 
thefe taft Cafes^ becaufe the Brain is offended (as 
People imagine) that they arc Sick, or Vomits ‘ 
but the Swimming in the Head, and Offence of the 
Brain happens, becaufe the Stomach is offended' 
by the Motion' of the Coach or Ship, by Realbn 
of its moft exqulfite Senfatlon^ which the Effluvia^ 
of a Cat, pef iferom Particles^ and Commotions^ 
cauled by mcar Paffion, can, and do offend, (as 
was laid) fo as to caule Vomitmgs, Anxieties^ 
much more then may the Motion of a Ship or 
Coach do it. I Ihall not here enter into Contro- 

R verhe 

242 The Myfleries 

verfie with thofe that aflerr, That it is the Head 
is firit offended in a Coach or Ship; it is fufficicnt 
for my Purpofe^ that Grte’vances at Stomach do 
commonly caiife Swimmings in the Head^ for 
taking off thofe Grieuances'Q\xvQ% them^ as Eating 
when it is from the Grievance of Hunger or IVind 
at Stomachy and difeharging the Stomach of a 
great Load of Wine, Ale, or indigeilible Matters, 
when fuch^ Things caufe it, do cure fuch Swim- 
mings in the Head. 

The Way how Grievances at Stomach do caufe 
thofe Swimmings^ is by ca^iifing a /as 

all Grievances do, but efpecially thok Stomach} 
of the Membranes of the Brain^ as it does of all 
other, but mainly of thefe, becaufe very fenfile ; 
by which means the AnhnaP Spirits being com- 
preffed, grow more irrequiete and skipping up 
and down, and the Comprejfwn not being Conti- 
nually' alike in general, or the Arteries affording 
an uneven and forcible fcpply of them (or Fumes) 
from the Bloud by the Comfrejjion^ nor affeding 
all Parts of the Brain with equal Forcey becaufe 
the Pleafure endeavour to relax* &c. thfre 
muff thence arife Eddksy Vorticesy or Whirls there- 
of, which caufe SwimmingSy Vertigo^ Sy accord- 

ing as they happen to be moved. 

That they happen from fech ContraWton is ma- 
nifefi: ^ 

I. Becaufe the Grievance tit Stomach can add 
nothing elfe to the Brainy or its Membranes, 
2. Becaufe they are taken off by pleafing the 
Stomachy and confequently by Relaxationy as by a 
Glafs of Wincy ViCtualsy an Opiate that is not refe 
nous, &c. 


bf 0 '^\nti‘ikeveal'’J. 243 

, tc is here well vvorth your notice^ That all con^ 
fern ef Parts (a Thing much admir’d) is only 
by ContraBion or Bdaxation^ which fuddeniy af- 
fed the whole Syfteme of the Ncr'ves and Mem^ 

25-. Ferti^o^s are from the lame Caufe. 

26. Vomitings arc caufed (as was faid) by die 
great Grievance of the acrlmoniom Rcfin kicking 
to the Coat of the Stomach, 

27. Hiccoughs are from the fame Catife^ which 
happen upon the decay of Power vigorouily cd 
Vomit, dwindling into thofe fruitlefs Convtilfive 
fiihfultory Jerks^ or Half Endeavours. 

28. Difir e^es and Anxieties muff necefTarily at-\ 
tend fuch a ^ievous Senfatio'n and Defedion of 
Natare^s Endeavour^ as being overborn and dif^' 
abled to work for it felf. 

1^, A turbulent Pulfie mtifl be an Effed of th^ 
foregoing Tumults. 

30. Convuljions happen (as Was fhewn) by Che 
enormous Comfrejjlon of the Animal Spirits, by 
Reafbri of the violent Contraction upon the great 
Grievance by the Roiin at Stomach, which caufed 
them to skip and fling up arid down very forcibly 
under the fqueefe of the Ccmpreffion, and pollibly 
skirmifhing under the Viciffitudes of i^and B.e^ ^ 
laxation. \ 

51. Faint ings and Leipoihymks are caufed (ii 
has been explain’d) by the fenficive Soul’s being 
overtired by the Fatigue of Defenfive Ccyttracii^ 
and yielding himfelf to Re(t fromi all Cor.^ 
tra^ion., as the lafl: Relief, ^^c. whereupon Senfe 
and Motion do fail for want of Comprrffion to ren- 
der the Spirits fpringy^ adive, and flc for the 

32, Cold Breath is but a neceflary COnfequence 
of the Lofs of Motion, and therefore of Heas.^ by 
filch Leipothymles and Paintings. 

244 Myjisries 

^ 35. Death is caufed Two manner of Ways, 
that is, either by an utter Exfenfe of Spirits^ and 
thereupon a DereliBion (or ExtinBion) of the 
fenfitive Soul hy reafon of thokOiftrefes Fa- 
tigues upon the Account of the invincible Rojin * 
Or by too much Rdaxatim difabling all the mo^ 
tions of the Bodj^ as in fuch as dye being dead 
Drunk^ which looking not unlike an Apoplexj^^kt^ 
Authors fay, that Opium caufes Apoplexies. 

Such as elcape Deaths do fo generally by 

"~34. Plentiful Purgings which is occafioiied by 
a great Quantity of the Rofin of Opium meeting a 
lirong Digefiion md fixed baits (as has been faid.) 

S7veats that fmell of the Opium are caufedy 

1. By the Opennels of the Pores by Relaxation. 

2. By Plenty, or at leaf! fufficiency of Moifture 
for that Ends for otherwife (as was fhewn) it 
would be only infenfibU Perfpiration. 3. By the 
great Quantity of Volatile Salt attenuating the 
Humours. 4. By the ftrid, intimate, and even 
indiflbluble fpedfick Union or Combination of the 
Volatile Salt and Oily Farts^ which makes it hold 
its fpedfick Smell to the laft. 

36. Violent Itchings in the Skin muft of necefficy 
follow a great Quantity ofi Opiumy fince it cauies 
fuch Itchings (as was (hewn) in a /mall Quantity 
by the Tkillation of its Volatile Salt, 

Note^ That thefe EffeBs do not all happen 
to all Men that take it in an excejfive Dofe,^ but 
Ibme to one, and (bme to others, ( as was inti- 
mated in Chap, according as they are more 
cr le(s troubled with the Rofiin.^ Quantity y Relaxa- 
tion^ &c. 


o/ Opium Reveard. 245 


The Explication of the Effelfs of a long and 
laviJJ) Vfe of Opium. 

A S an Excejfive Dofe of Of urn is Intemperance 
for one time^ fb a long and la'vijlj Ufe of it is 
an habitual Intemperance for a long time • therefore 
if you could not rationally cxped good Efflchlm 
that Cafe, any more than from the hefi Wtne taken 
fuddenly in a vafl it follows, that you 

cannot expe61^(?^ Effects fiom habutial Intem. 
perate Taking of it, any more than from a long 
and lavijh Drinking of IVine^ tho’ both are excel- 
lently good in their Kind^ (but that the Opium has 
the pernicious refinous Part join’d with it ; ) 
There is nothing fo good, whereof an intemperate 
Ufe is not mifchkvous ^ God having (b ordered it 
to deter from, and punidi Intemperaiue^ and the 
Ahufe of his' Creatures ; Therefore ill Effects are 
not always to be imputed to the -vkiotifnef of the 
Things ufed, but frequently of the Ferfon that im- 
prudently ufes them. 

I. Relaxation- and Debility of all Farts is con- 
traded by the habitual over- relaxing thereof by 
the lavijh Ufe of Opium. 

2 . An Inhability of doing any Thing v>ithout it 
is contraded by the habitual Fleafire, Comfort.^ 
Promptitude, and Eupkory it caufes when taken, 
without which the fenfitive Soul becomes lazy, 
lifflefs, and averfe to all Actions ; it is as if a 
Man, ufed to Dance to Excellent Muftck, were re- 
quired to do it. without any Mufick at all, nor as 
much as Thoughts of it, or mumbling it within 

R 3 him- 

The Myfteries 

himielf; 6r that one who Drinks nothing but 
TVine, and Eats the beft^ fhould be fuddenly de- 
nied both, and forced to live upon Bread and 
; Or, th?t fqch as always take Tohacco at 
their Studies ^ fbould be fuddenly debarr’d thereof, 
and required to Study w’thout it ; How very lift- 
ids would a Man be in fich Cafes ? Tho’ hardly 
any of . the Companions come up to that of Ofwm^ 
becaiife of the charming Fleafure, mighty Euphory 
and Promptitude that it caules ; it is as if one 
were fuppoited, and wholly depended upoq 
(dor dials ^ and fuddenly denied them, C^c, 

g. A72 Jnbabllity of getting up in the morning till 
it ts taken^ and begins to operate^ proceeds from the 
fame Caufe. A Mechanical Reafon may be ex- 
peded here alfo as to thefe Matters, but it will 
hardly bear if, any more than how thtWtU ot 
Appetite caufes the fir ft Impidfe toward 'uolmtary 
Mot\ n\ all that can be faid is, that without the 
Opium the fenfijve Ssul is, Vt/hen he does any 
1 hing, to ad under the Toil and Difficulties of 
a full "Agilative Contraciion^ (as being awakej in» 
tent he Cp.ntraclion^ (as ading) and defenfive Con- 
traclion^ (as being grieved j when the Operation of 
Opium is over, (as after Venereal Pleafure^ d^c,) fo 
that now he labours under the great Difadvantages 
and Drudgery of all the Three Contraptions^ where- 
as by the Pkafiure^ fine TitiUation of Opium^ and 
Uela^ation conftquential thereunto, he was eafed 
<pf all thQ Defehfive Contraction y which is the moft 
grievous, and in great meafore of the Vigilative^ 
(as has been fiiewrij which makes Jourt. 

iHcyhg^ &c. very eafie to him *, Therefore it is as 
If one that delights in -Mufick^ Danced to Charm- 
ing Melody in beloved Company, withpleafing 
Refections oTlVwe^(ficc and in che ^^^^^ 3S if 
i^ne laboured in Grief or Pain. Now fuppole tha^ 
■t)nc, ufed never to ov Work withQue 

cf Opium Rev^a^d. 247 

mighty Tleafant Advantages^ and Caiifes of Ku. 
fhory^ were required to aci under the TreJJkre of 
the Three ContraUions ^ (or in Grief or Pain) how 
lilflefs would he be to Work, get up, &c. 

4. A. dully moapijJjy and heavy Dtfpofition^ mull 
be the Effed, unlefs ic be while they pkafe^ com. 
forty and enliven themfelves by the Opiumy becaufe 
their Brain is habitually over relaxed ; which is 
the very Cafe of old Drunkards^ who have (as 
’cis faid) drank away their Parts by fgch an hahi. 
'tud Relaxation of the Brainy (which over-much 
Sleeping caufes alfb upon the Account of the like 
Relaxation) therefore they mud be moapilh till 
the pleafing TttiUation of Opium enlivens them. 

5". Dlminutijm of Apvetue is caufed by an hahl* 
tual Relaxation of the Stomachy taking away its 
Senfationy and rufpehding the M:njtruum from 
flowing to it as freely asitfhould, and wouldj 
if there were a Pas^ContrabUon to fqueefe it our. 

6. Weaknefs of Digefilon happens from the lame 

7. Dropfes are cauied by the Relaxation weak- 
ning the Parts,- and making them thereby jufeep- 
tihle of Humours \ as aifo by Diminwion of Appe? 
tite and Digefiony (as in old Drunkards?) 

5. Decay of Parts (or IVa) happens from ha- 
bitual Relaxation of the Brainy and its Membranes y 
(jLS m o\dDrunkards.) 

9. IVeaknefs of Memory proceed^ from the fame 
Caufe ( as in old Drunkards,) 

10. Stooping in the Back is caufed by the habitual 

Relaxation of the Parts, which weakens and caufes 
them to comply with our Tendency and Ufe of 
bending forward, and yield to the greater 
Weight, that is (generally fpeaking) on the fore- 
fids of the Back-bone (or Perpendicular • ) fb that 
Stooping mud gradually follow thofe confpiring 
Caufes, as it does in habit ml Drunkards y whole 
Parts are relax’d. R 4 ii. Early 

24S The Myjleries 

11. Early Decrepkenefs muft proceed from the 
aforefaid Relaxation fpoiling the Tone of Parts, and 
caufing IFant of Appetite, Digefiion^ &c. (^in the 
manner before fhewn.) 

12. Shortnefs of Life muft be the EffeB of tt|B 
lame Caufe. 

1 Acrimony of proceeds from this Abuti- 
dance pf Acrimonious Volatile Salts taken in the 
Opium, wherein it is rpuch more acrimonious thai^ 
our natural Volatile Salt, and in greater Quantity 
proper donably \ Therefore it can be no Wonder, 

14. It excites Indination to Venery by that acri- 
rnoniops S^/r, which is analogous, to that of Can^ 
tbarides. Ants, Bees^ (^c, ' 

ij. Frequent Inclinations to make Water isalfo^ 
kn©w and common Effed of fuch a Salt, by ic$ 
irritating and foliciting the Bladder, &c. 

16. Triapifms and frequent EreBions are, and 
muft be from the lame Caufe. 

17. NcBurml Tollutions are neceflary Conle- 
quences of the Relate at ion and the Tit illation caufed 
by ihok Volatile Salts^ (as Was laid J 

of Opium ReveatJ. 20 


The Explication of the Effe&s of Leaving ojf 
Opium, after a long and lavijh TJfe there^ 

1. /^Reat, aTjd even intolerable DlJlreJJes^ Anxie^ 

V 1 rw, and Depreffions of Spirits^ do happen ; 

I. Becaufe thQ fenftive Souly who is lb much com- 
forted, diverted, and fupported by the habitual 
and dearly beloved Pleajure that Opiim caules, being 
fiiddenly depri^ thereof, (by which it was mainly 
fuflain’dj is ^ceedingly dilappointed and caft 
down. 2. Becaufe -he now labours under the lore 
Burthen of the Three Contraptions^ fb that every 
Thing feems, and is really more grievous to him ; ' 
for now it a^s as one in or Grief and every 
Thing affecls him more fmartly proportionable to 
the Comprejjion caufed thereby of the Ammal Spu 
fits, unlefs he returns to the Pleafure of Opium^ 
which elevates it again ; Or ules generous W'^e^ 
as its fubfiitute, tho’ it does not equal it, either in 
the Intenfenefs or Duration of the Pleafure^ unlefe 
repeated (as I have Ibme where direded) once 
in Half an Hour, or an Hour, in a moderate 
manner, which caules a contimanee of the P/e^- 
fure^ tho* it cannot equal the Intenfenefs of that of 
QpiuMj which therefore has the greater EffePls, 

\\, A Return of all Difeafes^ Pains ^ and Difafiers^ 
muft happen generally, becaule the Opium takes 
them off by a bare Diverjion of the Senfe thereof 
t)y Pleafure, 

III. Dangerous LoofeneJJes happen Ibmetimes, be- 
^ufe the Senfation grows more grievous ; for, as 
ihe pl^afant Senfation ^aufed by Qpium^ takes a- 

' ' ^ " ■ way 

250 T^he MjiJteries 

Way the Perception oi" the Irritation of Hutno urs, 
fb the Grievance of Lofing that Pleafure caufing 
ContraBiorty mak^s all Senfation fmarter, and con- 
fequently more irritating, (b that the Humours 
have thereby more of the Effed of which 
operate (as all agree j by Irrkatmi^ Befides, that 
the Humours before detain’d and liifpended by 
Relaxation^ (as in Sleep) are now therefore pour’d 
down in greater Quantity by the advanced Co«- 
traBion (queefing them out, as the Return of the 
Vigilative ContraUion 2SX.QX Sleepy caufes Men to be 
more apt to go to Stqol upon awaking, or get- 
ting up in the morning ; which may be well com- 
pared (in fome meafurej to Purging, after Lea- 
ving off the Ufe of Qpiumy fince it relaxes as 
Sleep does, and that for a much longer Time by a 
continued Ule thereof. 

IV. Death commonly follows^ for all theReafbns 
aforefaid, efpecially the great and intolerable Di. 
ftrejjes of Soul that they are under, unlefs Opium 
be ufed, which fbon lets them right, or IVine (its 
Subfiitute) fb frequently ufed, as to continue its 
Cordial Pleafure at Stomach, 

Nothing now remains but to take a fliort Re. 
view^ to fee whether I have explain’d all the a. 
mazing ContradiBions that feem to be in the E^eBs 
of Opium ; for tho’ it is really done, yet may it 
not fo well appear as when fet one againfl the 
other. It would be Tautology to repeat all the 
Reafonsy therefore I lhall only mention them in 
the clpfe Order I at firft enumerated them, that 
you may fee that they are all explicated in the 
former Difcourfe, 

You may well remember, that I have fhewn ; 

I. How it canfes Sleeping and Watching (in di- 
vers Perfons.) 2. How 

of Opium Reveafd. 251 

2. How it caufes and prevents Sweat. 

3 . How it relaxes and ftofts LoofeneJJes (even by 

4. How it flops Fluxes^ and promotes Sweat and 

5’. How it flupifles the Senfe of Feelings yet irri. 
tates it. 

6. How it caufes Stupidity^ (if you fit or lie ftill) 
Qtherwife Promptitude in Bufinefs. 

7. How it caufes Cloudinefs and Serenity • That^ 
if one lies ft ill and dozes ; This^ if he keeps in 
ABion ; Jhat^ by an exceflive and la^ifl life there- 
of, which caufes Moapijlraefs •, Thu., by a temperate 
occafional taking thereof, efpecially in the Mom^ 
ing^ upon journeys, &c. 

. 8. How \texcites the Spirits, yet quiets and com^ 
pofes them in Hyflerick Fits, Diary Fevers, from' 
Pain, Commotions, &c. 

p. How that it is very hot, and takes of Fe- 

1 c. How tho* it is hot and hitter, yet it lejfms 
Appetite and Hunger, which is a grievosss Senfation^ 
by cauiing a pkafant one. 

11. How it fomecimes ftops Urine, by relaxing 
the Bladder, fu [pen ding PJun^ours, &‘c. and pro- 
motes it by its tickling Volatile Salt, as Cantharides, 
Bees, Ants, &’c. do. 

1 2. How it relaxes, and the^-ehy weakens, as in 
Sleep, &c. yet enables to perform Labour, Journeys, 
0*0. with great Euphory, by divertive Pleafure. 

15. -How it caufes and prevents Abortion^ That, 
by over.relaxing j This, by aUaying Pains, Terrours, 
&c. that might gaule it. 

14. How it flops Vomiting by taking off Irrita- 
tions, &c. and caufes it by the Adherence of its iw- , 
digeflible and vifeid Rofin, 

' 1 5*. How it flops Purging, and fometimes caufes 
ft by the Ififlohtm of its Rofin by a ftrong DL 

252 The Myfteries 

ge^ion^ fixed Salts, &c. when its Quantity is con- 
Jiderable ; which makes ic happen but rarely. 

X6, How thd* acrimoniGus^ it takes away the fenfe 
cf Acrimony. 

1 7. How it caufes Madnefs^ and cures it by com- 
pofing the Spirits, &c. 

18. How it caufes Taljies by relaxing the Parts, 
and making them fulceptible of Humours, caufing 
ill Digefiion^ And may cure them ( as Dr. Willts 
gives an Infia?ice') by opening the Tores. 

1 9. How it caufes Talfies^ and cures Stupors^ &’c. 
that proceed from Cold smd.ContraSilng Caufes, 

20. Yiovj It caufes Dr me fsjn the Mouthy yet (by 
taking off Fencers) often cures it. 

21. How it takes off Hiccoughs^ and caufes them ^ 
as it does Vomitings and for the fame Caufes. 

22. How it ftanches Bloud by quieting its mo- 
tion, yet promotes the H^enfes and Lochia by re- 
laxing, opening, and widening the Veffels and 

V 23. How it fiops critical motions, that depend 
upon Irritation and ContraEiiony and promotes fuch 
as depend upon opening the Pores. 

‘ 24. How it revives People that are at the Point of 
Death^ for want of Opium^ or by violent ContraElL 
ons and ConvulJtonSy and is fatal to other weak T^r- 

25. How it caufes Convulfions by its grieving Ro~ 
fitly and cures them by quieting and compoling the 
Spirits by pleafing them. 

26 . How ic caufes Contradion by the grievous 

Senfation that its Rojin caufes, and Relaxation by 
the pleafant Senfation that its SaUVolatile^Oleofum 
caufes ; by That it caufes many ill EffeEls^ not here 
named, and by Tha it- cures them 5 for how can 
(iich contrary Caufes (according as one^r the other 
prevails J hot contrary and feemingly 

diElory Effeds at divers Times ^ and in diis^rs Ter fins, 

27. How 

of Opium Reveal'd. 253 

27. How it relaxes^ yet caufes the Tenfion, Rigi. 
dlty^ and EreBion of the PentSy Priapifwsy by 
its TiuUation. 

Thus have you all, even the moft myfterious 
and feemingly ContradiBory EfftBs of Opium^ ex- 
plain’d and reconcil’d, and that fo eafily, that if 
there were no other Proof of the Truth of my 
Foundationy it is fufficient to convince any Man of 
its Validity^ conildering the Vafnefs of the Num- 
her.y and Perplexity of the Nature of thofe EffeBs^ 
that are all •with iuch Facility explain’d, is able 
even to difparage the Performance as mean and 
obviousy (like that of the Circulation of the Bloudy 
or America wjien found out) did not the newnefs 
of the Thing, the baffled Endeavours of all Man- 
kind, and the feeming Impoffibiiity of ever find- 
ing it out, (which wasalmoft agreed upon) fpeak 
in its behalf. Confider, that nothing can be plain 
and eafiey but what is trucy and confequently no^ 
thing valuable but what is lo ; what’s true Know- 
ledge, but the Kno'wledge of Things as they ready 
are ? And when a Thing is known as rqally as it 
is, it muft be plain, and; never fo till then *, for 
to take a Thing to be what it is not, is all Dark- 
nefsy ErrouVy Puz/dcy Confufiony and Vanity y as all 
Dilcourfes of Opium have hitherto been. 

It is no Wonder then, that the Caufe of the Ope^ 
ration of Opium grew more and more obfcure, 
while they ftatedr^e Gold Quality of very hot Opium ^ 
the Belching up of Vulcano*s of Fumes from the Sto~ 
mach to the Heady (which have no Exiftence ) their 
aBing as a Poifon of the Animal SplritSy -their fixing 
and coagulating themy their clogging them by Adbe- 
rencCy or clouding theWy their -wedging thcTnfelves a- 
mong the Animal Spirits y (none knows how) and 
thereby di fabling themy their fif^ffif^g the Pores of the 


254 Myjieries 

Brain-f or corner ejjlng It ^ and thereby hindering ttii 
Generation of Animal Spirits^ to be the Caufes of 
the Noble and Fleafant Operation of Oplum^ without: 
any Foundation in Nature^ or the leaft E'vidence of 
Senfe or Beafon^ but vain Fhantaflical Imaginations 
form’d in the Chimera-Forges of their Wanton Brains^ 
while they endeavour’d (Right or to ap- 
pear confiderable Folks ^ by doing nothing to the 
Furpofe in a kind of pretty, plaufible, and im- 
pofing manner, thereby (luffing the unwary World 
with vvrong and vain Conceptions and imperti- 
nent FrejudueSy which are the greatell Obftacles 
of Knowledge. 

1 would fain know, which of tho(e Hypotheffes 
can tollerably (blve i in lo of the Fhenomend^s 
that I have enumerated, or, indeed, any one 
Fhemmenon truly^ mechanically^ and demonfra- 
tively ; yet are thole Whims the glorious Frodutii^ 
tms of Thoulands of years Studies, and fblicitous 
Difqmjttions \ tho’ every one that tOok Opium ^ adu- 
ally felt the true Caufe of its Operation, 'viz,. 
The plPafing Delight that it occafoned^ by affeHing 
the Membranes and Animal Spirits^ after the man- 
ner that I have at large fet forth. 

Good God I what blundering Groper is Mankind ? 

Who daily felt the Caufe it ne*re could find / 

/ Tho* Thoufands fought it with ah eager Mind 



of Opium ReveaFd. 255 


Of Opium feparafed from its noxious Part^ 
(or Rojin) and whether it is a Panacea, 

T Hus far have I fpoken of Crude Opium jointly 
with its Rofln or noxious Partj now 1 will 
confider it feparated from it, and fhew how to 
do it. Galen fays. That it is very difficult to find 
an excellent Remedy without a noxious Quality, 


And it is as difficult to find any Thing fo noxu 
ous^ as not to afford a good Medicament ; which 
you fee in Vipers^ Scorpions^ Mercury^ &c. 

All, or moft Thyjicians^ unanimoufly agree. 
That Opium has fiich a noxious Quality ^ that caufes 
Vomitings j Hiccoughs^ DifireJJes^ Anxieties^ ConvuU 
ponsy chiefly at or about the Region of the Sto^ 
mach ^ and that if it were freed from it, it would 
be the mhlefi of Medicaments : Who can other wife 
imagine ? feeing it is fo excellent and nniverfal a 
Remedy^ as it is now ufed in the Worlds without 
(iich an excellent Preparation thereof, wherein the 
noxious Principle is feparated from it. 

Of which Paracelfus fays. That whoever fhali 
enjoy it, will be a Profeffor of no lefs Knowledge 
than Apollo ^ Machaofiy or Podalyrius^ tho’ he 'was 
the greateft Mafler of Arcanas^ Panaceas^ &c, yet 
does he confefs^ ^^That a Preparation of Opium food 
him in fiead^ and performed hts Bufnefs^ ’ivhen 
all hu great Medicaments failed him 5 and that it 
will dijjblve Difeafes^ as Fire does Sno7i^ 5 or ufes 
Words to the feme Fffeil, Helmont 

2^6 The Myjieries 

. Helmonty being in a kind of Rapture^ upon Con- 
fideration of its Excellency, burfts out into this 
Exclamation ; HJfpy is the Sick Man whofe Vhyfuian 
knows how to fe par ate the deadly ( or noxious ) Fart 
from Opium I 

Flaterus affirm’d, That he could with a Prepara* 
tion of Opium preferve the broken Wheel of Life. 

EtmuUer lays. That Opium may defrvedly he 
ejleem^d a general Remedy • and the main End of 
his Tratfy De parvis Morborum Initiis^ is to fliew 
how Volatiles^ more elpecially SaliaWolatilia-Oleofa^ 
(as that of Opium) may in Imall Quantities alter 
us, and cure our ,Difeafes, 

It v% 7 ere endleis to tell you the Eulogies of the 
Learned concerning fuch a Preparation of Opium^ 
which they generall conclude to be a molt noble 
Panacea ; therefore many, and very felicitous have 
been the Dif^uifitions of the Ingenious and Indu- 
ftrious, to find out this heroick, generous^ and mofi 
glorious Medicament, I am fully latisfied, that the 
pure Sal-Volatile-Oleofum of Opium, duely leparated 
from its noxious Rofin,Drofsy&c. is the very Thing ; 
fome of ffie Reafons that convince me are as fob 
loweth, viz. 

1. Becaufe Opium has no other Principle in it, 
that fignifies any Thing as to its laudable and noble 
EffePls, but its SalVolatile Oleofum ("as has been 


2. Becaufe the Sal-Volatik.Oleofum of Opium 
produces all its good EffeBs, 

5. Becaufe the SalWolatileMcofum d'lely fepa- 
rated from its Rofm, and other Principles^ pro- 
duces no ill Effc^ in a moderate Dcfe. 



' of opium Reveal* d. 257 

, This added to what has been Difcourfed at 
large of the Principle's of Opium^ is (I thinkj iuf- 
ficient to fatisfie any Man, that the Sal-Volatile^ 
Oleofttm of Opium (fo leparatcdj is the great Pa^ 
nacea that is fought for. 

However, becaufe we are upon the grcatef 
Thing in Phyfick^ (as may be well inferred frorri 
what has been already laid) and that the WorU 
has been under great Fearsy Jeakufiesy aiid Blinds 
nefsy concerning this Mattery and the Ufe of 
Opium ; it will be well worth our While to give 
all imaginable SatufaUion in this Cafo, therefore 

Ffrfiy Lay d^ti all the requifite ^aUficationi 
of a Compleat Panacea^ as far as I can colled out 
of the moft Eminent AuthorSy and my own Con- 
Klderation thereof. 

Secondly y I will particularly enquire as to each 
of the Salifications y whether the Sal- Volatile^ 
Oleofum of Opium, duely foparated from every 
ther Principle of Opium, is furnilhed therewith ? 

Thirdly y I will fhew yoU how duely to feparate 
its Drofs, Rofin, c^c, lb as to leave a pure, fincere 
SaUVolatile^Oleofum of Opium for Ufe. 

The requifite Slualifications of a Panacea dfe 
thefcy viz* 

I. That it jhould highly pleafe our Sen fat ion at 
Stomach • becaufe the Stomach Is contrived and 
appointed by God and Nature, as the Tonchfione 
to try, a Sentinel truely to inform, and a Critical 
Judge to determine, what is, or is not agreeable 
to our Nature in general, and therefore ( as has 
been fhewnj endued with a wonderful fagacity 
and nkcty of Senfation for that P*nd. Is follows 

S then? 


258 The Myfleries 

then, that a Panacea fhould be very pleafiog andf 
agreeable to the Stomachy and therefore very 

2. That it Jhould he highly pie a png to the fenjttive 
Soul^ which is the Vrinciyle of all Motion^ ATlion^ 
and Alteration in an Animal ; This Helmont couches 
under the Name of pleafing the Arch^us, 

3 . That it fjould take away all Grievances of the 
fenfitive Soul ( or Archaus ) becaufe its Grievance is 
the EJfential Form of Difeafes^ for even Morbid 
Matter,^ unlefi it caufes a Grievance^ caufes no 
more Difeafe than it does in a dead Carcais, as 
Helmont and common Reafon aflures us ; therefore 
Difeafe and Grievance are only Two Words fig- 
nifying the fame Thing, and nothing is capable 
of Grievance in an Animal^ as fuch, blit the fenf^ 
tive Soul. 

4. It fjould compofe^ comfort.^ enliven^ encourage^ 
and invigorate our fenfitive Soul and Spirits , as be- 
ing the Frinciples of Motion In our Animal Nature 
in order to (elf Prefervation ; for Nature ( or thofe 
aSlive Principles within us) is the Curer of Difeafe s^ 
and we Phyficians only its Minifters to offer it 
good Means, &c, 

y. The Principles of a Panacea fiould he agresahte 
to the hefi^ nohlefi^ ?mfi aUive^ and predominant 
Principles of cur Bodies, • 

Thofe Principles in the Panacea fhould he more 
vigorous than ours^ to reduce them, when deficient, 
and exalt them, when depreffed, clog’d, &c. 

7. It fhould he a general Refolver of Humours,^ for 
which Caufe the Litpuor Alcahefi is (b much ex- 
tolled for a Panacea, Hear what the great Phy- 
fician Claudius de la Courvee fays. Uni morhofa, 
femper preter Naturam humorum coagulationi^ unique 
cofundem colUquationi ^ cut perpetuo intendit natura,^ di- 
Ugenter ftudeas • huyis adjuvanda, iUius corrigendiS 
modum fi affecutns fueris-i habehis in Praxi fecretum 

■ ormi 

of O'^mviiReveard. 25 ^ 

Omni mro fotahiliy omnique Antidot 0 frefiantms • de^ 
nique plus poterts in Traxi^ qtiam fi curfus Afirorum-, 
Metattorum ^ires^ aut tot am callmtu panaceam, 

8. It Jhould y after fuch Refolution of Humour 
>compofe^ concentrate^ combine^ and mite the good 

p. It Jhould difcufs the had and ufelefs Parts, 

I o. It jhould open the Pores to give them their Exit I 
by that moft univerlal^ qatural^ plentiful, l^indly, 
and eafie Evacuation, 

IT. That f after all) it jhould (like the Liquor AU 
cahefi) remain very much unaltered in it felf. 

Now whatfb^r is endued with thefe Eleven 
moft noble Qualifications, muft be in the Eftima- 
Cion of any Rational Phyfician or Vhylofopher, a 
glorious Panacea^ that is fitted to take off the Matter 
and Form of all Difeafes^ (or Grievances ) as far as 
it is in the Poiver of a Natural Medicament (or 
Alterative J fb to do ; Therefore, let us fee, how 
the pure SaLVolatik^Okofum ol Opium \si\xmiihQd 

I. It is fo highlf agreeable and pleafmg to our mofi 
nice Senfation at Stomachy Which is given US for a 
Touchfione^ Watch^ and Judge of what is agreeable 
and beneficial to our Bodies^ that nothing in the 
whole World is fo agreeable and pleafmg to it, 
and therefore nothing is more agreeable and be^^ 
nefieial to our Animal Nature ; it would imply a 
ContradiBion, that the Stomachy which is given us 
(and accordingly qualfied) to make a true Report 
of what is, or is not agreeable and beneficial to 
ns, fliould always (tho’ it may by Accident pof- 
iibly) give us afalfe Report of the Agreeablenefs of 
Things i It would be more than Prophanenefs to 
attribute fuch deceitful, unkind, and unwife Con-> 
trlvances to the infinitely GW and Wifie \ therefore 

S z th@ 

2^0 The Myfterles 

the Stomach does infallibly teftify, and afliire 
that it is molt agreeable to our Nature^ feeing it is 
always lb to it j Agreeahknefs and Difagreeablenefs 
with which, is appointed and ordain’d by God 
and Nature to be the Tefi and Touchfione of what 
is agreeable or other wife to our Animal Nature, 

Ohj, Why then, being (o agreeable to the Sto. 
mach,^ fhould it not create an Appetite, but rather 
leflen it ? 

Anf Tho* feme may be fo weak as to make 
fuch an ObjeBion^ becaufe Things agreeable to 
the Stomach are commonly reputed to caufe an 
Appetite,^ yet (the Matter duely confidered ) the 
Cafe is quite contrary for Appetite (or Hunger) 
is a grievous Senfation at Stomachy which cannot 
be expeded from Things that gratifie and pleafe 
the Stomachy which are the adequate Cure of a 
grievous Senfation (or Hunger ; ) Thus Meat and' 
Drink (as has been fhewnj cure an Appetite^ 
grievous Senfation, or Hunger ; Thus Wine and 
Opium do (by pleafing the Stomach) cure a ca- 
nine Appetite^ &c. Therefore you may Note by 
the by, that all Meat and Drink that pleafe the 
Stomachy and gratifie its Senfe, are really Opiates 
in feme degree^ caufing good Humour, Sleepi- 
nefi, dt'c. 

Appetite or Hunger^ tho’ it is a convenient Call 
or Intimation of Want of Supply and Recruit y is, as 
fech, a confequent of defe^, and fo unnatural, 
tho’ call’d Naturaly becaufe it is ^ Thing that hap* 
pens of courfe, to dired us how to proportion 
Things to the Exigence of Nature y of which, 
there would be no need, if we could otherwife 
proporcion good and agreeable Refetlion to our 
Wants tiiereof; In fhort, it is a Difsafe which 


cf Opium Reveal d. 261 

Things agreeable and pleafing to the Stomachy as 
our Famceay muft cure, or elfe it would not be a 
Panacea ; and (as was (hewn) nothing can be a 
more proper Cure of Grievance for Dlfpleafure) 
than Fleajure ^ Therefore what is agreeable to 
pur Stomachy and confequently to our Body^ muft 
cure not cauie Appetite^ ^sMeat and Drink ^ &c, 

Ohj\ But it may be faid, That Appetite argues 
a good Digefiiony which ^ good for the Body. 

Anf, It does indeed argue a quick Digefiiony 
and great Expehce of the Recruits taken in, but 
Bill it is all bottom’d upon Deficiency ; and Digc- 
fiion may be, add is very often too quick, as in the 
Boulimiay ( or canine Appetite ) Nature delights in a 
gentle, kind, and gradual Diplmion of the Meat 
at Stomach ^ to which you’ll find, by and by, that 
Opium very much conduces by its refohmg 

2 . Nothing in Nature is more pleafing to the fenfi . , 
ti^e Souly as appears by the whole Series of our 
Difcourfe, and the explaining all the Phenomena 
or good Efiilis of Opmn by that very Pkafiire of 
the fenfttive Soul. Therefore, * 

It (as was manifeftly (hewn) does thereby 
take off all Grievances y which are the effential Forms 
of Dijeafes • and the effential Forms Difeafes be- 
ing taken away, (which give them beings and make 
them to be what they are.^ according to the Definition 
of an effential Form') the very being of Difieafes 
muft be taken away : Therefore our SaUVolatile* 
Oleofum is a compleat FanaceUy that takes away the 
Effence or Being of Difieafes, in taking away the 
Grievance thereof. 



2^2 The Myfieries 

Here it may be faid, that the Matter of the 
Diftemper remains, and confequendy a Dlfpojition 
to a Relap/e as foon as the Sal Volatile' Oleofum has 
ended its Operation. 

But what need it end at all, if you pleafe ? It 
may be renewed without Danger (for this is not 
as rejimm Opium) till fhe Matter is fubdued there- 
by, which it will alfo do, as appears more mani- 
feftly by the following Qualifications, For (as has 
been fhewn) 

4 . It compofes, comfort Sy enlivens ^ encourages ^ tn^ 
vigorateSy and caufes a great Euphory of the fenfitive 
Soul and Spirits^ which are our Natural aliive 
Trinciples of Motion, by which all ill Matter is 
effedively fubdued when they ad with Alacrity 
and Vigour^ they being the Principal Agents^ and 
we Phyficians but (as was (aid) Minifiersy or as 
Handmaidsy to offer or hand good Matter y Medi- 
camentSy or InflrumentSy to thofe Principal Agents 
of Nature ^ and that this SaUVolatile-Oleofum of 
Opium is the moft proper Matter or Medicament 
we can put into Nature"* s Hands fo invigorated, 
appears manifeftly in that, 

5 . Its Principles are the mofi agreeable to the hefiy 
noUefiy mofi alfivey and predominant Principles of 
cur Bodiesy as has been proved moft evidently 
plene & plane y nor is it only agreeable, but, 

6 . More vigorous and powerful to atluate^ reduce^ 
altery or exalt our Principles y according to the Di- 
redion of our invigorated Nature y ( or fenfitive 
Soul and Spirits) which having fo convenient an 
Inftrument, and highly qualified a Matter, will 
foon alter the perverfe, renew the decaid, acuate 
the dull, and elevate the depreffed, effete, and 
pall’d Humours of our Bodies, efpecially feeing, 

7 . That 

of Opium ReveaPd. 2^3 

7. That the S^l-Volatile-OIeofum of Opium 
hehg fd agreeable and powerful^ mufi be the greatefi 
Refolver of Humours that can be imagined •, for all 
Refolution is by an Agreement of Particles^ which 
makes them eafily milcible, infmuate into, and 
penetrate each other^ efpecially if one be Ibme- 
what morp vigorous and penetrating than the 
other, as the SalVolatile.Oleofum has been plainly 
proved to be ; Thus it is, that all Menflruums do 
ib refblve things of their own Nature, and fb pii- 
rifie and cleanfe them, by taking to themfelves 
what is meerly and purely of the fame Nature^ 
and rejeding or letting go their Hold^of what is 
otherwife ; Wl^e it is worth noting, how upon 
the Account df the intimate Combination and 
Union of the Volatile Salt and Oily Parts in our 
Panacea^ k is diflblvable in all Menfiruums, and 
cohfequently an univerfal Refohent of all the Hu^ 
mours of our Bodies, which its external refolving 
of all Humours and Tumours does alfb prove. Now 
if it be fuch a Refolver, of which there is no 
Place to doubt, then as Claudius de la Courveefays^ 
it muft excell all Things in altering and reducing 
all the Humours of our Bodies to a good and 
agreeable Condition. Nor does it only thus re- 
fblve them, and thereby feparate fas was faid ), 
the, good from the bad, bur, 

8. (When it has fb done) it, by the amlcahU 
Agreeahknefs of its Sal-Volatile-Oleofum, compofing 
Faculty, firi& Combincttion of its Principles, joins to, 
concentrates, congregates^ a7td (as it were) cements 
the beft and moft agreeable into a clofe XJ-nion and firni 
Texture, by fas was faid) the Diredion of invL 
gorated Nature, which is of it felf (the good be- 
ing once feparated from the bad) highly fuijiciene 
(without any other Help) to unite Parcs fb agree- 
able, and of themfelves inclined to unite and com- 
b ne, tho’ all the Parts of Opium (like thbfe of 

$4 the 

2^4 Myfteries 

the great DlJJolvent) were gone j and when that 
is done, 

9. The high difcujjlve Quality of the Sal-Volatile- 
Oieoftim mufi he 'very effeBualfor the Dtfflation and 
DlfcuJJIon of the fevered efete f articles^ which muft 
be highly affifled and improved by the brisk and 
cheart'ul Motions of Nature , ('uiz,. the fenfitt'ue 
Soul and Spirits) fo (as is aforefaid) invigorated ; 
Nor is this all, but to compleat and perfect the 

10. It lays open all the Tores of the Body (as has 

been Demonftrated) to let them out, and give 
the ill Particles their final Exit^ by the moft na» 
tural and plentiful Way of Evacuation^ leaving the 
Body free from all and 

I r. I have fufficiently fhewn ho-w unalterable it 
is in it felf^ Chap. 1 5“. (b that like the Liquor Aka* 
befit it is not made to be fubdued, but to fubdue 
and relblve Humours. 

Now, what can be required more in a MedL 
oament^ and how can the fenfitlve Soukoxid Spirits.^ 
(or Nature) fo invigorated, and endued with all 
Euphory and Chearfulnefs by this glorious Medica- 
ment ^ whole Trinciples are not only agreeable to 
our nobleft ones, but more powerful and inti- 
mately combin’d , fo relblving of Humours, 
ready to unite the good, and to dilculs the bad, 
and carry them off by the Pores ever fail (being 
duely adminifter’d) of good Effe(St in altering all 
the Humours of our Bodies ? ' 

Hippocrates^ in his Book De Nalurd }lomink^ 
j^ates the Caule of Dileales to be a Difigregation 
cfi Humours, by which he leems to imply, that 
the Power of congregating and concentrating of 
Humours, were fufiicient toaccomplifeaP^Kwc^^.; 
which is but one fingk QMdificatkn in eleven d 

.... ^ ^ ^ our 

of Opiam ReveaPd. 2^5 

our Sd-Vohtik-OIeofumy tho’ this alone ( as is ex- 
perienced even in common Preparations of O- 
pum ) fuffices very often to cure Dileafes by com- 
pofing Commotions^ as in Diary Fevers from Fer^ 

Thus the bitter and firm textured CorteTe fas I 
have fiiewn in my Book De Fehribm intermittenti- 
bus) takes off jigue Fits^ by re-combining the 
legregated Humours with the Bloud, which it fiid- 
denly doing, leaves a Difpofition in the Bloud, 
when ever it meets with a fegregating Gaufe, 
( as Purging^ violent Motion^ Infolation^ intemperate 
Drinkings dt'c.) to a Relapfe^ by a fecond Separa- 
tion of the Morbid Matter from it, as you have 
it more at large in my faid Book^ p. i 65 , 167, 

242, 243, &c, where you may (ee how Opiates 
conduce very much to a Ipeedy Cure by the Cor- 
tex, by compofing^ Murtianus fiys. Comm, de 

loots in HominOy p. 76. Opium fifiit dt* prohibet bu- 
morum Difgregationem • That is. Opium hinders 
Difgregation of Humours, 

Now you may perceive the true Qualif cations 
of a Sal'Volatile-Oleofumy (b much fought for by 
the Learned as a Panacea ^ and how far the com- 
mon ones, that are (bid in the Apothecaries Shops, 
are from being fuch, 

Sylvius (indeed) had an excellent one, with 
which he did many, and great Cures,, which be- 
ing confidered, (had he not confefled his Igno- 
rance of the Caufe 6f the Effeds of Opium ) and 
the Narrative he makes of its Vertue and Per- 
formance in his Preface tO the firfi Book of his 
Praxis y and that he delighted fo much in the Ufe 
of Opium y even when he was young, that he 
was call’d by the Name of Dohor Opiatusy and 
that hs declares po Oil Was added in its Prepai 


%66 The Myfteries 

ration, and that it is intimated that the Oil and 
Volatile Tarts were ftridly combined, would have 
made me fufped, that it was the Sal Volatile. 
Oleofum of Opium that he ufed, which if it was 
not, I dare be confident, that (notwithftanding 
all its Excellency) it was not as good. 

1 am very well fatisfied, that a true and con- 
fummate SalVolatik-Okofum is not to be made 
barely by Art • Enquirers might have better fuc- 
cefi if they fought it among the Natural Tribe 
of bitter Plants that are agreeable to the Sto. 
machy which have all in them a Sal-Volatik. 
Oleofum^ but how to pick and cull is (I chink ) 
beft feen by the requifite Qualifications of a Tana-^ 
cea that 1 have ftated. There have been many 
in whole Hands hitter "things have been as a 
mcea. One in Germany cured moft Difeafos 
with Wild Sage. Some have done great Things 
with Agrimony, others with Bean Trefoil, fome 
with Centaury^ others with Gentian, &c, and the 
famous Dr. Lowerh Pradice ran almoft altoge- 
ther upon bitter Things, which did him great 
Service in his TvnBure of Steel, (as he calPd itj 
at he often made in Deftilfd Waters, that could 
take little or nothing to Purpofo of the TMure 
of Steel, ( whether out of Ignorance or Defign^ 

I will not, tho’ I may determine) which Ihews, 
that it was the bitter Things that did the good, 
and made it as a Fanaceay and not the Steel. 

However, certain it is, that promoting the 
Dijfolution of Meat at Stomach, which the bitter 
Sdia.Volatalia-Oleofa do, is a great Foundation for 
; and (no doubt) onv Sal.Volat He- Oleofum 
does, by its inciding, dividingy and refolving Qua^ 
lity, contribute very much to a due folution there- 
of at Stomach by Connaturalnefs, as all Menfiruums- • 


of Opium ReveaPd. 26’] 

|dO; (erpecially if it be which we ufe moftly;, 

and requires moft help to be rcfblv'dj wha^ 

may very well be^ tho’ it leiTens Af petite by 

pleafing Senfatton ; for ( as was fhewn J it is quite 

another Thing to caufe Appetite^ (or a grk%;ms 

Set) fat ion) and Refolution (or Digejlion^ of the 

Meat at Stomach ; for Wine helps yet, 

by thQ pleafng Senfation that \t cax&s SLt Stomachy 

it cures a canine Appetite^ and at any time (if you’!! ^ 

oblerve it) takes off the Eagernefs of Appetite for 

the prelent; you can better ftay without Meat 

after a Whet before Dinner, than you could with^ % 

out it; lb that. the Wine anfwers that of a Whet 

as to ’ Digefikn^ tho' not to Appetite or Hmger, 

which is a grievous Senfation that Wine muft rather 

Cure than Caufe. 

It is true, that Wine or Opium may, by caudng ^ 
a fenfe of Pleafure at Stomachy caufe (bme ftay of 
the Meat at Stomachy but it does not thence fol- 
low but the Digefiion may be the truer, becaufe 
more gentle and gradual, as it may, and does 
happen in Sleepy when Things that are not very 
hard of Digefiion are eaten, which are not good 
at any Time. 

You may remember how Blifters ( to which 
Opium is near of Kind, as has been fhewn ) do 
quickly by their refihing Nature^ turn the Cuticle 
(as if digefted) into a fort of Gfi7y; what a 
mighty Help would fuch a Degree of Refolution 
be to the Digefiion at Stomachy when it is, by that 
Means, like the Skin of a well boifd Cow-heel, 
half turn’d to a Geliy, and from a Thing that is 
very hard of Dige(tion^ td be very eahe, as is allb a 
Boar's Skin in Brawn by reafon of the prior Refi* 
htion in the Boiling. 


2^8 The Myfieries 

If fas SanSiorms Hys) infenfihle Terffiration hin- 
der’d is the Caufe of moft Dileafes, what is 
more proper to Prevent or Cure them than this 
Sal-Volatile-Oleofum^ which C^uksFerfpiratm above 
all Things ? 

I have been lately inform’d, That in Ibme 
Parts of the moft Eaftern Countries, they 
Ule Opium as a general Medicament or Panacea. 

Dr. and Sylvius fay, it hinders the Coa^ 
gulation of the Bloud ; how many Chronical Difeafes 
may it then Prevent or Cure ? That is the great 
Effetft of the Jlcahefi, and that is it that mainly 
qualifies a Medicament for a Panacea^ as Courvee 
aflerts, and all Ingenious Men allow. 

TVedelius fays, That it happily reftores the Tone 
bf the Bloud ^ What is then wanting to the Pre- 
fervatipnof Health ? 

Paracelfus lays. That Tam horntni qua?n Morbo 
fomnum conciliat s That is. That it puts the Dileafe 
afleep, as well as the Man; 

fCt Platerius cured the Gotit with it fifely^ 
ejuickly^ and pleafantlyy and I know one that can 
do it, elpecially if it be at the firft coming of the 

Willis gives an Inftance of one perfedly cured 
of a Dropfte and Pocky Pains by the Ufe of Lau~ 

^ Horftius perfe(3:ly cured an Hypochondriacal 
Ferfony that was troubled with Watchin^s^ 

Lofs of Appetite^ Ttemblingy and direful Epilepucal 
Convuljhnsy and paft all Hopes^ by the Ufe of 
Opiates^ | 

(f Opium Reveard. 26^ 

I my [elf have often feen Defluxions and Ca^ 
tanhs cured by the ufe of Opiates, and one of 
an inveterate ill Habit of Body of many years 

Wedelius (ays. That it xtfo\vts the Grumefceme 
of the Bloud, alters and diffipates the tenuious 
Parts of it, tempers the acrimonious, &c. 

The Ancients ufed it againft Agues with great 

You may (to confirm this Matter farther) ob- 
lerve, that among the conftant and frequent Ef- 
feds of OpiuwyXhQTQ is no bad ones, unlefi there 
be 2 or 3 purely upon the Account of its Rofln^ 
(as has been (hewn) therefore when it is fepa- 
rated from it there is no Caiife to fear the Ufe of 
the SaUVolatile-Oleofum^ unlefi it be (as in the 
Cafe of Wine ) when ’tis taken in an excejflve Dofe, 
or ufed too long in a lavifli intemperate manner | 
ib that when I have (hewn how duely to prepare 
it, and the moderate and fafe Dofes thereof^ it 
may be ufed altogether as fefely as Wine in a pro- 
portionable Dofe ; for what Harm can there be in 
moderately pleafing the Membranes, particularly 
at Stomach ? which all the beft Things we ufe, as 
Wine, Cordialsy Meat, and Drink, do, ( which are 
therefore all Opiates in fome degree) thereby al^ 
(uring us of their Goodnefs and Agreeabknefs to our 
Bodies, tho’ they do it not in fo high a dgree as 
our Sal-Volatile-Oleofum does, which is the more 
Aiithentick Certificate its Excellency ; tho’ it is to 
be ftill confelTed, that Excefs of the befi: Things, as 
Joy, Comfort, Fleafure, Wine, Cordials, c^c, have, 
and may do mifehief ; but what need Excefs 
therein, any more than in Wine, Meat, Cordials, 
&c. which then (like itj are all inconvenient 
and injurious to the Body. All 

2 jo The Myjieries 

All this I have faid to adminider Caufe to im- 
prove the Fra^ke of Phyfick by the Ufe of this 
Fanacsa^ ( now that it is known ) by introducing 
its noble Ufi as an Alterative to Cure, as well as 
formerly to palliate Difeafes^ it being a far more 
benefidal Thing to Cure than palliate. 

Remember how the Cortex^ Mercury^ Antimony^ 
and other the mofl effedual and glorious Medica- 
mentf have been traduced, and fcandalized by the 
ignorant Imaginations of the Unlearned^ who ha- 
ving no true Knowledge of the Vertue of Things, 
wholly depend upon Fears and Jealoufas to guard 
them from their imagined ill EffeHs^ which ("ge- 
Ceraliy leaking) only the lame Ignorance, Fears, 
and Jeakiffies, gave a Phantajiical Bemg to. 

It remains, that I in the next Place fliew you j 

1. The true Preparation of this Panacea or Sah 

2. Other Preparaiiom of Opium that are next it 
in Stfky and good EjfeU,, and why they are fo, 

3. The moderate and truly fafe Dofing of them all, 

there being no Danger in well prepared Opium, 
but from Excefs in the Ufe thereof. ». 


of O'^mmReveaPd. 271 


Of the preparation of the Panacea , or true 

SaUVolatile-Okofum Opium. 

Q Being that the S'aUVolanleX>leofum of Ofmm 
^ mult be fuch an effecStual, generous, and ge- 
tiQTsX, Medicament , that is both cordial and alte- 
rative in fo tranfcendent a manner, it well dc- 
ferves a careful and curious Freparation^ there- 
fore I will be very particular therein. To that 
end, X" 

1. It mufi be fefarated from all the noxious Rofn^ 
and aU Filth and Drofs of the Opium* 

2, It mufi be kept entire •without weakenings or any 

way altering it^ adding a new Quality thereto^ 
Therefore, • 

I. Opium mufi not be torrefied^ according to the 
Common PraBice i. Becaufe the fineft and moft 
volatile Part (which is the very beft) is thereby 
loll. 2. Becaufe the refinous and earthy Parts 
(which are not fpent that way) grow more in Pro- 
portion to the SafVolatile-Oleofum; fo that torre- 
fying cannot be allowed, unlefi prefervjng the Bad^ 
and*^ deftroying the Good^ be allowable. The vain 
and oftentatious Pretence of deftroying (I know 
not what) narcotick Sulphur , ( which is a Nick- 
name given by Ignorance to the beft Parts of 
Opium) is moft infofFerable ftufF. Becaufc all 
Empyreum (which renders it very naufeous) can 
hardly be avoided in torrefying it ; but fuppofo it 
were. What need is there otherwife fo to damni- 
he it? (as is aforelaid.) 


The Myfterie^ 

^ Ohj, It IS found to be more innocent* after’ 
fuch Torrefa^ion. 

Anf. I grant that it happens fo Ibmetimes; but 
itmuft be meerlyby Accident^ either^ i, Becaufe 
it meets with a ftrong Dige(tlon at Stomachy Or^ 
2. By the Cuftom of poudering it, which is al- 
ways direded, and done after the TorytfaBion ; 
by which means the refinous Tarts being divided 
and fevered, become left liable to a Coale fcence at 
Stomachy and conlequently left offenfive and more 
fubduable : Eipecially, 3. When it is mixed (as 
generally it is) with other things that keep the 
Parts of the Rofin from Coalefcenccy and leave them 
more conquerable by the Digefiiony as the Ancients 
found by Experience ; who therefore did general- 
ly, if not always, mix it in a fmall quantity, with 
many other things in great quantity, in the forrn 
of EledttarieSy as in Venice-Treacle^ Mithridate^ &c^ 
though nothing in them correded the Opium 
otherwife than by dividing and fegregating its 
Parts. This indeed is like that of divide & imperay 
or interlining Cilpeded Soldiers with trufty, or 
friendly ones, to prevent a milchievous Confpira^ 
cy : But how much better is it to have no Enemy 
to conteft with, by a' due and compleat fepara- 
tion of the Rofin from the Opium ! Otherwiie 
you muft be obliged to~ good Accidents, if ever 
torrefied Opium becomes fafe, becaufe all the no- 
xious Rofm is left in it. 

Therefore if after TerrefaBion you will give it 
in a Mafi, without poudering it , and mixing it 
with other things, you’ll find its ill EjfcBs to be 
as bad, if not worfe, than ever *, as you will alfo, 
if you afterward extrad it out of Spirit of IVmey 
reducing ft into the Form of by which means 

of O'^mm kevea^d. 273 

she fevered Parts of the fonder ed Rojin do again co- 
aiefce into a iHmpijh Conditio?!^ which renders ic 
wprle than crude Oplum^ as Wedelius^ my fell^ and 
others do teftifie; becaufe the being fbme? 

what weakened, and all the Rofin remaining, the 
Dofe of the Opium^ and confequently of its Rofm^ 
n)uft be increafed. As, feppole 8 Grains of 
Opium has 2 of Rojin^ i of other Drofs, zofPMegmy 
and 2 Sal-Volatile-Oleofum\ and that 2 Grains of 
the crude Opium containing half a Grain of the SaU 
Volotik-Oleofum^ was the Dofe 5 theii if in torrefying 
ic» one Grain of the SaUVolatile-Oleofum be loft^ 
and another of the Phlegm , there will remain 
only 6 Grains of Opium^^ with the Virtue of One 
Grain of the SM-Volatile-Olcofum in it \ therefore 
3 Grains of it muft be now ufed, to have llalf a 
Grain of the SaLVolatile-Oleofum, which 3 Grains 
will contain half the Rofn of the whole Mafi, that 
Is, one Grain \ Whereas there was but half a Grain 
thereof an the 2 Grains of crude Opium : There- 
fore torrefied Opium is in it fell much worfe than 
crude- Opium. 

And it is yet worfe, if after Torrefcatlon you 
make an ExtxaB of it in Spirit of Wine ; for then 
the Drofs and Phlegm being feparated from the 6 
Grains^ nothing will reniain in the E>:tra5l but 
the rejinous Party with lefsof the Virtue of the SaU 
V olaiile-Oleofumy which is not taken up lb greedily, 
as the Rojh is^ by the Spirit of Wine ^ befides that, 
feme of this W'olatik Part may be loft, ,and that the 
Rofin is now more compared, as not having as 
much as the droflie, earthy, or watry Parts to 
fever and keep its noxious Particles at a diftance^ 
to render them (as was fliewn) more fubd Liable 
and digefttble at Stomach. See what Pains thedn- 
eonfiderate World does take (and exceedingly 
foaft of) to render Opium by Icrrefa^iony Ex- 

T ' 

274 Myfieries 

V'attion in Sprit of Wine ^ &c, at leaft twice as no 
zious as crude Opium^ without accounting how far 
the Sal Volatile Okoftdm that remains is impair’d 
by the Fire and Spirit of W.ine J It is therefore no 
Wonder that Wedehus declares, That he found more 
Milchief by £ich Extracts out of Spirit of Wim^ 
than any other Vreparatkn of Opium, it is plain 

^ II. Tisat ive 7 mjt not extract it out of Spirit of 
Wine^ or any fuch fulphtireous Menftruum ; i. Be- 
caufe more apt to extra(fb the Rofn than the SaU 
Volatile. Oleofum, 2. Becaufe the Rofin will be more 
corapafted. 3. Becaufe the Spirit of Wine may 
in fome meafure alter it. 

IH. We mufi not ext red Opium firf out of Water 
and afterguard out cf Spirit of Wme^ and then mix 
them together,^ and evaporate them to an Extract : 
For this is (as was faid ) wifely taking care to add 
the Polfon to the Panacea , or Rofin extraded by 
the Spirit of Wine^ to the SalWolatile-OleoJum ex- 
traded by the Water ^ befidcs the Impair and Lofs 
made of the SahVclatik.Okofum by the Spirit of 
Wine ^ and the Evaporation ^ how gentle fbever 
it be. 

- Here it will be feafonable to Jtote^ That there 
is a general great Fault committed, by Preparers 
of Medicaments^ efpecially fuch as pretend to moft 
Curcifity therein, in endeavouiing {right or wrong) 
to have all the Principles of the Plant, &c. join’d 
together in their Medicaments^ .noxious or 

contrary to the Purpofe, fas you fee in the Inftance 
juff now mentioned ) whereas they had much bet- 
ter do as the great Helmont Fharm, & Difpenf 
Modern, 12, ’’*■ Sanguinem a eruore , &' V arcnchymah 
Plantarmn difiinguerej o* feparare difeant ‘Tyrones y 

d/ opium 2f§ 

fi qulcquam latide digmmfer Jim f lid a egijfe h^editen-^ 
tur. That is, Let Beginners learn to dijtmguijli 
and feparate the true Blond, of Plant's from . their 
Cruor ( or dead Gore ) and Pa^^enchyma^ if thef 
think to do any thing Praife^worthy hy Simple's, 
You’ll find this to be very pat in the true Prepa- 
rttim the Sal-P'oJatile-Oleofum^ whole Ruby-cololsr 
makes it look like Bloud^ whlLe the Rofin^ Earth^^ 
and Drofs , niake the Appearance of a dull and 
dead Cruor, (or Gorei) 

If they took a TinElure of Opium in Spirit of 
Wine^ and uled it (b, it would not ,be fo bad ^ 
for then the rejinptfs Particles are difleminated, and 
not fo liable to Coakfcence at Stomach ; bUt fd 
great is the Stupidity, that they take care, by re«. 
ducing it into the Form of an ExtraSl, to combine 
them and make them as noxious as is poffible i 
and then they think them worthy t 6 be boafted 
of as their Nofrnms^ proclaiming their Ignorance^ 
and glorying in their greateft Shame and Difgrace 
of Mankind , that Humane Species fhduld have 
any flich unthinking Brutes in \l 

IV. We mujt not ufe Acids in the Treparationthere^ 
of; I. Becaule being in their Nature oppofite to 

datile Saits^ it cannot be done withonc Injury 
to the Sal-Volatile-Oleofum of Opium. 2, Becaule^ 
they cannot fo well agree with the oily. Parts of it. 
Yet are they not fo much to be blamed as Extrads 
made in Spirit of Wlne^ or fulphureous Menjtruums ^ 
becaule add Adenjlruums leave the Rofin behind 
them untouched, or not extracted. , 

V. A SalinoVolatih Menjlruumf as S fir It of Sal 
Ammoniac y oi Urine ^ &c. is not lb proper : i. It 
may render the Sal Volatile-Olepfum of Opium too 
acfimonious. 2. Becaufe by its Volatility, Acfi- 

T 2 mony, 

27 ^ the Myfteries 

niony, &c. it may caufe too great a ftir in the 
• ,Bloudj &c. and fo oppofe or hinder Slee^^ which 
is one of the moft happy and uleful EffeHs of 
Opium ^ (or its Sal-Vohttle^Oleofum.) Becaufe 
ft may have undue Effetfs by altering its gejjeral 
Dlfpcfition: Nay, 

VI. IVe are not to ufe a llxi'vlal M€nfiruum^(ji]:\6* fb 
much cried up) i. Becaufe it extrads the refinous 
Tarts^ which ( expert o credo Roberto ) I have found to be 
pernicious upon that account, like ExtraBs in Spirit 
cfWine^ unlefs great care be taken to feparate thofe 
Parts (which is not eafily done) by Fihrations^ 
&c, 2. Becaufe being very apt to join with the 

oily Parts, and quite to deftroy their Nature, by 
converting it into a kind of Sapo ; it may deal (b 
with feme of the oily Parts of the SalVolatile-Oleo. 
fum of Opium, Becaufe there is no need to 
run any of thele Hazards, fince the SaUVolatik^ 
Oleofum may be fas 1 Ihallfhew ) eafily extraded in 
its without thofe 'Troubles and Dangers. 4. Be- 
caufe any Tindure made thus is apt to let go the 
Rryi/j at Stomach, if it be diluted with aqueous Moi- 
Bure taken before, with it, or after it ; which fo ’ 
being let go, coalefces, and does mifehief, 

VIL Theufe of Fire any way (befidcs that of its 
Torrefadion) is much to be fufpeded: i. Be- 
caufe the ^aUVolatikJOlcofum may be in feme mea- 
fiire thereby evaporated : Or, 2. An Empjmim 
contraded : And, 3. The R(j(in fas was (aid of 
its TorrefaBion) grows the more in Proportion, 

. if any of the SalVolatile-Oleofum , or but the 
Jhlegfn be (by that means) evaporated, and the 
Remainder kept for ufe. And particularly, 

VIIL The Diftillation thereof may caufe migk 
• ^ Alterations its Propmks^ Streisgth^ gcc.. . . 


of Opium ReveaPd. 

Wq muft therefore avoid all thefe Wap of pre- 
paring ir, and yet muft we, 

T. Separate the SaUVolatik-Oleofmn of Opium fror^ 
all its Rofin, Earthy Filthy and Drojf. 

2 . No way weaken it^ alter ity or add new Qua^ 
Uties thereto, but preferve this moft Noble and In. 
efiimahle Medkament in its Purity and Sincerity,* 

To this end Rain-water difiilPJ^ uled cold, aft- 
fvvers all Intents : For, 

1. It readily imbibes the SalFoIatile-Oleofum ol 
Opium ^ without Fire^ Heat^ Uxivial Saks^, as Salt 
of Tartar, d^c. 

2. It imbibes none of the Rojln of the Opium, 
but lets it all (ubfide together with the earthy and 
droflie Parts, feparating the lighter Filth fif there 
be any ) to the Jurface. 

3. It no way weakens, alters, or adds any nev^ 
Quality to the Sal Volatile-Oleofum. 

4. Whatever cold Water diflblves , which h 
the General Drink, or Adenftrmm, appointed by 
the All.wife Creator for the Diffolunon -of ail 
Things taken into ' the Stomach of Animals , is 
eafily diftblved at Stomach by its more power- 
ful and agreeable Mtnfnmm. And not only lb, 

y. Water it felf is a mighty Stomachisk, and 
Caufer of Digefiton , as Hippocrates pofitively de^ 
dares, L. 6. Epidem. Sell.. 4, But there’s no 
need of quoting Hippocrates in lb notorious a 
thing, daily Experience tells us the fame: Do 
not z\\ Animals, by its Help., digeft their Food ?. 
Do not Mineral Waters (fcarce any excepted}, 
create an Appetite, and caule Digefiion^ even when 
no ftch Ejfek can be attributed to the Mineral 
they contain ? Than which they do alfo ( as 
' T I ' ' “.ay • 

^ 7 ^ Myfieries 

may be very eafily proved) more good (gene^ 
r^lly rpeaking) ct'^/rc^ aa\}§ • for which, and 
many more Reafo?is^ ic is great NegleSi and FoUyy 
that ic is not more uled for ExtraBs^ &c, for then 
they readily dilToive at Stomach y and thereby 
jvjehly 2it\d jpeedily t^kQ EffcB, giving it the Icaft 
^ Labour and Difiurhance that may be, as is expe^f 
rinientally found in that of Aloesy Scammony^ Bri- 
pnvy HelleboTy Agaric, Rhubarb^ Coloquintida, Sena, 
^nd what not? unlefs the Vertue lies in the refi- 
nom Fans * for then frlpbureous. or' lixivial Menr 
firt-ums are convenient. How inconvenient are 
they then, when the Evil or MifchiefliQs therein, 
aS' in our cafe ! 

6. Ic is not to be doubted, but gene- 
rally imbibes what is beft and mofi: agreeable to 
pur Bodies ynhorng thcgenerA Menfirmm appoint- 
ed by Wifdtm it felffor that Vfe, and to be the 
Vehicle of what is beft in dll our Food, d^c. to 
the Bloud: However, there can be no doubt of 
(what mainly concerns us at prefent) its moft . 
ready djiTolving our Banacea in the Stomachy that 
does ic out of it, when cold, without the conve- 
nient digeftive Heat and powerful Menfirmm that ^ 
it finds there. Therefore, ' 

— . Take of difiiUed Rai^’V^ater 24 Ounces, of choke 
Ofium fiiced thin ^ Ounces* put them together in a 
firong Glafi Vejjel ’ of Bottle-metal, that contains about 
3 Pints •let it be of a tall Figure, “with a Mouth 
that conveniently receives 'a Cork, ( a large Glafi Bottle 
pi ay ferve the turn • ) cork it fo as the Cork may he 
eafily' taken out, Jhaking it 3 4 times a day for 6 

day 's , and keeping it in a place free from Frofiy^ or 
any very fenfible degree of Heat : Which being petm 
formed flay ihe Vejel fiaedong for 24 hours longer ^ 
and afterward decant and filtre your TinBure, (which 
wpj be df a Ftuby colour) and fus it into a GUfi 
Hr. T: ^ ^ - Bottl 

of 0 \mmReveaPcf. 27 ^ 

Bottle of fuch a Eigne f as that it may fiU it within ^ 
fmall matter of the Cork • and fo let it 'fland for 3 or 
4 days • then four off fome of the far face of it^ md in^ 
fie ad thereof fat fweet Oil thereon: Let the FeJJel 
have a convenient DaSl^ or Pipe^ in the fide thereof 
to empty it oat upon occafion. This I call the Ll*fmd 
Panacea of Opium, 

To the FcCCes add a Pint of cold difilPd Water ^ 
fhaking the Veffel (as before J 3 or 4 times in the 
day ; let it ft and on it 24 hours ^ and in the morn, 
ing decant it into another Veffel • repeat the fame 
quantity of MfiilPd Rain-water , till the Opium no 
longer tinges ity or very inconfiderahly in 24 hours : 
At lafi you mayyffe Water kept hot hy a Fire, See. the 
better to extract the remaining Sal- Volatile* Olec- 
fum, Evaporate all thefe lafi Waters in Balneo to 
the confifience of an ExtraU, This 1 call the Solid 
Panacea of Opium. 

GOD and Nature side by fimple Means 5 and 
-nothing ( in imitation of Them ) is more com- 
mendable in a Medicament than Simplicity \ there- 
fore I fhall add nothing to the Panaceas ^ but 
wholly leave that to other Phjfidans to pleafe 
tbemfelves or Patients^ by adding Amhergrife ^ Musk^ 
Saffron,^ Oil of Cinnamon ^ or other cbymical Oils^ 
Sugar y or the like^ according to their Intent. 

I have pbferved, That (as Reafon tells us) it$ 
Smell is befl: palliated by other rank Smells^ as that 
of Onions^ Garlick, Afafcetida, &c. and its bitter 
Tafie with bitter things^ as Gentian^ Centaury, c^c. 
Therefore when Perfonsthat know its Smed and 
Tafie are avers to take it^, (if the other more ac- 
ceptable Things will not fuffice for that purpofe) 
ufe ^me of thefe *, You may, when you are in 
hafte> infufe half a dozen (Hces of Gentian-root, 

T 4 and 

28 q the Myfieries 

and one flice of an Onion^ or a bruifed Clove of 
Garlicky or bctfh, in a Ghf of fVine^ for one hour 
for a Vehicle in that cafe : ’Twere better to iri- 
fjfethem longer^ if you have time ; but you’ll 
find, that thz' liquid Panacea has not liich a migh- 
ty rank Tafte, or Smell, but that it is eafily pal- 
liated by fuch means, if the Opium had no Em~ 
pyreum. The folid Panacea may be alfo palliated 
by the fame Things, conveniently mixed there- 

I know there are other TVayi and Means to 
feparate the Rofm^ &c^ as excra^ling a Tin- 
d:ure of Opium in Spirit of JVtne^ and afterward 
precipitating the Rofin with diftilled Rain-water ; 
but this is attended with more Trouble and 
many Inconveniences , that are avoided by the 
cold difiilled Rain-water : For, i . You know not 
how the Spirit of Wine may (as was faid) alter 
it. 2, This is going round the Bufj , and com- 
pounding two Menfruums together, whereas the 
fimple Water ufed alone is much better. 3 . You 
cannot thus feparate the refinous Particles fo 
perfectly, by reafon that- the Spirit of Wine muft 
retain feme of them ; and if you add more and 
more Water in the Precipitation , the Tindure 
becomes too much diluted, and very weak : 
How much better, is it to ufe a Menfrwm that 
never takes up zvey Rofm^ and confequendy needs 
no flich Separation and Labour of Precipitation I 
It is better not to admit an Enemy to one’s 
Country , than afterward to endeavour his Ex- 
pulfion • for he will at befl: leave fome Marks 
of his Hoftility behind him » as the Rofin will 
in the Spirit of [fine. < • 


of Opium Revoatd. 

The like Imon^emencies there will be ia fe- 
pArating it by the way of Di/hUatiot^* as, *. The 
altering of it by the Tyranny of bjre. 2. The 
lofs ot it by Evaporation. 3. The addition of 
the Particles of Fire thereto. 4. The never le- 
parating it lb well that way. * 5-. The difiini- 
ting of the Oil and VolatUe Salt in fbrne raea- 
fare. But what Experience may hereafter teach 
Men, I will not determine, neither can 1 . 

But this I can. That as it was even mlracu- 
that People Ihould^ never mind the Caufe 
they daily /Jr, and fblicitoiifly fought for ; fo k 
is as Grange that they could not hit upon the 
plain Ufe of /^ater ( fo very common in all 
Hands J for ^ Menfruum ^ either hy Chance or 
Confederation , in all the Eafeern Parts of the 
World , where it is fo univerfally taken, or in 
the inquifitive Wefiern Parts of the World, where 
it has been Budied and confidered by great Num- 
bers with the utmoft Diligence: But they paffing 
over Water as defpicable, becaufo common, (for 
Familiarity breeds Contempt) tho’ its being made 
the Drink of all living Creatures by the Omnifedent 
^ fliould commend it above all things, did like thofe 
that regardlefly pafs over a Jewel, or Treafure, and 
having once left it behind them, proceed farther 
and farther from it, the greater progreis they 
make, concluding that it was not to be foqnd the 
way they pafs’d ^ not becaufe it was not there 
but becaufe they could not fee it. ^ 

As for the keeping of the li^juid Panacea uncor- 
rupted, I do not find it apt to changes however' 
becaufe made fo eafily by bare throwing it into 
Water, it need not be kept long, buc^ay be 
made upon all occarions,or at leaft one under the 
■ ' ' " ■ - other^ 

z%i TheMyfteriei 

Other, as the Apothecaries ^end it, who (it is oot 
- improbable) may by their Ingenuity and Ex^ 
perknci in thofe Matters, find other convenient 
Means to prelerve it for their purpoie. 


of Opium Reveatd. 283 


Of Other Preparationf of Opiutny that are ab- 
folntely or tolerably fafe in a moderate Dofe^ 

I, \ LL T reparations are 'very fafe in a moderate 
, wherein the refinous Fart of the 
Opium is wholly feparated from it. Such are all 
ExtraSis made in aqueous Menfiruumsy or any other 
that imbibes none of the refinous Tarts of Opium : - 
As the Preparation that Wedelim has in his Opio^ 
logiay L.i, SePt. 2. Cap. ^.p. which is extra- 
cted out of Phlegm of Vinegar that remains after 
the Preparation of Arcanum Tartars, So Lauda- 
num liquidum Cydoniatum , and LangelotPs Lauda- 
mmy if the refinous Part be duly feparated^ are 
very fafe and commendable for the like Reafon ; 
as is alfo Le Morth Ewad out of Rain-water^ Dia^ 

II. All Preparations wherein the refinous Parts of 
Opium, tho"* not feparated from it .y are fo alter"* d^ or- 
der* dy dividedy &;c. as not to flick to the Stomachy 
and rendePd digefiihle and pajfahle out of it without 
Pffence, may be fafely ufed. Of this kind there 
^re, or may be two Sorts; 

Firfiy Such wherein the Nature of the Jtofin k 
altered (in feme degree aitleaft.) 

Secondly y Such wherein^ tho’ the Nature of the 
Rofin is not deftroy’d, yet is it lb ordered, divi- 
ded, &c, as not to flick to the Stomach, but ren^ 
der’d digeftiWe and paffable without Offence. 

284 Myfteries 

Of the Firfi Sort are, 

1. Such Trej>arations, wherein the refinous. Part of 
Opiurq is quite altered in its Form and Nature by 
Chimifiry^ or artificial Tortures of Fire,* which he- 
caufe hardly to be done without much impairing 
the SaUVolatik’Oleofum^ will be neither commenda- 
ble, nor worth whilCaConfidering how ea lily, without 
that Trouble^ Tains ^ and Labour ^ even the Roftn it 
ielf may be feparated wholly from the Opium by 
aqueous Menfiruums, 

2 , Such Preparations wherein the refinous Parts of 
Opium are altered^ a7id (as it were) foapified by li^ 
xivial Salts or Soaps^ which readily engage and in- 
timately join with the fmall refinous Particles of 
the Opium^ by long and ftrong pounding them 
together in a Mortar^ or other wife (as in Mau 
thevPs (or Starkey*%) Pilly Bates‘*s Pacifick Pillj &'c,) 
by whkh means thofe refinous Particles become (in 
a great degree at leaft , if not wholly ) milcible 
with, and (b diffolvable, and digehible in the Li- 
quors we drink, andeafily fiibduable by the Men^ 
firuum at Stomach, out of which it alfo eafily pafles, 
by reafon of the great flipperinefi it acquires (which 
al|b prevents its flicking) by chat intimate mix- 

, ture with the Soap ( or Lixivials : ) Therefore I 
take thokPills of Matthews^ and t>x,hates\^ to be 
fafe Preparations^ tho’ not to be compar’d to the 
Panacea^ wherein all Danger and its Caufe is quite 
^ken away by wholly feparating the refinous 
Farts , Earth and Filth, ot the Opium from its 
f* f Sal-Volatik-Okofum : And (doubtleisj had Math, 
thews, Starkey, and Bates known, that the Rofin of 
Opium had been the Gaufe of its ill EjfeBs, they 
would never have ipent Months in preparing the 
Sapo tartareus to correct Opium, when they might, 
with the hundredth part of the Trouble, and for- 

o/ Opium ReveaVd. 285 

ticth part of the wholly have taken away the 

pernicious Pari by aqueous Menfiruums^ which they 
only pretend to ^orrecS: by the Sapo t art anus i 
tho’ I allow it (for the Reafons aforelaid) to be a 
good Qorre&or^ yet cannot it eiqual the total fepa^ 
ration of the pernicious Parts, 

I am of Opinion, (upon my beft Thoughts and 
fome Experience ) That intimately mixing and fiib- 
doing Opium with good white Soap, may (for the 
Reafons aforelaid ) prove a good and ready Corre^ 
^or, or Preventer, of the Adhefton of the refimus 
Farts of Opium to the much conduce to its 

Dijfolution, or Eigefiion therein > and nimble flip- 
ping out of it, and thereby prevent all the ill Ef- 
fetts of Opium, which it caufes by the Adhefion and 
Indigefiiblenefs of its Rofin, 

Of the Second Sort of Preparations of Opiuni, 
'wherein its Rofin remains wholly unaltered in ft s 
Nature^ yet becomes fafe by dividing it, 6cc* 

This is mainly, (if not altogether) done by a 
fine and through Divifion of the refinous Parts of 
Opium, and keeping them afterwards from a 
lefcence in, and Adhefion to the Stomach, by which 
means they become digeftible, or at leaft palTablc 
without Oifence. This may be done, 

. I. By Torrefadion, till the Opium if very friahh, 
and then finely pondering it, and mixing it with luch 
things as are of good Confifience, &c, to keep the 
Parts of Opium from a Coalefcence , as in Venice 
Treacle, Miihridate, Diafeordium , the Philoniums^ 
&c. This was the Way and Method that the An- 
cients ufed j which caufed Galen to lay, ^^That 
Opium alme ( that is, undivided and unmix'd with 
other things to prevent its Coalefcence, &c,) wof 
if dangetous^but mixt with other things was falutiferous 


The Myfleries 

(which they found by Experience , not ktlowing' 
the Caufe, but attributing the Safety thereof to 
Ibmething among the many Ingredients as a Cor- 
reftor of the Opium.) Hence it was that they put 
fmall Quantities thereof into Eleduaries made of 
many and much other tbitigs, that kept the Par- 
ticles afiinder ; which they did fb commonly, that 
(at laft) all Electuaries Were call’d Opiates, Thu^ 
we had tho(e Compojitmts above named, which are 
fafely ufed for the Reafons aforefaid *, not that any 
thing therein correds I know not what poifonous 
or narcotick Quality in Opium, but that the other 
Ingredients divide its Rojtn, and afterward keep its 
T articles from Coalefcence and Adhejion, 

2. Dijfohtion of Opium in Spirit of Wine, or (iich 
fulphureous Sprits which finely divide the Rofin, 
and ufing the bare JinBure before the refinous Par- 
ticles are again compadted (as in ExtraBs, &c,) 
may be of ufe, if duly adminiftred. 

But here z' Caution is to be ufed. That you take 
it not in, or drink any aquecfus or phlegmatick Lu 
quid with it, or before, or after it, in two or three 
hours ; which if you do, the refinous V articles will 
be precipitated thereby, and fo flick to the bottom 
tom of the Stomach, caufing thereby the ufuai ill 
EffeBs of Vomiting, Anxieties, &c. Therefore it 
fhould be given only in a fiirituous Liquid. 

Note alio. That if you give a Solution thereof 
in any Lixivium, you take Gare not to dilate it 
by any Means by aqueous Liquids in Two Hour^ 
before or after you take it ; for then there being 
but little Lixivial Salt in proportion to the Liquid, 
the refinous Parts are let go, and precipitated to 
the Bottom of the Stomach ; as in the Cafe of the 
Spirit of Wine fo dilated : Of which I have feen 
a very convincing Infiance ; for one that had an 
Efteem of Lhivials in this Cafe, not only (ac-* 
cording to Helmont, and the Common Cry ) to cor- 

of Opium ReveaPd. '287 

red Opium^ but alfo to extrad its Fertue the more 
effedually, made a TMure of Opium in Water^ 
lixiviated with Salt of Wormwood, whereof he 
took the Quantity that he had feenme give of my 
Liquid Vanacea, in a Coffee-Dijh full of Water^ 
which precipitating the RoJinmthcStomach^csLufsd 
him to Fomit in about mHour after, and continued 
fb to do for about 15" Hours, By which you 
plainly fee^ that the great Secret of Lixivials to 
corred Opium,^ lies meerly in its Divifion of the 
Rofm thereof, ( as in the Cafe of Spirit of Wine and 
^ foudering it ) and afterward keeping its V articles 
afender during its Stay at Stomachy which the 
Sapo tartareus does (and probably other Soap 
may doj very /Well, for the feveral Reafons afore- 

3 . Dijfolution of Opium in the Tolk of a rear new 
laid Egg, by pounding the I)ofe that you intend 
to take, with a little Quantity of the Tolk^ till 
both be thoroughly mixed, and then taking it in 
the remaining Part of the Yolk : By which Means 
you not only finely divide the refwous Parts of 
the Opium, while the Tolk of the Egg intimately 
mixes with them, (as it does with other Refins 
and Turpentines) but fend along with it into the 
Stomach what is digeftible in it felf, and more 
and more divides and feparates the refinous Parts^ 
and highly contributes to their final DiJJolution 
and Digeftion ; lb that (I doubt nor) but you^Il 
find this new, ready, and agreeable Means, as 
good (if not better, all Things confidered) than 
the former, and even equal to the Sapo tartareus, 

• By what is laid, tho’ fiiort, you may (becaufe 
it is the clear Truth of Things) Judge of the 
Goodnefs of ail Preparations of Opium, And, 

I . That 

2^8 The Myfierm 

1. That refinous Things pjould not he added to 
^'Oflum j becaufe fuch (like its own renders 
k more indigeflible^ and apt to flick at Stomach : 
Hence It is, that: the' Pill, having refirious 
Things in it, and crude Opium, does fo often 
caufe diCnal Effects, tho, (forfboth) much efteern’d 
for the Lungs^ Coughs^ Dsfluxions^&c. {or hmng 
iuch Bdfamick repnous Things, as Styrax, and 0/i- 
hanuTnmky whereas the Benefit is from the O'- 
piam. Had Dr. Bates known the Caufe of the 

of Opium, he would never have put Ben- 
jamin in his Pacifick Pill. 

2. That all Preparations made of ExtraUs in Spi- 
tit ef Wine, ate to he rejcUed, fuch ExtraBs being 
much worfe than Crude Opium, and Experimen- 
tally found to be fo ; therefore our common Lon- 
dim Laudanum, being made of Opium prepared in 
Spirit of Wine, is no commendable Preparation, 
tho’ (b much ufed, and cried up ; which aifo Ex^ 
ferience proves, in that it Ibmetimes caufes the ill 
EffeBs of Opium, when given alone in a good 
Pofe. You’ll find rnore of thefe Matters when 
you come to Chap. 29. which confifls of general 
Rules and Cautions concerning the Ufe of Opium, 
therefore (tho’ I may add fome tJfeful Ohferva- 
tlons ) I put an end to this Matter at prefent for 
that Reafon j and becaufe what is to be truly 
done in the Preparation of Opium is very evident 
from what is faid, fince the Caufe of the ill EffeBs 
of Opium is now certainly known to be its Rofn ; 
to the Separation or due Alteration of which, fb 
as to caufe it to pafs the Stomach without Adhefon 
or Offence by its Stay or Indgefiihlenefs, all regard 
muff be had in the Preparation thereof^ as is in the 
following Preparations^ which arc therefore fafe* 

of O^mmReveafd. 28 ^ 


Shews the hejl Preparations of Opium f where 
to find them, and what is their rejpe&ive 
Dofe, 8cc. 

Y OU may infer out of the Prerriifes, which 
are the beft Preparations of Opium, viz. 

I# Such as have the refnom parts of Opium fepa^ 
rated from thefn^ as, 

1. The liquid Vanaced ^/Opium. 7 oefcribed in c. isi 
2. The folid Panacea o/” Opium ^ Bwk. 
g. Diacodium ( or fri. e mecon,) - — - In the Lo 7 i« 
don Difpenfatory , 

4 Laudanurfs Uquidiim Cydonlatum — ^ In expe- 
rienced Mr, Wilfifis Chymifiry, and in curiou^ 
Mn StafhurjPs Oficina chymka Londinenfis. 

Note, That there are feveral needlefs Pr.feed- 
ings in this Preparatiosf, as thit of puttihg Teajl td 
it d^c. Let your Aim in making it be to feparate 
th^refinom Parts - therefore inhead of twoExpref^ 
hons diretfired, u(e only a careRii Decantation, be- 
eaufe the Rofin may pafs by Exprefwg it. 

y. IFeddims Laudanum, which is hiS Qpilogia^ 

L. I. Se^. 2, Cap; 2. P. 65’. 

Note, That the fpumom part On the Surface Is td 
be taken o'ff^ and the clear Tinflure to be decanted 
from the Farces^ and afterward evaporated iri 
Balmo, to' the Confihence of an ExtraCr, 

6s Le Mort's ExtraB out cf Rain-vj^ater, which' 
you have in th^ molt Learned Dr, Loves CcUcfla-^' 
nsa Chymka. P. 304. 


The Myfteries 

n. Such Preparations^ ivherein the refnous Tarts 
^ Opium are alter ed^ and as it were foapified by iu 
xivid Salts ^ or Soaps viz. 

X, Dr. Starkeys, or Matthews Tidy which you 
have in Mr. WilfonsChymifiry^ zyz. Jtf 

ingenious Mr. SMptons Fharmacopceia Bateana^ . a- 
mong the Pi 7 /; •, and in Mr, Staphurfi^s Offlcina&y- 
mica LondinevfisyZXXiOUg the Laudanums p yi. 

idote.^ That the main Things to be regarded in 
the making up of thisTill^ are i. To Tpare no La- 
bour in poundings fubduing^ and intimately mix- 
ing the Sapo tartareus and the Qpium. 2. That the 
SapQ fiiould be twice as much as the Opium • that 
it may the better fubdue the refmous part of the 

Note, That as to the other Things contain’d m 
the laid Pi//, they may, or other things be added, 
or omitted, according to the intendan of the Thy^ 
jician; only this I fay, that it is ^ ery convenient 
other things fiiould be added tr the Sapo and Opi. 
um, the better to leparate and difgregatc the parts 
cf the Opmn, ( as has been Litimated.) 

Note, That if the Mals be too dry, you may 
f as Mr. V/il[on dire(il:s ) ufe Ibme of the Oil that 
feparates from the Soap, or recPcified Oil of Turpe7u 
tine, q. f. to moifien it. 

2. Dr. Bates pactfick Till ; which you have a-- 
mong the Tills, in Mr. Shiptons Pharmacop&tia Ba- 

Note, That the lame Things are to be obferv’d, 
as to this and Starkefs Pill, in all Particulars. 

Note, That the Benjamin fcouldbe omitted, as 

hdn^ rejif 70 m, ill. SucE 

' of O^vamReveaFd. api 

; ill. Such Preparations of O^iurn^ 'wherein i::s 
refinom Parts remain^ unaltePd in themfelves^ jet fo 
divided^ feparated^ &C. as to he render'd innoqem^ 
fuch arOy % 

1 . Venice Treacle, 

3t. Philoneum Perficum 

3 * P hiloneufn Komanum 

4. Diafcordium, 

5 . Mithridate, 

f' ,w,- . „ , . . , 

, , . Note, That -in all thefe Vreparaticns^ the Opiun^ 
ihould be carefully mixed widi the other Ingredi- 
ents I and to that end, either torrihed and Tinely 
poudePd, or drflblved in Water, which divides 
all its Parts, and then throughly mixed wich the 
other Ingredients while ’tis off, or after ’ds redu- 
ced by Evaporation to the Confifience of a Syrupy or 
ibmewhat thinner. 

6. Sydenham's Laudanum^ which you’il find lit 
Mr, fVilfons Chymiftry, 

-^^^^,,That the main Care in this Preparation, 
is to. let the Liquor have a fufficient time to deaf 
from the F^ces^ and to feparate from it, thacyoil 
may by that means have le£ of thQ'Rofin, 

Note^ That .this is beft givsn in a fpirltuous Li^ 
quid^ left its Rofin ( tho’ it cannot have much ii^ 

, if well decanted ) be precipitated at Stomach, 

1 ■ V 

which you have in 
the London Dijpenfatory, 

' NotCy That the Hmhanefeedm t\\Q Phlloniums 
fhould be left but, i. Becaufe it makes the Dofe 
more uncertain. 2. Becaufe it is not to be efjeenfd 
fomuch as Opium* at leaft you multiply things 
without neceffity in putdog it in. 


2^2 The Myfteries 

Note^ That P/7. e Cynoglojjo ( as was laid itl 
lap Chapter of Vil. e Sty race ) is a very iii Compofi- 
tion, both upon the Account of the refinous Things 
that it contains , as alfo the refinous Vreparation of 
Opium that it is made of ; and therefore does f as 
that e Sty race') often caufe grievous Efie^s : Nor do 
I think the Lo?ulon Laud'mum ( wliofe Name does 
probably recomrhend it more than any Thing 
elfe) worthy a Place among the hefi and fafefi Pre- 
parations^ becaule the Opium is render’d worfe^ or. 
more refinous, than the crude, by being extra- 
cted out of Spirit of IVine ; and becaufe it has too 
few other Ingredients to divide, fegregate, and 
keep its refnous Farts from Coalefcence ; lb that it 
may, and Ibmetiraes does caufe ill Symptoms ^ lb 
Vhilonium magifirale is to be rejec^led for the like 
Reafions^ befides that it is otherwile a foolilh Pre- 
paration^ becaufe Opium ^ Betjjamin^ Myrrh ^ and 
Alumrny^ are ordered to be made an Opiate^ or 
EleBtiary with Spirit of Wine^ which is ridiculous. 
So Trcch de Carabe^ and de Terra Lemnia^ are not 
without their Faults, becaufe one has Frankincenfe^ 
and the other Ohbanum in it, (which are refinous ) 
tho but in a fmall Quantity. Serf deThure 
a great Cfuantity of the Frankincenfe, is rjoc com- 
mendable, fince the Opium is allb crude. 

Now having fiiown you, which are the beftand 
worft Preparations^ and why 5 it remains^, that I 
Ihow you the jufi Dofes of the bep andjaftfi ; whole 
Number is very liifficient to anfwer ah Intents, 
wichoLic medling with fuch as may not be lb fafe, 
or neat. 


oj Opium Reveal J. 2^3 

An Explanation of the Table of Dofes. 

I Had once added an Explicatory Table of the 
Marks I u(e ; but afterward confidered, that ali 
Vhjficians and good Pra^itioners in Phyfick do 
know theni;, and that it was not fit to intriifi 
others therewith^ Therefore I fliall only add fome- 
thing for the better and readier Ufe^ ofthepremi- 
fed Table of Dofes, 

I. Note^ That the fort of Perfons^ that you have 
to deal with, are placed in the ufper.mofi Space of 
the laid TahlTf and the Dofes fit for fucli and fiich 
Pcrfbns, put diredly under them in the iame 

Colu 7 nn. 

2. iTote^ That there are three forts of Dofes of 
every particular that is the miL 

dle,^ and highefi Dofe^ under every fort of A^en or 
Women^ which are alfb of three forts, the f'rong^ 
fnidllng^ and weak^ as you fee in the upper Space, 

%. ( therefore j That when yon are about 

to give an Opiate to any Man or TToman^ that you 
firft look in that upper Space for the fort of Per- 
(bn you are to giv^e it to, z-sweak^ firong^ or mid- 
ling Men or PFomen: Then carry your Eje down 
in that Colmnn^ tUi you come over agaiafi: the 
Preparation that you intend to give% and there 
you’ll find in the faid three forts of Dofes 

the loweji on the Ha7td’^ the highs f on the right 
Hand^ and t\\Q moderate Dofe between them. 

As- fuppofe you are about to give a middle Dofe 
of the Liquid Panacea to a fi'rong Mm^ fee for 
(^firong Men ) in the upper Space ^ and for liquid Pa-- 
nacea in the frfi Column on the left Hand; under 
the Word ( Opiates^ and where the Column that 
belongs to firong Men^ and the Space that belongs 

U 3 ta 

r? 04 The Myfieries 

to . Panacea, do meet, there you’ll fiad^ 

oo 4 0^-^ go 4j,o ioc t\\Q lea middle^ Sin^high- 

efi ^ V: Which you think fit^ according to 

^.r-. ,T J :7 ^ • 

5- li yr/\ are about to give the higheft Dofeof 
the, \foli l danacea ) to ^ftrong Woman ^ you’ii'iind 
under the Words ( firong Women ) over againft 

( foUd Panacea) gr. i ~gr. gr, ) which 

fhews you, that gr ijS is the higheft Dofe for a 
firc^g Woman y and fb of all the reft. 

,4, Note^ That i have been (b cautious in dofing 
ttii the Oviates^ that you may very fafely give the 
higheft Doles to all, but very weak Perlbns^ to 
vi/honi it is hardly fit to give any Thing, by rea- 
lon ofextream Weaknefs. 

5«. Idote^ That if you give z.ny to yotmg Per fans ^ 
under the Age of 20. you fiiould proportion the 
'Dojes not fo much ( as idle Cufiom diretfts ) accor- 
ding to their Years, as Btdk and Strength, 

For In^ance^ zWowmg ft roig Men to be 200' pound 
Weighty you muft give a ftrong Tcuth of 100 Potmd 
Weighty Half the Dofe of tiie ftrong Man^ and fo 
of all other, only allowing fomewhatlefsthe young- 
er they are, becaufe of the Sofmefs, Finenefs ot 
Laxity of their Texture^ elpecially if they be very 
y^oung, to whom Opiates muft be caufioufly given ; 
or on\y Vlacodlum (which is beft in that Cale) 
and that in a Imall Proportion alfo j for young 
Children cannot bear Opiates^ as well as grown 
Perfons^ no not in Proportion to their Bulk or 
Weight. ■ 


ef Opiuai ReveatJ, 355 


The Cure of the ill Effe&s of .Optuni* 

H Aving fliewn bow to prepare Opium ^ fb as 
to render it ^fe and innocent in a Mode^ 
rate Dofe^ and how much that Moderate Dofe is, 
one may be apt to think that this Chapter is need^ 
lefs; but when youconlider how many there are 
that may be negligent, wilful, want Time, Skill, 
&c, to prepare it, or take too much, or too long 
of it, and that the Phyfidan muft be able to An- 
fwer and Rem^y all ill Accidents that may hap- 
pen, you’ll find it very requifite that I ftould 
fhew how to cure the ill of Opiurp^ which 
proceed either, 

I. Frorn its Ro^n at Stomach ; Or, 

2. From too much Relaxation by an ExceJJive 
pofe ; Qr, 

3. From <3! lon^ and laviJJo Ufe of it • Or, 

4. From a fudden leaving it after a long 
and lavifh Ufe thereof. ' 

I. To Cure the id Efc&s of the Rofin at Stomachy 
you arcy ' ■ 

Eirfy To know whether that be the, Caiifei' 
which you may learn, 

1. By confidering whether Crude Opium, or 
fbme refinous Preparation thereof, was taken, efpe- 
cially by it felf, in the Form of a Pill or Pills ^ as 
an Extrahi thereof out of Spirit of IFme^ or 
RiL e StjraeCy ov London Laudanum y or the lik 
not duly prepared^ as has been dire(^ed, '• 

■ w U 4 2. By 

A Table of Marl{s very ucccffurj^ for the better underJlandtHg of the Table of Dofes. 

. . 

/ .a Grai/j, 


.fcryp, which is 20 Groins: 
a />«»,, wliich is ? Scruple. 

I an which is 8 Ihami (or Drachms ) 

) i ) { 

” a Quarter 1 

1 is isf^s or /'O lignifie^ 

Ualf i 

h — i 

[ 3 Quarters^ 

Of any To; 

The Myfieries 

2 . By the Symptoms ^ which are thefe, 'uk., a 
JSfaufea^ Tuking^ Fomitmg^ Hiccough, Cenvuljtons, 
Difirtff’asy and An%ieties about the Stomachy parti- 
Cularly the Part call’d the Vit of the Stomachy 
S^vimmings in the Head, Vertigoes, Valfttations and 
'Tremblings of the Heart, Agitations^ Uneafinefs, a 
Turbulent Tulfe, and fafcer a Struggle of Nature 
under thole Symptoms) Faint ings, Leipothymies, 
Syncopes., &c. which laft you muft not take for 
certain Signs and Symptoms, unlefi the former 
have preceded them, becaufe it is not impoffible 
but they may happen from thQ^antityof the 
Opium, Condition, or Conliitution of the Per- 
fon, &c, but this (when all Things are compared 
togetherj will be eafily Judged ol^ elpecially if 
you oblerve \ 

I . Whether thole Faint ings or Leipothymies be 
not more like the Failures and Stupors of Drun- 
kards, than bare Paintings ; if they be of the firft 
fort, then do they proceed from an ovQv-Relaxa.. 
tion occafioned by the Opium, and not from its 
Rofm, the Cure of which belongs to tho fecond 

z. Whether they are more attended with the 
Signs of Relaxation, as Deadnefs of the Eyes, Fait- 
ring of the Tongue, Darknefs before the Eyes, Di» 
latation of the Fupilla, Efflo.refcehce of the Skin, 
JLaxity of the Limbs, Want of Feeling, Stupidity, 
Sleepinefs, Failure of the Senfes, or of making Wa- 
ter, lofs of Memory or Under fianding, a dry Mouth, 
a and wide Pulfe, and other Things much 
like the State of a deadijh Drunkennefs for then thole 
Failures are the Effecl of Relaxation by the pleafant 
Senfation that the Opium caules. 

But 4fter aih it is the fort of Opium that was 
fakeri, and the firft Symptoms of a Naufea^ Vomit- 

^ mgs 

of Opium ReveaPd. 2^7 

ing^ &c, are moft to be depended upon, for it 
may happen fometimes (as after a great Dofe) 
that the Rofin may ftick, &c, and the Rdaxation 
be exceffive alfo. 

Secondly^ When you are fatisfied^ that it is the 
Rofin at Stomach that caufes the Mifchief, and 
not bare Relaxation^ you are not to -promote or 
fiop the Vomitings^ left in the firfi Cafe you tor- 
ment and endanger the Verfon to no Purpofe^ for 
the Rofin does generally (if not always) ftiek too 
faft, and too little in Bulk to be fhaken off by 
Vomitings or the Contraption, the Stomachy as 
appears by the tidious Vomitings that happen there- 
upon, and the Nature of the Thing ; fo that (I 
believe) it is feidom or never carried off that 
and that when People are at laft relieved, it 
is by a gradual Wafie^ Difiolution^ or Digefiion of 
the Rofin^ as in great nieaftre appears aifo by its 
Purging (bme Perfons after V omiting^ and a long 
time after it is taken in a confiderable Quantitym 
Nor are you to fiop the Vomitings as not knowing 
what Nature may Advantage herfelf thereby, but 
indeed it is more than you can do, generally fpeak- 
ing, (if not always) while the Rofin teazes, urges, 
^nd ftings the Stomach. 

It evidently follows, that the Cure muft confift 
in the Difiolution of the Rofin. 

For this Purpofe you have Four Effectual Dif- 
folvers of the Rofin, (as you may obferve from 
the Chapter of the Proper at ions of Opium) that may 
he ufed with fafety in a Moderate Dofe ^ i, Lixu 
mat Salts^ whereof the beft is Salt of Tartar, 
2. Sulphureous Spirits^ whereof the beft is high 
rethfied Spirit of Wine. The Tolks of Eggty 
whereof the beft is the Tolk of a rear new laid Egg*- 
• ' ^ 4. WhUe 

a^8 The Myfieries 

4. Soap, or rather the Sapo Tartareus, With 
thefe judidoufly ulcd, you may (by Gods BleP 
lingj Relieve and Cure the Perfon grieved with 
the R»iin (or noxious Part) of Opium,' 

I. Give with all poffible fpeed Ofie fcruple of 
Salt of Tartar^ in a Spoonful or two of Brandy^ 
or Ibme other hot Cordial Spirit, (if Sph it of Wine 
be too hot J placing the Perfon in the very lame 
Pofture that he was in when he took the Opiate, 
that it may fall diret^ly upon its Rufin, which 'moft 
probably fticks where the Opiate firft fell upon 
the Coat of the Stomach ; then ftay for a Minute 
or two^ and give a Spoonful or two of the Brandy 
or Cordial, with (if need ht) the S^lt pf Tartar 
in it. 

If you find Caufe, either becaufe the firft Dofes 
were Vomited, or that the Quantity of the Rojttt 
was great, or that the Rerfon grows worle, you 
may often repeat it, for we muft not be fparing 
in fafe Things in dangerous Cafes, I think it may 
well be repeated after every Vomiting mks 

I have a great Opinion of the Tolk of an Egg in 
thefo Cafes, not only becaufe it does (as the other 
Things) mix with the Rofin, but becaufe being 
of a good Confiftence, it flicks to it, and fattens 
upon t the better, and is not fo clearly fliaken 
from it by every Vomit, as Liquids are ; there- 
fore 1 think it very Ufeful to be given now* and 
then immediately after Vomiting • however, let 
no other Food be given but it, and be fure to 
ufe it when you have not the aforefaid Things, 

I believe it will be found by Experience ( which is 
yet much wanted, becaufe it has not been lifed) 
to be the very heft Help in thefe Cafes, for the 


of Opium Revear^f. 2ps> 

afbrefaid Re^'-ms^ and becaiife its line Oilinefs will 
corre(3: itic Vci^atile Salt oi Opium, I cannot 
gine but White Scap^ or rather the Sapo tartarem^ 
(if you have ic bv you) may be of very good ufe 

diffolve and carry off the Rofin, 

2. When the Vomiting begins to ceafe, you 
rnuft- diftinguifh well whether it be becaufe the 
Perfon is better, and the Stomach dilcharged of 
the Rojin^ or becaufe tired Nature yields it lelf to 
Reft, by a fort ol Succiimbency to the FatigmQ£ 

You may eafftf diftinguifii thefe Cafes ; for in 
the firjt Caje every Thing feems better, and in the 
lafi worfe, faving that the Vomiting ceafes, whfeh 
Was an endeavour of more vtgorom Nature^ and 
therefore iv? failing is now an ill Sign, 

In ‘ 'vs Cafe good Old Wine^ and spiritnom 
Cprdla i, wnich may rowfe and invigorate Nature^ 
and aifo eijgage with the Rofin by their Sulphureotny 
Spirit. j Vi alt be of excellent Ufe, 

Nte., That if you want Salt of Tartar other 

XI vial _ Saks may ferve, as thofe of Wormwood^ 
' Broom ^ &c. only you muft give at leaft OncThird 
more j and in Cafe of great Hafte and Urgency, 
you may give the very Aflies of Wormwoody Broom^ 
or any Vegetable, in 2 or 3 times the (Quantity 
as the Salts are to be given, in 2 or 2 SpoonfuUs 
of Brandy J or SL Qlafs Of Old Wine^ orbpth mi^ed 
together, for the very roughnels of the y^Jhes will, 
in feme mea&re, contribute to wear off the Rofin^ 
and thereby affift the Lmvid Salt tha^ is in 
them, ‘ ' 


Hum was 

~~g r w f f r^ will be convenient^ when you perceive 
the Vomiting begin to abate^ to give as much of 
Daffee^s Elixir^ or Ttn^ura Sacra made in feme 
Spirituous Liquor, as does ufually give Six Stools ^ 
it is beft Purging with a Liquid, becaufe fpeedier 
in Operation^ and that it fhould be Spirituous^ to 
help the Dijjhlution of the Rofin, 

1. Note^ That you alfb take Care not to be too 
bufie with Spirituous Liquors when they are much 
relaxed, and have fuch Symptoms as Drunken 
People have, elpecially if they appear in a high 
degree^ for too much of them may promote the 

2, Note^ That in Paintings or Leipothymies after 
filch Vomitings and Struggle of Nature^ you muft 
not fo much excite them by grievous Senfation^ as 
pinching^ pricking, d^c, (for thofe Leipothymies are 
(as was faid) a fort of Recruit as Sleep is, and 
therefore the laft Refuge of Nature for that End) 
but with Spirituous and Comfortable Things^ as 
knowing that there is an awaking by Recruit^ 
(which is Natural^ as. well as by grievous Senfa- 
tion, which is forced and unnatural (as has been 

II. To Cure the EffeBs of too much Relaxation by 

an exceflive Dole, 

Firf,^ You muft be latisfied, that the ill Effe5ls 
thereof are from too much Relaxation, 

I . By confidering the Preparation of Opium that 
was taken, for if you find that it was liich as had 
the Rofin duly feparated from it, you may be 


of Opium Reveal’d. 301 

fiire, that the ill 'Effe^s are only from Relaxation, 
becaufe the I>o[e was too great ; or if it was a 
Preparation that had the Rofin lb tubdued or al- * 
tered, as you find directed to render it fafe, you 
may preliime the ill EjftBs are from o\Qv-Relaxa^ 
tion ; for llich Preparations are other wife lafe and 
innocent^ except when the largenefs of the Dofe 
(as that of good Wine) caufes too much Relaxa- 

2. By the Symptoms, which arc thefe, 'viz,, 
Mienation of the Mind, Lofs of Memory, Stupidity, 
Sleepinefs, Sopors^ Failures of the Senfes, as Dark, 
nefs of the Eyes, feeing Things douhle^ 'various Co^ 
lours before the Eyes, Lofs of Peeling, Eafe from 
Pain, &c, Deadn^ of the Eyes to the View_, Di- 
latation of the tupilla, Efflorefcence of the Skin, 
Laxity of the Lower Jaw, Intumefcence, and Laxity 
of the Lips, Faltring of the Tongue, Sardonick 
Laughter, Laxity and Weaknefs of all Parts, a gene^ 
ral Ineptitude to Motion, Failure in making Water, 
going to Stool, and in all Things that require 
Strength, Contrail ion, Motion, dt'c, Dijpculty of 
Breathing, a wide and flow Pulfe, a Condition m 
general very like that of Drunkennefs, which alfo 
proceeds from Relaxation. 

Secondly, When you are latisfied that Relaxation 
is the Gaufe, ufe all Means to procure a due 
ContraHion of all Parts ; which is to be done, 

1. By removing the Caufe of the Relaxation; 

2. By ufing all good Means for ContraHion. 

Firflr, therefore, give a brisk, quick, and ftrong 
V omit, both to, dilcharge the Opiate, and caule 
ComraHion of Parts by a grievous Senfation^ 

5o<2 The Myfteries 

. Frcfmion it to the Deadnefs^ Stupidity^ or Sliepl- 
fsefi of the Perfon, fb as to give it of twice thd 
ordinary Strength of Vomits in Cafe there is great 
Danger from thofe Symptoms^ and that they are of 
a high Nature. 

After th^Terfonhji^ Vomited 3 or 4 Tmes., or 
fb often as that you may judge the Stomach well 
cleared of the Opiate ^ give Half an Ounce of Cream 
of Tartar finely poudered in thin Brothy Whey^ 
fVateTy Small Beer, or any convenient Liquid, 
which will corre^ft the Opiate if any remains at 
Stomach, turn the Vomit, to a Furger to clear the 
Intefiines al(b, and contribute , much to the Con- 
traUlm of Parts, which you muft always have iii 
your Thoughts, as the' ruling Intention in this Cafe^ 

Secondly, You mufl: ufe ContraBers all the Time, 
the chief of which, are Cold, grievous Senfation, 
(or Pain) Ttrrour, Fear, Voluntary Motion, and. 
Azids^ which iaft cannot be fb well ufed during 
the Vomiting, left they flop ir. 

Therefore (efpecially if the Perfoh be Very 
Stupid ) keep him very Cold, for he will hardly 
feel it, nor take Cold, becaufe the Relaxation^ 
and the infenfiblenefs of Grievance, by Cold, 
keeps the Pores open ; let him be (if poffible ) id 
feme Motion, as JFalking, Hewing, Sawing, Knock-- 
mg. Tugging, &c^ tiie more violent it is the bet- 
ter, becaufe it caufes more Contratlion and Agita^ 
lion to prevent *, To force him to Motfen, 
fif need bej Pricking, Pinching, or fVhipping him 
about the Legs, &c, will be of good Ufe, becaufe 
^kvous Senjation adds defenjive ContraBion ' f wbicfi 
is the greateft fbrtj to that of the intentive Con<. 
traBion by voluntary Mot ion t 

of Opium ReveaVJ. 303 

^ Thefe Means failing, he Ihould be expofed 
fiark naked to the coldeli Air, and in defperate 
Cafes thrown iuddenly at unawares into cold IVa-^ 
ter •, by which Means you caufe Ttrrour, Surprjfe^ 
and Cold, f which are the higheftand moft forcible 
ContraSlers) to confpire to the ContrdUon of Parts 5 
Hence it is that Drunken VeopU, who are fo from 
Relaxation, become Sober, as in a moment, by 
that Means, 

Ail the time, but during the Vomiting, Jet him 
ufe cold Acids in great Plenty, and very mani- 
feflly acid, for they will not only contribute to 
ConirdBian, but very much corred the Opiate ; 
To this End Jmce of Oranges or Lemmons, Ver^ 
juke, or Water "acidulated to a good degree by 
Verjuice Vinegar , Jtsice of Lemmons, Spirit of 
Vitriol, Sulphur, or the like, will be very proper. 

Where you have not the Convenience to 
plunge them into cold Water, (as is dirededj 
dafliing or pumping very cold Water, or Water 
with a Fourth Part of Vinegar upon their nakedi 
Bodies, will be of great Uie, eipecially if fiir^ 
prifingly done, to caufe the more Terrour and 

Thejfe Things may be done more or hfs, as 
Caiife may require, which muft be left to the Bif- 
tretion of the prefeht Vbyfician, or Friends and 
Standers by (in Cafe there be no Vhyfici* 
an:^ I only Caution, that ContraBers fiiould hot 
be ufed too (paringly, and that you ihould never 
ceaie to advance in the Ufe of them dll you per« 
teive their good EffeB, and then to continue them 
as occafion requires. 


^04 The Myfieries- 

That the Cafe may well happen^ that 
the Rofin may flick at Stomachy and yet no Signs 
or Symptoms appear but thole of Relaxation^ by 
Reafon that the Feeling at Stomach may thereby 
be difabled to take any notice of it. 

To be fure of this, you have no other Msans^ 
becaufe the Symptoms and EfFedts of grkvom Sen- 
fation cannot appear, where it is not ffor the 
aforelaid Reafon) but to examine whether the 
Opiate was a refinom one^ as crude Opium ^ ExtraB 
out of spirit of IVine, or the like, for then you 
may conclude, efpecially if they were given in a 
majjy [olid Form^ as that of Fillsy &c. without fe- 
vering the Particles of the Rofin fay other Things^ 
as the Talk of an &c, that the Rofin may in 
all Probability flick at Stomachy tho’ its Symptoms 
do not appear for the aforefaid Reafon, 

In liich a Cale the beft Advice that I can give 
is, externally to ufe all Contracting Means, as is 
directed, and internally the Means prelcribed 
for DiJJblution of the Ro(in^ for you’ll thereby an- 
Twer both Intentions, 

Failure of making ^ater often happens in thele 
Cafes, which you may generally help by only 
clapping the Scrotum to the cold Chamber Fot, 
or into cold Water, and if that will not do, put 
Ibme Vinegar into the Water and that failing, he 
mull be ftript, and cold Water pumpt or dafted 
upon the Region of the Bladder, 

III, To Cure the ill EjftUs of a long and lavifk 
life of Opium. Thefe EfeBs (as you may eafily 
obferve, if you take a View of them where they 
are enumerated in Chap^ 6 . ) are either, 

I, From 


bf Opium Reveal’ j. 303 

f. r. From an cver-much and habitud Felaxatmi of 
l^arts^ as JVeaknefsy a Adoapifi Dljpcjition^ Dhnmu. 
tlon of Appetite^ Woaknefs of Djopfes'^ 

Wkaknefs of Memory^ <&'c. Or, 

2. From Acrimony^ as frequent Irritations to make 
Water ^ frlapifms^ Eredions of the Fenps^ fruideiS 
Inclinations to Venery^ ^c. 

In this Cafe (as in that of old Drunkards^ vvhicii 
is much the lame) there is no good to be done 
till the habitual Caufe is removed, 'vlz,. the Faking 
bf Qpium^ which fuddenly to leave off is fas was 
fhewn) very dangerous. Therefore, in order id 
leave it off fafel^ 

I. You mufl: flop your Hands, and not in;^ 
crpfe the Dofe that is taken, b}' which Means ic 
will come gradually to have little or no Ejf B. 

, 2. When you find that it is come to that pafs, 
your Work is half done ; then only lefien it lootll 
Part every Day till you come to take none at 
all. ‘ . 

3. If during this retrograde Courfe you find ahy 
Faintnefs^ orink a Glafs of good Stomach- Wne 
totles quoties^ as Gentian^ or Cent ary JVine^ or the 
like, made by [nfufion in Claret \ or, if you want 
fuch, a Glafs. of the Claret it felfi which Things 
will excite the Spirits] and help Digefiion. 

. 4. When you have quite ended the Taking of 
Opium^ continue to Ufe fdchV/ines when you are 
faiiit, and every Morning take in a 'Glafs of Geiu 
tian Wine Two Drams of the Chalybeate Wine de- 
Icribed in the London Difpenfatory^ increafing a- 
bout a Scruple tv try Day tiii you come to Half 

Ounce^ which take for Two Months ac leaff, 
afterward decreafing, as you encreafedj till yoh 
cofiie to One Drachm^ and fo give over. 


0b o The Myfteries 

BuNif you find Occc^fior^ you may continue thaf 
Courfe longer, or as long as your Phjfcian thinks 

After all, you may ufe a Glafs of Claret when 
fainc^ but be fare to be moderate, and not run 
from one E'^cefs to another. 

As for the Acrimony of that is more 

duiing the Taking of Opium ^ and will foon after 
gradually wear off, efpecially by the Courfe di- 
refted ; if not, Camphire is the adequate Remedy^ 
of which with equal Parts of White Rcfin^ and 

f* of Mucilage of Gum. Tragac, you may make 
Pius of ^ Grains weight, taking 4 of them every 
Night at Bed-time in a rear Tolk of an Jgg, as 
long as it is neceffary ; for Camphire^ by its fine 
SulpJmr.^ COJ re6ls the ‘volatile Acrimony of Cantha- 
ridesT^pium^&c. and fb allays Titillation to Fenery,^c\ 
as is obferv’d. 

IV* The ill Effects of a fudden leaving off of 
Opium, as Anxieties, Dijlreffes, Depreffons of Spirits^ 
which fas was laid) are very dangerous, are re- 
niedied no othefr way, but either, 

r. By returning to the Ufe of Opium, which is a 
mofl: certain Cure, and afterward (if you pleafe) 
give over the Ufe of it after the manner that I du 
reded, v^hich you’ll find to be fafe ; nor can 1 
advife you to truli any other Method of leaving 
it off, unlefi it be, 

2. By fub fit uting Wine infiead of Opium, which 
is not quite fo fafe or certain ; your beft Method 
of ufing it, is to drink a good Glafs of it fb often 
as to keep the Comfort thereof at Stomach contu 
nually, that fo it may anfwer the more pern?anent 
Effe^' of Opium, and keep you from a faint Cen^ 

of Reveafd. -^oj 

dition • but feeing alfb that this Courfe is not con- 
venient to be continued long, you mud gradually 
leiTen the Do/e of this, as you are direded to do 
that of Qpium^ till you come to take none, or fat 
lead) a moderate and wholefbm Qiiandcy. 

^ote^ That if flich as ufed to take' Opium are 
even almod expiring for warn of it, you mull, 
to prevent imminent Death, give a Licjuid Prepay 
ration thereof to the ^alue of what the Perfbn wa$ 
ufed to take, in a Cordial Vehicle.^ as Spirit of 
Pf^ine^^- Brandy.^ or the like, becaufe fuch hot SpL 
rituous Vehicles do (as has been fhewnj immediate- 
ly give d?me Comfort by aduating and warming 
our Spirit Sy tiW^e Opium comes to Operate, which 
will not be long, becaufe it is in a Licfuid Fo;m | 
if you find the Perfbii fink notwichfianding, he 
maybe kept up by repeating the or Or- 

dial without any Opium in it-, till the ope- 
rates, which will certainly (by God'^s Help ) fee 
him right, in cafe it does but begin to operate 
before he is dead. Ses The Phitoj.Trahfacl.for 
June^ July^ Augufi^ 16^6, 

Note^ That it is a very fal/e Ima/tnd'tioit that 
Authors have of the Turks Capacity (by Nature ^ 
Climate^ or the like) to take more Opium, or id 
greater Quantity than we may, but th/it they 
make more ZJ/e of it, and by that means come 
to take 2 or 3 Drams a day ; for they begiti 
with fuch fniall Quantities as we commonly give^ 
till by a long Cuftom of taking it they edme to 
take the faid Quantities^ which is but fmall in 
Comparifon of what feveral Enghjh People chat 
have been ufed to it do, or have taken, as I could 
Name feveral to you, if I had not Reafons to the 
■contrary ; however,! am at Libetty to teli ydii the 
Quantities, tho’ I muO: forbear naming the Fer^ 

X 2 fojni 

50 $ the Myjienes 

fins* (bme have daily taken 2, 3, 4^ y, 6 Drarfi^ 
nay^ I have heard of fome that have taken am 
Ounce a Day, and of One that took Two Ounces^ 
whereas the Learned and Curious Dr. Edward 
Smithy could find none about Smyrna who took 
above 3 Drams a Day. 

All this is moft agreeable to Reafon, and the 
whole Current of my Difeourfe, viz. That it 
can be better born in cold than hot Weather^ and 
^onfequently in cold than hot Climates 3 by firm 
Fiefhed Perfons, than i'uch as have [oft and flaccid 
Fkjljy as the People have in Comparifon 

of the Northern^ and fuch as inhabit cold Comtreys, 
Therefore you may be fure that luch as Enquire 
into the Caufe, why the Turks and other Eafiern 
Feople can take greater Quantities than we can, 
feek for the Reafons of Things before they know 
the FaSly nay, , when the Fatl is qmte contrary to 
what they build upon ; We may as well expe< 5 l 
FJifylng Di/courfes from them that Enquire why 
Fire is cold.^ Water dry ? and the like, asfron? 
fuch as luppofe Things contrary to true and fen« 
fible Experience, 


o/ Opium Reveal d. 


Some general Rules ^ Cautions^ &c foncerning 
the Vje of O^mm. 

T Ho’ there is hardly any Ruk^ Qamion^ or 
Thing worthy of Ohfervation^ concerningthe 
Ufe of OpiuTn, but wliat is implied, or eafily in* 
ferable from what has been faid ; nor, ( ^hat 
the true Nature of Opium is diicpvered ) can 
there be fuch Fears and Jealoufies ( which multjr 
ply Cautions) etfncerning the Adminifiration 
of 5 (for every one may now eafily fee wherein 
its Danger and Beinfit lies) yet becaufe a Chapter of 
Rules and may be expelled, as being ufu- 

a 1 , and to have a fi^gk View of fuch as lie more 
fcatter’d^ and not fo readily found in the B:dy of 
the Book^ I will, to introduce the Ufe of Opium 
with more Clearncfs and perfect Security^ gi^c 
you a Collection of general Rules and Cautions con, 
ccrning its Ufe ^ whereof fome are mentioned^ 
and moft inferable from the Premlfes. 

1 . As to its 

1 . It Hiould be alv/ays given, freed from its Re^, 
finous Parts, if you can get fuch a Preparation. 

2, It is alfoneac and convenient, that it fhould 
be freed from all its' Earth, and Drofs. 

5. Never give Opium, but either lb prepared, on 
with its Rofin ib fubdued, fegregated, or altered, 
as I have fliawn in the lafe Preparations thereof It 
follows that^ . 

4. Crude Opium ^ and EtitraHs made in fulphw^r. 

are utterly to be rej^,( 3 ;ed. 

/ 5^ 3 ‘ _ 5. Never 

gi© The Myfieries 

5. Never give ic mix’d, or joinM with yefimm 
■J^hmgs, f as has been incimated.) 

6 . Never mix, or join it with other Opiates ^ 

I. Becaufe ncye of them are fo good. 2. Be- 
caufe they are not fo well known. 3. Becaufe it 
makes the JDofe more uncertain. 4. Becaufe thofe 
other Opiates are ufed unprepared. 

7. Pil. eStyrace^ becaiife madeof refinom Opium ^ 
join’d with re^nom Things^ as Styrax calam^ and 
Ohhamfnj is an wfufferahle Freparaiic--^, (tho' com- 
mended ) and therefore has fi equenf ill Effe&-Sy to 
my Knowledge, 

8. Pi/, e CynogloJJd is fuch another, having two 
O^i^tes in it befides Opium^ extraiffed out of Spirit 
of Wine, ( which is far worfe than crude Opium^ 
tho’ by the way of Eminc?Ke call’d Opium prepared^ 
in our Difpenjatory ) Styrax cdam. and Qlihamirri^ 
.which are refinom. 

9. Laudan. Lord, is alfb an ill Preparation, as 
having the Opium extracted out of Spirit of Wme 
to make it worfe than when Crude ; therefore has 
ibmecimes ill EffeBs^ efpecially when ufed alone 
in the Form of a Fill^ in a large Dofe^ ( as was 


TO. Ehilonium magifirale is alfo to be rejecled, 
becaufe the Opiur/i is prepared in Spirit of IVme^ 
and Benjamm added, which is refinom. 

1 1. Vhilon. Rom, & Ferfic, are tolerable, becaufe. 
the Opi-mn is difgregated, and mix’d ( as Galen 
would have it) among much, and feveral other 
Things^ which keeps .it's refimous Farts from 

IL As to its Forirs, 

I. A Filular Form of crude Opium or any refi- 
nous Freparation thereof, wherein the Rofin is not 
duly fubdiied, fegregated, altered or correded , 
is ( as has been feovva ) the moff pernicious. 

2.’ The 

of Opium RevearJ. 3 1 1 

2. The Form cf an FkVtuary is commendable ^ 
■iis in finall Quantitj^ mix'd therein with many or 
much other Things^ that prevent the Qoakfcmce of 
the Var ticks. 

g. Klif^uld Form is generally go©d^ becaufe the 
Parrs, as in a Tindlureof Opium in Spirit of PFine^ 
are fevered, and (egregated ^ yet it is not fo very 
iafe, where the Ro/in is not f^parated ; becaufe if 
Care be not taken ( as has been directed ) the 
refinous Particles may be precipitated at Sto-mach^ 
and fo coalefce and hick to if. 

4. The Operation of Opium is quicker in a IL 
(fuid Formy but more lading in a ihlid Formy afpe^ 
chWy \[thQ Opium bQrifinous ; which, tho' noxious 
in general, yet has the Advantage oFDurationy 
where it majKbe born, as in Perfbns of a rohujt 
Texture and good Digefiiony or where Cuflom has 
taken off it’s Grievounfefs, as you find in habitual 
Tobaco- takings 3CC. 

5. The /ifuid Panacea of Opium j is better for 
Alteration ; becaufe it is the firll Fruits of the Opk 
um.y and more fincere and unaltered by Fire dim 
the fblid. But, 

6. The [olid Panacea is better, where a hay at 
Stomach and the Inteftines is convenient, as in 
i\oppmgo^ FomitingyLoofij^eJJeSy ^c. To be brief, 

7. Liquid Forms fhould be always given in foul 
Stomachs^ where the Digefikn is weak, in FcavefSy 
and when a nimble Operation is requifice* 

IK. As to its Fofe. 

I. The mean p.r middle Dofe is generally to bp, 
ufed,* and where, there is no Dirc&ion to the con- 

The mean ■ Dofe may ferve, except in violent 
Painty or where much of the Opiate t$ lofty (as it 
liap.pens v^ry often in Vomiting oi Loofei.efs j or ro 

X 4 excise 

312 the. Mj/ftenes 

excice V.^.nery ;,becaufe thole Parts are remote^ and, 
require a fen fihle Tnillatlon. Bat as to thefe 

macLesS;, you’ll have j)articiilar DireEiions in the re- 
ihettl-cje Cafes in the following Chapters^ that treat 
thereof in a jfccial manner. 

The Dfe muft be proportion ably left in the 
■fine and lax4exiured Children^ Women^ 'warm and 
'’moift f Feather^ weak Stomachs^ Verfons much dehiU- 
tated^ OV over tired with fVork^ Labour ^ Difeafe^S^c, 

IV. As to its Vehicle, 

1. It ihould generally^ ( unleft there he particu*; 

lar Caufe to the contrary ) be pieafant and agree- 
able to the Tafe and Stofnach^ that it may rather 
confpire with the Opiate to pleafethe Membranes 
than contradict the Senfitive Fleafure , that it 
caules. X 

2. ItHiouldnot bean Jdd^ becaufe it infrin- 
ges the volatile IN at are of Opium ^ except feme par- 
ticular Cafe requires it j which will be feen here- 

3. It fliould not be a Volatilo-fallne^ efpecially tp 
caufe Sleeps or becaufe that may render it too a- 
cricnonious or pungent^ and fb hinder Sleeps Com- 
pofurey &C/ 

4 . Ic ihould not be lixivia f becaufe its fixed 
Nature oppefes the volatile ; except it be, *-vhere 
the Opiate is refinous^ CO help it’s Dljfdution. There- " 
fore, ‘ 

5. Wine.^ or fennented Li^tiorSy Cordials ^ Water Sy 
or imooth and pieafant Liquids, as EmVfionsy Milk 
and Watery Water and Sugar, &c. will be the, 
moft proper (generally fpeaking ) 

6 . The Ttf.-iGus Opiate fhould be always given in 

fdphunoas Spirits y Wlney or [Irong Liepuors-^ or in a 
lixivld Vehicle^ or rather in both mixed ^ or in 
■a rear Tolk of an Eggy or finely poudered and well ^ 
mixed with EkEluaries^ Confervesj thick Sy- 

' - ’ ' ■ ‘ • rups. 

of Opium Reveafd. 3 1 3 

rups^ TtdpSy or any Tmng that is innocent^ and of 
a goodConfilti^nce, to refinous Panicles^. 

fijnder^ and to prevent their for which 

End, I judge, that good white .> ^p mmlhe ( he- 
caufe of the Alkali^ its Slipfrmefs^ Apntudeto 
join with the ^<^pn) a good P'ehkle^ th^Opium 
(grapings of the ^oap being mixed with a little 
fi^ater^ ( ^d vvhat elfe you thinfe fit, to render 
rliem more acceptable ) by pounding them in a 
Monar fora good vyhile, toan intimate mixture. 

V, As to Time. 

1. Give the Liquid Forms half an Hour at leaf!, 
or an Uour^ before the Time you would have them 

2. Give the [olid Forms an Hour^ or an Hour 
and a half^ before you would have them operate. 

It is very filly, not to give them till the very 
Time that they (hould operate, as ’tis ufoal at Bed- 
time, when they fiiould be then operating, and 
paufing Sleepinefsy tfiat the Refi and Ea/e of lying 
down may concur with it j whereas if People are 
unapt tp ( as generally they are who take 
Opium) they, not taking it till Bed-time, lie tolling 
and tuniblinig, grow uneafie, and refllefs, and the 
Bed hard, and f in a great part of the Year ) too 
Hot, before the Opium operates, id that the Opium 
cannot take Effect, by Reafin of Difquietudesy Id 
the Fer/ons lie all or mofl: Part of the Nigk with- 
out any Sleep ; whereas if it be Id given as tocaufe 
a great Skepinefs by the Time they go to Bed, their 
lying ftill a very little Time ( which they are then 
apt to ) and the Bed being (dfc, cafie, cool, and 
pieafant, they imrpediacely fleep, and their Spirits 
being compoled, continue their Sleep all, or moft 
of the Night, Therefore I have often come 
where People hadnot flept, d o’ they tookanO/>i- 
ate at Bed-time, and given them the very fame a 
convenient Time before, and they 'have fweet- 

314 Myfteries 

ly dipt, to their Heart’s Defire and Rfirefiment, 
4. Give Opiates^ as to Meals^ at Jeaft 3 Hours 
before and after them^ or about the middle Time 
between them, if it be in the Day-time^ or when 
die Stomach is near empty, or but little or light 
matter in it; which if gentle and agreeable, will 
help Men to p^ep : But great Repletion and perfe6^ 
Emptinefs Or Hunger grievous* Senf at ion) 

do difturb or hinder Sleep, 

5*. Opiates may, and have proved inconvenh 
ent before o.r after Letting of Blood and Hemorrha^ 
ges^ efpecially if the Evacuation was large, and fiid- 
den ; the Reafon is, becaufe the Perfons being very 
dilpirited, and fo much inclined to Sleep of them- 
(elves, may fleep too much and dangeroufly; and 
becaufe Opium relaxing hinders the V ejfels duly to 
contrad upon the remaining Bleed, which may 
cmik^Dif continuance of its Streams, by Reafon that 
the diminifhed Blood may not fuffice to fill up the 
relaxed Vejfels ; tho’ this may feldona happen, be- 
caufe the ComprefiUre of the j^ir is appointed by 
moft wife Trovidence to clofe all our Vejfels in 
fkch Cafes but it muft be better done, v^/hen the 
Parts themfelves doalfo duly contra^V^ which OpL 
urn hinders. 

6. You have much' the fame Reafon not to give 
them fbon after other large Evacuations, where a 
due Contrablion of the Parts is requifite ; as after 
Tapping. ( or Faracentep') in Dropfies - Child, 
birth, 6cc. 

7. Opiates are beft given in the Morning, to 
caufe Euphory or brisk EffeBs, becaufe the R.e. 
frejhwent gain’d by the Night s Sleep does not on» 
ly concur towards Euphory and Bruknejs^ but alfb 
much oppofe SUepineJ's and Drowfinefs, which are 
not confiifent mthbrnk EffcBs, 

. VI, As 

of O^ium ReveaFd. 31 ^ 

YL As to Verfons. 

1. It is not convenient to give toPcr*- 

fons young on ‘Very old. , 

2. They agree better with Men th^ Wmmiot 
CJoildren ; With Men of a robuft and hard^ rather 
than of a weak, fine^ tender^ SLnd ^okTtxtmrs- 
with fuch as have a firong J)igefikn^ than a weak 5 
and in general with jtrong.^ rather 

'iveak. Therefore, 

3. Never give them to Ferfom that are verf 
weak, efpecialiy ifthey take^ or. digfii 

.n inccy or extreamly little^ for Realpos already, gi- 
ven, nor to firdi 'as are near their oraimoft 
expiring ; Except k be for 'W-ant or by 

Extremity of Contraction- by Terroury Fam^ Cdd^ 
ConvMlfions y &c. tor then it will do, Wonitrs in, 
preferving People, that arc otherwilc pafi al 
Hoyes.^ by relaxing, taking away CiomraBi^ 
onsf&ic. , ■ ■■ , , 

4. It is not fb agreeable to the very fat or 
becaufethey may be over- relaxed 3 nor to the ve- 
ry lean^ and dry, Scc. ( erpecialiy to caulc Jiesjf J 
becaufe it is apt to irritate and actuate, their Spirits 
too much, by which means Sleep is much hin- 

VU. As to Maladies^ and Difeafes^^^Q, 

I. Opiates are not convenient in Edaxations^ as 
fuch ; di% general Falfies^ Ilemiphlegids^ Falfes ofthc 
EyeSj Deadnefs of them, Dilatation of the Pupil^ 
laxation of the Tympan of the Ear^ of one Jide of 
the Eace^ which makes the other fide concradt, and 
and (b draw the Face awry *, for 'ds pot a Spaf?2f 
or Convulfion ( as Men imagine ) of thd contrad:- 
ing fieJS;) but a Resolution of the other, which per- 

The Myfieries 

mits the Antagonifi Mufclts of that fide to contract 
without Oppofition^ and draw the Face toward the 
ftrong found Side : Relaxation of the U^ula^ or 
the annex’d Vulva ^ (Which laft is known by 
SnufBing without any other evident Caufe, or 
by obferving that it does not fhut in founding 
c in hut ^ cut^) 8ic. by it felf ; Relaxation of the 
Larynx^ and IVtn^lpipe^ ( which is known by a 
haarfe kind of hVhlJ^ er without a Cold^ or any evL 
dent Caufe I ) Of the or Gullet^ (which is 

known by a depravation of fwallowing without 
Tain^ or Tumor ^ or any evident Caufe A ?ara- 
lytical Afibma^ or difficulty of Breathing, whereiq 
Men heave the Shoulders without any apparent 
Caufe j Relaxation of the Stomachy as when Meat 
ftays too long at Stomachy A ^alfie of the In- 
tefiines^ or Guts^ as when one is bound, and can- 
not refer it to any other Caufe; Of the Bladder 
( when one cannot make Water without any other 
Caufe to refer it to ; ) Relaxations of the Sphincters 
of the Bladdery and Anusy ( that is^ when Urinsy 
or Ordure fall from one involuntarily ; ) nor are they 
p^nvenient in Baths y unlefs great Relaxationy as for 
PafTageofthe dec. is intended. 

Horrn Ruptures as Bronchocele^ (of the Windpipe ; ) 
'Exomphalos ( of the Navel ) Bubonocele ( oi the 
Groin • ) or the Fall of Humours y GutSy Faty dec. in- 
to the Scrotumy or of the Fundament y Womhy or 
the Vaginay dec. except it be to reduce them. 

Nor in Lunattonsy Sprains y Laxity and Weaknefs 
of Jointly Limhsy Backy dec. Extenftons of Nervesy 
Tendons y Ligament Sy dec. Nor where Relaxation 
does or may improve the Dijtempery or do barmy as in 
ApopleCtical and foporofe Cafes y as Comuy Caros y Le- 
thargjy dec. Weaknep of Memory^ Stupidityy Mo. 
rofisy NightmarCy Drunkennefy Sec. Syncopes^ and 
Faintings from Relaxationy as the original Caufe ; 
as from EticejS of Jojy Fleajure : Large Evacuations 

• when 

of opium ReveaPif. 31 ^ 

When the Parts cannot welh and duly contrad 
upon what remains, as after Child-Birth ^ profufe 
HtimYrhagesy Tapping^ ( or Baracetitefis^ ) or any 
large Evacuation of Humours in Drofjies ot the Belly , 
Breafiy or Head^ nor ("as has been hinted) in Drof^ 
(les^ tho’ without any fuch Evacuation^ unlefi it be 
upon fome fpecial Confideration of the learned ; 
nor in Trewblings^ or Shakings of the Heady or 
Hands y 6cc. from Weaknefiy as in old Jge : Nor in 
Fluxes from Relaxation y as too much Sweaty Gonor^ 
rhaa Simplex y ^Diabetesy noBurnal PoUutionsy Chylous 
Fluxy Lienterjy involuntary Flux o^Urincy or Ordure^ 
and fome forts of immoderate Fluxes of the Menfesy 
or Lochia, which owe their Caufe to Relaxaticn\ 
or Aptitude to ^Abortion from that Caufe, and in- 
deed generally in PFcmen with Childy left it fhould 
caufe Abortion by relaxing the Neck of the IVomh. 
Or where ContraBion is beneficial, as to empty a 
foul or replete Stomachy •CholeVy &c. by Vomiting or 
Stooly or an ill Humour any way. Therefore 

11 . -Opiates are not convenient when grievous Senfath 
ans are ufefuly as to excite ExpeUoration when Matter 
threatens Suffocation, in VomicaSy Fleuripes, Feri* 
pneumonias, Confumptions, Spitting of Blood, 6rc. 
When Hunger calls for Foody and Refauratives ; 
that of at Stomach excites Vomiting; that 
of Urine fblicites us to a due Excretion thereof 
that of ill Matter aX Guts caufes an there- 

of; (b that when a Crps is to be by the Help of 
^ievous Senfation, or Irritationy Opiates are not con- 
venient, for it takes off the Senfe of Irritation • 
but when a Crifis is to be by Relaxation, as by ope- 
ning the Fores to caufe Sweat, Ferjfirationy 6cc. 
then is it of exeelleht Ufe: So, great Quefiton, 
( that has very much puzzled the learned } whe^ 
ther Opium is convenient before a Crifs / is plain« 
ly, zvidmechankaUy 

III. Opiates 

The Myjleries 

in. Ofm tes are not convenient where TitillatioH 
by the Acrimony of volatile Salts is the Caufe of thfe 
Difeafe, as in troublefom EreBions, PnapifmSy 
Uwrml F&fftitionSj Venereal Furks^ too much Salads 
tjy and Tkillation^ Itchings of the Uterm^ Scrotnmj 
Ecms^ Skm in general^ &c<, 

I¥. 1 fearce need tel! any^ that Opiates are in- 
conirenieat when the Meconium of Children fhould 
be evacuated ; or when one is bound in Body^ or 
apt tabc fo ; but there may [be a Time^ when the 
teamed Fhyfician may think fit, to give them even 
to the Coftive in urgent Cafes^ for he can order 
fomewhacalong with them, or loon after, to open 
the Body ; who may alfo fee Caufe fometimes to 
vary from thefe general Ruks^ when NueJJity and 
good Reafon dire^ him fb to do, tho’ they are ne- 
verrhelefe general in their Nature.^ and not to be 
tranigreiTed without {pedal Caufe y and mature Be- 
liber atkn» ' 

V. opiates are not fo convenient where there is much 
Oimy, tiioift, and phlegmatick Humours, by Rea- 
fbn that the Parts are fubjecfl in fuch Cafes to 
ba too much relaxed. 

I have been the fuller. ( ef}ieciaHy upon the 
Head oi Difeafes ) chat I may te eafter have no- 
thing to do, but CO (hew the beneficial Ufe of Opi- 
ates duly prepared^ more particularly of the Pana» 
ced^sofOpiumy of which I am going to fpeak* 


of Opium ReveaPd. 3 


The Method contriv'd to Jhew the Z)fe of well^ 
prepared Opiates (more ejpecidlji the Panacea ' 

of OpiumO 

H Aving ftiewn the Nature and Principles o^ 

, Opium, which produces the good ^ which 
the bad EffeAs ; ho-w and 'iphy they do fb ^ hov; to 
feparate^ fubdue^ and corred: the bad Principles • 
the due Dofes of good Preparatmss • how to cure 
all the ill Opium, and general Rules and 

Cautions covxQQvmng it/ and in what Cafes it may 
not be convenient ; 1 have now nothing to do but 
to Ihcw the beneficial Ufe of the Panacea, (or well 
prepared Opiates. 

To make it more agreeable to rational Minds^ 
and fix its Ufies better in Memory, I will fo proceed 
by its EfieSls, that the very Title of every Chapter 
may imply the Reafbn of its Ufe, which is either 
internal or external, and both of them either^ 

L As it is a Pkafer of Senfation, for an Opiate 
fpecially fo calldj by which means it produces 
all thQ good Efiebls that are notoiioufly obferved 
which are mention’d in Chap, 5. Or, 

II. As it is an Alter at i^ve rf the Bloud, &c, which 
is all Improvement j becaufe aimofe wholly dif 
regarded, and never brought into any Method to 
this day, tho’ it is the far nobler Ufe, by how much 
Curing excels bare P leafing, or Palliating, tho’ thefe 
lafl Ufies have already rendred it the moft general 
Medicament that is in being, infomuch that SyL 
^ms faid, having only refpecf to this Ufs, That 
he had rather not be a Phypcian, than not know 
the Ufio of Opium. jjj^ 

the MyfteriH 

III. As an Evamativehy relaxing and opening 
the Pores. 

Its EffMs and Ufes^ as a Fleafer of Senf at ion, are 
fairly reducible to thefe general Heads, viir,. 

I. \ts comforting, gratifying, , encouraging, and 
'vigm'oting of the fenjiti've Soul and Spirits. 

Its compofing the fenfidve Soul, Spirits, ^c. 

g. Its relaxing all the Jenfle Parts of the Body, 

4. Its caujing Sleep. ' " 

5. Its caujing Indolence, Of taking away Fain^ 

6. Its J^^ppi^g Fluxes,that depend upon Irritation^ 
grievous Senfation, Contralfion, ^c. 

7. Its promoting Fluxes^ that depend upon Rela. 

8^. Its caujing TitiUation^ 

9. Its caujing Vigtlancy (or Watching) in (bnie 

Its Effells and Ufes, as an Alterative, are, 

1. To invigorate Nature, or the fenftive Soul, 
and Spirits, which are the Principles of all Motion 
and Alteration for the Prefervation of the Animal. 

2. give Nature, or the fenfttive Soul, an Eiu 
phory in that Work of Prefervation, Alteration, &c; 

5. To adminijler frefs and mof agreeable Prin. 
eiples for that end, 

4. To adminijlef fuch as are moie vigorous and 
powerful than ourdwn, in order, 

y. To refolve all ill Humours , as vigorous and 
agreeable Menjirunms do. 

6. To compofe, cofnhine, concentrate, or unite the 
good and agreeable Parts ofthofe Humours, and by its 
AgreeabkneJ^ to joiri with them, and caule a llric^l 
combination of Parts, to intercede and (as it were) 
cement them. 

7* Td 

of opium RbveaF d. 321 

7. To difcuj^ the feparated and effete Parts of thofe 
‘Humours by its brisk Volatile Salt, And, 

Its Effeds and TJfesy as an Kvacuative^ ate, 

1. To caufi a liberal Perjfir at Ion, to give thofe 
effete Parts their Eoist in the moft natural, plen« 
tiful, kind, and univerfal manner. 

2. To caufe S7i'-eatj when there is (ufFiCiertc Mat- 
ter for that end. 

To relax and open the Pores for the Menfes and 
Lochia, &c. 

t CH.IR 


The Myfieries 


Of the Z)Je of the Panacea, or well-prepmd 
Opiates, to comfort and invigoraik the fcn-^ 
ftive Soul and Spirits, 

I Have fhewn how and 'ivhy ic caules a blithe^ 
gay^ and good Humour y Serenity^ Ovation of the. 
J'enftive Soul and Spirits^ Alacrity^ Promptitude^ Af^ 
furance , Courage , Magnanimity^ Euphory^ or eafie 
Undergoing of Labour ^ Journeys^ &^c. It therefore 

I. That ic muft prevent or take off Sadnefs^ Me. 
lancboly , Cloudinef , Slownef^ Dulnefs , Lifilefncf.^ 
Lazinefs , Ba{hfulnefs , Cowar dife , Fear , VufiUani. 
mity^ Laffitude^ Difireffes^ Anxieties^ Solicitude, and 
all (iich grievous Fajfions, as JVine ad Hilaritatem 

2« That hy fortifying the fenfitive Soul and Spi- 
Ats^ it muft prevent contagious Inf colons, and migh- 
tily enable and invigorate Nature to lubdue and 
conquer what is inimicous to it in all Rejpedts, 

3. That it prevents and takes off Paintings and 
Leipothymies that happen from die aibrelaid Can- 
fes, as thole upon Fear, Terrour^ hard Labour, being 
Plague ff ruck, and the like. 

I. The Form that it is to be given in is indifti- 
rent, unlels a very ludden Fff'dl is required, 
may happen in Fainting Fits, &c. for then ( as 
was laid ) a liquid Form in hFine , or hot Cordials, 
is beft. 

JI. The 

of Opium Reveard. 3 2 3 

II. The Dofe ip thefe Gafts muil be moderate^ 
and fbmetimes, in great Cafes^ the highefi ^ for 
great Grkvances cauft frofortionahle deftnfive Con* 
trdiion^ Which oppofts the good Effeci^ of the 

IIL The Vehkh fhould he a Glais of generous 
WinOy cordial fermented Liquor Sy comfortable Spk 
r'itSy or fuch-Jike ; ;to which you may add ( if 
you pleafe) pleafant. and comfortable Things ;'a9, 
TinUure of Saffron y or its Spirits • Chemical Oils^ 
as of Cinnamon^ Nutmegs^ SaffaphraSy CloTjes^ 

( dropped into Sugar ) Ambergrife, Musk^ &-c, 

IV. The Tme of giving it, is at fueh a conve- 
nient dijfance the Time that you would' 
have it operate, that it may produce its Effctfs 
at the Time defired. See the General Rules as 
to Tme, 

When it is requifite to continue its Effebfsy 
in long Journeys^ or die like, repeat it as fbon 
as you find the Effeih of the former Dofe begirt 
lenfibly to decay ; becaule ic takes feme Time to 

; V. The Regimen y when ASllon or Bufmefs 13 
intended, is to keep in Motion y Difcomfe-y or th© 
like, left you fleep or grow drowfie. 

But when you intend Sleep obferve the Re* 
gimen dire^ed dm the Chaptsr of its Ufe CO caufe 
Sleep. > 

Tho’ left Sufenance will ferve when you ufe 
it , yet muft it not be omitted in a moderate 

The Kind muft be fcch as is eafie of Digefiojty 
and apt to ^piCOXnot^' Eerffir at ion ^ as light Breads 
Mutton^ Lamhy Neat^s-Tirnguc y Sweet-breads ^ and 
Lamh-fones y with agreeable Sauces that may help. 

the Myfteriti 

Digcflio77 and ferijnratim • which is a gre^it CaiSc 
ot Senhity and Alacrity^ (as SanBorius obfervesy 
becaufe that thereby Fumes and Favours, which 
cloud and clog the Spirits^ are evaporated, and 
the Spirits become ferene and expedite. 

It is to be obferved, That Parjly^ Selery^ Onions^. 
itiorfe.Radijo^ Garlicky and fuch vjartH and volatils 
Plants^ promote Ver^iration, 

Your Drink Ihould be good Sto?nacb'-Wtne^ or 
Wine and Watet^ or fine dear Drinks^ not too new. 

t. Note^ That (as has been intimated) drink- 
ing good, acceptable, and' geiierots Wine^ lb of- 
ten (yet moderately) as’ to'keep a continual Senle 
of its Vleafure at Stomach ^ is the beft Subftitute 
to it that can be ufed ; for it will thereby anlwer 
much of the fermane?jt EjftU of well- prepared 
Opium tho’ not quite fo convenient in many 
Rejpects ; as, I. Becaule it muft be lb often re^ 
peated. 1. Becaufe its Effed is not fo fine and 
charming. Becaufe the heats more. 4 ;B£- 
cauie it wafhes the Stomach too often, and tho 

2 . Ate, That when People are in an untoward 
Condition, or (as they call it) out oiSods^ the 
next clay after Drinkings Men often advife taking 
the Hair of the fame Dog , (that is , drinking 
feme of the fame Wine or Liquor) it is beft for 
them to ufe it as I juft now directed ; for their 
Cafe ( upon the good Fjfd^ of the Wrae ceafing) 
is much like that upon the going off of tlie 
Operation of Opium ; which may alfb (in this Cafe) 
be ufed inftead of Wine^ to procure a better and 
blither Condition for that day^ that’ufes to be very 
frcublefome to Drinkers, 

3 . 

of opium Reveal d. 925 

That good Treparathm of Ophtm may 
fee conveniently iifed to Horles, to prevent their 
being tired, or take off their Wearinefs, and caafe 
them to gooni but I would not a(^vire any Pre- 
paration in this Cafe but the Uc^uld Panacea in good 
^le or Beer^ and that only in the feme Quantity 
a« is ufed to Men, till farther Experkvce emboldens 
the PraCiice : By fech means, (I cannot doubt it) 
any Jade may be m^de to appear lively, gQ 


Y 3 ' CHAP,'. 

32 (^ the Myjieries 


OftJe ljfe of the Panacea, 8cc. to compofe 
the Sen ft we Soptl^ Spirit Scc. 

I Have fhown hoin and why it compofes and 
the fmflwe Soul j Spirits. Bjoud ^ Sto^ 
See and by that means allays all the 
Fi'.ry,^ C nnwodmis^ Perturbations'^ and turbulent Ex- 
orbitances thereof, and that often without Sleeps 
but much better with it. It follows therefore, 

T. That it prevents and takes off all Frets and 
turbulent Pa[fiuns cf the fenfitive Soul* as, Anger ^ 
ttneafu Agitathns and Tcjjes of the Mind ^ Pee- 
vifynefs^ FrttfAnefs^ Difeontents^ Difjuietudes^ J)if 
fat if aid. ions ^ Mur-rnurs , turmoilings and vexatious 
Thoughts^ Anxieties^ Solicitudes ^ cAc, and all tlie 
evil EjfeBs thereof ^ as » Watchings , IFple of Spi- 
rits or Strength , Lajjintdes , Hjp'.'ckcndriocal Melan- 
choly^ Cachexies^ Scurvies^ c3/-f. But thele lafl be- 
long mOil properly to its Alterative Faculty or 

2. All involuntary furious Agitations of the fen- 
fit ive Soul arid Spirits ; as, Madnefs more efpe- 
cially Melancholy Madnejjes ^ or fiich as proceed 
fi'om grievous Thoughts or Apprehenfions ^ 

CrcJJes^ Defiair^ Fears^ Tevrours^ or the like ; but 
they are not fo good in Merry Madneffes ^ a«- 
thofe ifom Joy ^ Venereal Fury ^ and fuch-like<j 
which anfwers tlie great Difputes about Opiates 
in Madnejfes ^ DeUrmns ^ Epileptic al Fits^ Convul- 
fions general and particular^ as thofe of the Head^ 
E of the Lights ^ Vomitings , Hiccoughs ^ Sah- 

of Reveal’d. 3 27 

yings^ Keepings , C on'vulfive Jfthmaf alfitations^ and 
Tremhlings of the Heart ^ Shakings and Shiverings 
uponjFV^rj Terror^ColdyTaln, A^ue-Flts^ Convulfive 
Colicks ^ Hyfterick Fits^ lllack Paflions^ &c, 

5 . All Fevers and Frets of Humours that happen 
from any of the afore [aid Caufes * Or from any 
lent Motion, voluntary or involuntary ^ as Labour, 
Rufifsingy Hewing, Fighting, or any vehement Ex- 
ercife , Ratlings , iFojfings , Ccncujfons in Coaches, 
Waggons., Boats in ftormy Weather, violent Riding, 
Or f om Heat of Fire, Sim^ Baths, Hdt-H>ujes, 
Bagnio"* s , Crowds, lying too many in one Bed, or 
with too much Clothes • Or from grievom Se?7fa- 
tion. Irritation, or Fain, as Fevers upon Jnfamma- 
tions , Abfeefes^ Buboes , Stone, Colicky Cardialgia, 
Wounds , Fraciurcs, Difocations , Contufions., Ampu^ 
tat ions,' Lithotomy, Faracefttefs, or any painful Ope- 
ration of the Noble Art of Chirurgery • Ago??)', or 
Fain of the SmalLFox, as its fecond Fever, and rlie 
like : Or from Fluxes , as tedious and turbulent 
Vomitings, Diarrheas y DyfentCi'ies, Cholera s, Uiack 
Faffions^ artificial Purging, and all fymptG?nattck ov 
immaterial Fevers whatfbever, which either never 
had any Matter, but proceed from fuch agitating 
Caules as I mentioned, or remain ( as fome do) 
after the grieving Matter is carry’d off by Vomiting, 
F urging, &c. 

I forbore mentioning Fleur if es and Terip??eumo* 
nias among -the Fevers, that it prevents or takes 
off, becaule there are great Difutes whether Opi- 
ates are convenient in thofe^CafeS;, wliich i hope 
to determine. 


Unlefs it when the faid Diftempers are 
come to that pafs, that it is dangerous tO'Caufe 
Sleep, or take away any of the Serrfe of the Fri- 
taiion of the Matter to be expedorated , left it 
Y 4 . fhouid- 

3?. 8 The Myfieries 

fhould be too much amafs’d in the Bromhlas^ of 
Wind-pipe^ and fo choak the Perfon ^ I fee no 
caule to forbid them any more than Skef , or 
Opiates , in other Inflammations , wherein they 
are highly beneficial, to give Eafe^ cmih Sleeps com- 
pofe the Splriisj arid take off, or at leaft moderate 
the Eebeu 

But I fee many good Reafons to ufe them : 
I. Becaufe. as a SaUVolatik^Oleofum^ they referate 
and relolve clammy Humours^ and are fb agreeable 
in Principles (as Menfiruums fhould be; to the 
thing to be refblved \ I cannot doubt but Red 
Rcppy IS, Upon Experience y ftated a Speeflek in 
thofe Cafes for that rcafon, 2. Becaufe thefe Di- 
ftempers (zs Hi^^pocr ate s fpeaksj are from a fegrega^ 
tion of Humours by jigitaiion^ d^c. and Opiates e^C. 
CQWent Compofers thereof. 3. Becaufe they ate 
liich great Difujfers ; and, 4 , Open the ?orej to 
let the difeuffed Matter quite out of the Body, 
y. Becaufe it may be that by its Relaxation upon 
fuch Refolution, the lodged Mattef may becaufed 
to flow off, and circulate again , and fo be gra- 
dued , dilcufied , and ' carried off by the open 
Fores, 6. Becaufe it‘ envigbrates Nature to per-, 
form thofe Things ; And, 7 . Gives Eafe and Re- 
cruit of the Spirits by Sleeps So that all Things 
confidered, I think (as Experience affures us)- that 
Red Poppy , or Opiates in due Quantity , are the 
very bell Reniedies that can be ufed. Hence it is 
that ’ ‘ ' 

JVedellus calls opium an Antiphuriticli Specific^, 
behaving obferved, (as I and others have done) 
That the whole Courfe of the^ Vifeafe and Expe&o- 
rath n will^ fucceed much better by their Vfu 
He adds aitfa. That he has very often cured them 
by its help, without letting j5iW ; -which ip 

of Opium R&ueatd, 

infallible fign of their Fjfc^^ fmce the 
Vleur'ifm can haully be cured wichouc Bhatih^, I 
pannot fee how an Effetft that bears fcch Ana- 
logy to Sktp can do any more Blarm tiian Smp^. 

Etmulkr alfb adviles the giving of Opmes not 
only in the Beginning , but alfo during die h- 
creaje of the Vlmrifia or T erip7iei4momfSi So that I 
conclude^ That they ar^ of e:^ccllent life in thole 
Difcifesj u'nlefs ic be whep Sleep or theip may caofe 
too rnucii Infenfiblenefs of the Bromhfrs, and fo 
retard ExptBoratmi^ when the Cale is &ch that 
t|ie Want thereof may endanger the Pesion^s be* 
ing choak’d. 

We have alf^nany Hifiorks of Perfbns aired 
in ocher Fevers by large Dofes of Ophm. 1 Inp- 
pofe that rtfinous Opiates caufing Vomiting and 
great Dihurbances , by r<safbn of ill DlgeiHm in 
thofe Cafes', might be one great Caufc of Peo- 
ple’s Fears and Jeolou^es in giving Opiates^ which 
js eafiiy prevented by givlpg liffU Opiates void 
of any j'efinQus Particles , as the Uqmd Panacea^ 

4 It does, by compoflng, quieting, and appea- 
ling the Motion and Perturbation of the Blond^ 
conduce much to the flop of its Efflux in Hemor-^ 
rhages (or Bleedwgi) diat are H?watural • as at Nafe^ 
in Ifitting and wmlting cf Blond , bleeding gt the 
Htnwrrhoids ^ in Djfen' erics ^ ffl Bhned^ 

and fomctime in profufe when they hap- 

pen from a Fever ^ or too much Motion of the 
Blond and Spirits^ and not an over. Relaxation or 
DiUtatlon qf the PoTcs^ which mufl be well di 
jlinguilhed/' ' ' ' 

I. The form qiuft be In all Fevers^ and 

is dl(b moft convenient, ' genwrally ’ foeaking: ’ ‘ 

^ ^ ‘ 11. The 

33^ Myfteries 

II. The Dofe miy be the moderate, or mid- 
ling, except it be where the Tains ^tq great or 
where much, of the Opiate^ loft, as mVemitinz 
Loofnejl^ &c, for which k^ thQ General Rules. 

HI. The Vehicle fliould be (generally fpeaking) 
cooling, compofing, and incraflating Liquids, as 
Emuljtonsy Milk and Water ^ oc the like ; but in 
fettling the Stomach ufe agreeable warm and com- 
fortable Cordials, or Wine burnt with Aromaticks 
or the like. * 

IV. The E'ime is, when ’tis convenient accor. 
ding to the General Rules^ and your Intention of 
its Operation \ therefore where there are periods* 
cal Paroxyfms^ or Exacerbations ^ as in the SmalLPox 
and many Difeafes^ in the Afternoons , or towards 
the Evenings^ give it the due Time before, that it 
may have its full EffeB by the Time the Taroxyfms^ 
or Exacerbations^ are expe(5ted to begin , and be 
not fb mad as to be regulated by Nighty or Day^ 
or Bed-time^ &c. (as is ufual j which are no Sym- 
ptoms^ Signs ^ or Effect ^ of the Dr^emper^ but of the 
Motion or Pofition of the Sun, Stars, &c: which 
are not the Subjects of your Cure , nor can be : 
The Want of which moft obvious and rational Pra- 
Bice , has fadly difappointed inconfiderate Thjfi^ 
cia7is \ and often hazarded , if not deftroyed the 

y. The Regimen is the fame as that to caufe Sleep 
which you have in 35 . and fliould be by all 
means ufed in this Cafe. 

T. Note, That Opiates are not to be ufed (as 
has been intimated) where the Commotion, Flux, 

&c. is for apparent and fpeedy Benefit of Nature, 
as in Vomitino upon Repletion, or to difeharge the 
Stomach of fomewhat that offends it, or a Loofinefi 
CO clear the htefiines^ or the like. 

2. Note, 

of Opium Reveafd. 331 

2. Note^ That when any Evacuation is to be 
jnade by Vomit or Stool ^ thebeft way in thefe Ca- 
fes is to u(e large Dilutions of fome contemperating 
Liquid, inftead of Vomitories and Pargers ; there- 
fore ule only lukewarm Water ^ or (which is beft ) 
boiPd with a little Carduus in’tj or Cardum.Pojjky 
or the like, to caufe V miting ; and more agree^ 
able Dilutions for the Intcltines to wafti off il! 
Humours y as a Gallon of Water , with half an 
Ounce of Cream of Tartar, or rather the purging 
Salt of the Waters diffolved in it, or fome part 
thereof, ufing all cold, or but very little warm’d, 
giving the Opiate or Panacea immediately after the 
P^rlbn has done Vomiting or Purging, in a finali 
QUp of Wine^ or agreeable Cordial^ to warm and 
comfort the Stpn^ch and htejlines, which, becaufe 
of the fmallneis of the Quantity^ the Moillure and 
Coolnefi of the diluting Liquids and the Opiate^ 
can caufe no hconvenknce by its inconfiderable 


The Myfteries 



Of the TJfe of the Panacea. Opium, 
to relax, 

H Aving Ihown, that Oftates relax all the fenflle 
Parts of the '^ody.^ and how^ mdwky -jit foP 
lows that they are of excellent Ufe^ 

I . “To prevent and take away all ContrabVtom that 
happen from grievous Tajfjony or Senfation^ ( or Vain ) 
as Convulfions^ Sbivenngs^ Shakhigs.^ Cripnps, Ten- 
fanSy Palpitations and Tremors of the Heart from 
Feary Terroury Griefy Melancholy^ Anxietyy Solici- 
tude y Anger y fretfulnefy Concerny Surpize^ 

Or from Coldy Painy Acids y &c. as ContraEtion of 
the SphinBer of the Bladder from thofe Caufes, by 
which the Unne is often ftopt, as alfo by the Vain 
from Haemorrhoids y Inflammations^ Small VoXyCo- 
Itchy Acrimony y Excoriationy &c. ( which often hin- 
der the making of IVatery as they aKb do fome- 
timcs going to Stooly fwallowingy &:c. ) Shivering in 
Ague.Fitsty Stupors frpm Coldy or Vain which ( as 
was iliowh ) proceed from a violent ContraBion ; 
in all which It will fcarce ever fail of due EffeB; 
by this Means you niay f as I have often done ) 
cure thole Difafers lafely, fpeedily, and plealant- 
ly even to ^ilVonder and Amazement y ( as if charm’d 
by a Spell ) when others know not what Hand tq 
put to them, and are quite baffled thereby. 

By the fame Means ( tho’ little, or not at all 
minded ) you may prevent great Turnours upon 
Vain ; as when by a Thorny or any gy:}.evous Vain 
the Arr/Sy LegSy Thighs y &c. begin to, fwell 5 for 


of O'^wxAiRevedrd. 33 ? 

the Swelling, which often grows prodigioufly, 
and feizes the whole L'mhy it not a great Part of 
the Body, threatning and often cauHng Mortifica- 
tions and Death it lelf, iscaufed by the Vain con- 
trading, and lb girding the Parts, that the Bloud^ 
Lympba, &;c. cannot pals, by which Means the 
Humours being flagnated, and crowded in by the 
Force of the Arteries, and darn’d up by the Con- 
traction, moft dreadful Tumours happen ; whereas 
the Vain being taken away by the Opiate, and all 
the Parts relaxed, they are, and mult be prevent- 
ed by plain Mechanifm^ if uled timely. For Vain 
can caufe Tumours by no other Means befides 
ContrMion, whiA Opium muft prevent by taking 
away the very Vain ic felf. 

2i, To help the Cure of all other ContraBions ; as 
Tenjions, Rigidities of Nerves, Membranes, Tendons ^ 
Ligaments, Mufclesi^ &C. > 

3 , To relax, or make way for Things to Sweaty 

Fumes, Small Pox, Meafles, peflikntial, or venemom 
Bffluvias, Menfes, Lochia, and the like, topaf through 
the Skin orVores: Pi. Child, dead, or alive, After- 
birth. Mole, clodded Blond, &c. to paf through the 
Neckofthe Womb, when too narrow by Nature, or 
eontradedby Vain, Cold, Terr our, See. k Stone to 
pals the Ureters, or Neck of the Bladder, by ta- 
king away the Pain that contrads them and hin* 
ders the Paffage of the Stone ; lb that ( in the 
Hand of an ingenious Vhyfidan ) there is not a bet^ 
ter, nor as good a Remedy to caule a Stone of 
any paffable Bignefs to come away, for it pafles 
through the relaxed or widened VaJJkges without 
Vain* tffhelp which, other Relaxers , Warmth^ 
€?nollient Baths, Fomentations, Clyfiers, together with 
ilippery and emollient Things inwardly taken, 
and at lah a gr^at Stream of Urine well contri- 
ved and timed when the Parts are moft relaxed, 
luppled and lubricated, do much' conduce. I 


334 Myfteries 

\ would have all who are troubled with the Stone 
Note this, 

. Note allb, That to hold and dam up the Urine 
a long Time^ is of excellent Ufe well managed, 
when the Stone is in the Ureters^ becaule when 
the Vrine has filfd up the Bladder very tightly, 
that it will receive no more, it muft diitend the 
Ureter^ which is the Caufe that very many are 
eafed, either by the removal or difeharge of the 
Stone after a {QtTimey which gives Occafion to call 
them F/Vj of the Stone, becaufe they laft for much 
about the fame length dtUme ; however, the large 
and fudden Evacuation of Urine mult, by leaving 
the Part loofe, &c. conduce very much to the Pal- 
fage of the ^ne, Clods of Bloud^ Fblegm^ Mat* 
ter^ 6cc. that (tops the Urine, 

4 . To relax, or make IVay for Things to he put in^ 
to the Body, when there ts Occafion, as in KeduEiions 
of Hernias ( or Ruptures J of a fatten Fundament, 
Womb, or Vagina, in which Cafes it is of neat Ufe, 
both by relaxing, and taking away Vain during the 
Operation, It may be allb of Ufe when the Itric^t- 
nels of the Collum Uteri hinders the AdmtJJion of 
Sem, viriU both as a general Relaxer, and as cau- 
ling greater Fleafure of thole Parts, and a propor- 
tionable Relaxation thereof ; for it is by the Plea, 
fare in Coition, that th^Collam Uteri is opened of 
relaxed, (as is obferved) which immediately doles 
again, when the lenle of is ended; yea and 

fo much the hrider, becaule the Lof of Fleafure is 
( as was ftiown ) a Kind of Grievance • hence it is, 
that omne Animal pofi coitum efi trifle ; and not be- 
caule of lols of Spirits ( as is vulgarly imagined) 
for we can lole little or no SpiVits by 'that which is 
lb feparated for Excretionh^lo^^-hand, the Semen 

f. io 

of Opium ReveaPcf. 335 

5 . T<) enlarge any Tart for the due Reception of 
Tijhat is con‘vement^ or necejfary, as the Breafls to re- 
ceive Milk^ ( by which Means it comes to be fuch 
a great Increafer ofM^ilk ) The feminal V ?JfehfsLS Sem, 
%>irile does upon Tuberty ) to receive the Semen: 
Thus it caufesiiie Terns to grow,, as the up- 
on Tuberty caufe it, znd Cocks Combs^ Turkey- 
Cocks red Bags at the Neck, Trohfcis^ &c. to grow 
at the Time they are fit for, or begin to tread; for 
the Relaxation caufed by the Tleafure of the Semej9 
makes the Party more capable of the Nutriments 
Thus it is, tliat Sleep caules the Growth^ Fatning, 
and Thriving of Animals^zndi red Nofes to grow fo 
large by frequent Relaxation upon the Tleafure of 
Wine^ Ale^ &c. /f^as was laid ) to which Quanti- 
ty diltending the Parts may in the laft mentioned 
Cafe contribute. 

I. The Form of Opiates in this Cafe may be ei- 
ther folid^ or li^uid^ as you think fit. 

II. The Bofe mufl be proportioned to the Re- 
laxation that yo^ defire*, for relaxes more; 
and lefy lels*, fo muft it be alfo proportioned to the 
Contra^ionsy that it is to take away ; therefore very 
grievous Tajfions^ ox Senf at ions ^ which cmk pro- 
portionable ContraBions^ require greater Bofes^ be- 
caule their Grievance and ContraBion do ftrongly 
oppofe the Tleafure and Relaxation that Opiates 
caufe ; therefore great Tain ( as you’ll find in its 
due place ) requires an extraordinary Bofe, 

III. The Vehicle ' in ContraBlons from grkvotss- 
Tajfions ihould be Wine^ 'or fome comfortable C^r- 
dial ; except they be‘the more turbulent Taftons^ 2 s 
Anger^ Fury, 8cc. where Compofers^ as Enmlfom^ 
Milk^md VVater^ &c.are belt. 


53 ^ Myfteries 

Jn ali other Cafes, emollient and fuppling Plhi. 
cles arc nioft proper, as jofty jmooth^ and JfipperJ 
DeccB'smSy Broths^ &C. 

' IV, The Time to give them is, at the due Di- 
itance before Bed Tim when the intentions are 
confident whh Sleepy which it lelf is a great Relaxi 
er ; otberwife any Time will ferve, as Occafiori 
6r tte Intention of the Phjfiddn requires ir. 

V. The Regimen, 

1. As to Meat afid Drink^ is ufing moift, emol- 
lient and lubricating Things, as imoeth Broth, 
feme what fat ; butter’d Roots, Herbs, Sawces, 
Griiels, Milk-Meats, young Flefh, as of roafting 
Pigs, Veal, Lamb, &c, SnK)otli Drinks as Ale^ 

VFbtjy &c. 

2. As to fieepwg and •waking ; that relaxes, and 
this .contracts i therefore, that conduces,, this 

ders. • 

g. As to Refi and Motion^^ that relaxes^ and this 


4. As to the Tajfi'jns cf the Mind v the Tleafant 

as Mirth^ yoy^ Vleafrre^ Comfort, and all /ucb, 
do relax ; and the Griez>om as Terrour^ Fear^ Griefs 
Melancholy^ contract ^ zsPaindotS. 

5. As to Air^ tliQ Warm and molfiy or that when 
ihz Qukhfil^ver is low in the Barometer (or VFea^ 
ther.glaf ) does relax^ as do warm Baths Fomenta^ 

' rions^ &c. efpecially if emdUient f Dry and cold Air 
and that when the Quicksilver is high, do czokC&n- 
traBion, , 

6. As to Excretion^ and Retention ; generally Ex- 
cretim does make Room and Way for things to pali^ 
through, or into the relaxed Parts, ( as Clyfierlng 
for PalTage of the Stone, Child, ReduBion of Her. 
nias, But be (lire not to make the Excretions 
grievous, becaufo ^llgricvons Senfation caules Con* 

' traBion, CHAPs'' 

of O'fwX'ociRetteaP d. 



Of the Z)fe of the Vaxacti. of Opium, &c,. 
to tak^ away Pain or grievous Senfation^ 

T his it does ( as was fiiowii J. by diverting 
the finfitive Souly and introducing a Scnfepf 
Pleafure^ which, (being contrary, to grievous Sen- 
fatign or fain ) qannot be in the fame Suh]ef} with 
Pain-^ but chiefly,, and by relaxing all 

Parts, and permitting the ipringy Animal Spirits 
to expand, and id become unfit to carry frnpreffi^ 
cns fmartly ; which is requifite to caufe a ^enfe of 
Fain, ( as has been provedf j 

Therefore it is of moft happy atid glorious iffs 
in all Pains, but efpecially to be ufed 

1, In fuch as are not for any Benefit to the Perfoh 
pairfd, in Order to alter, or evacuate the grieving 
as in Pocky ^ fcorbutical, or hypochondriacal 
Fains, or fuch as proceed from any ill Habit of 
Body, 8cc. 

Where Pain hinders the taking away of its Caufe 
or fome Benefit* as when the Pain of the Stom does 
by contrading the Parts hinder its own PaJJdge\- 
that of a Ttnejmus hinders going to ftool ^ that of 
the SphinHer of the Bladder hinders its opening to 
let out XJnne^ clodded Bloud, Phlegm, Matter, or any ' 
fuch Thing; when that of the Neckofthel^/^^?^^ 
binders Delivery of a Child, After-Birth, Mole, 
clodded Bloud, 6^c. that of the Mouth of the Sto^ 
mach hinders Vomiting, when requifite; or tha^ 
pfthe Pylorus hindtis the Detrufion of Chyle*, of 
4:h|lC of the Intefimcs, as by an Infimmation, 6cc. flops 

358 The Myfteries 

the P^f&.ge of the Ordure^ andcaufes an llhck Paf- 
fion] or thatofthe hinders fwollcwing^^ of the 

-Larynx lii^athing; or that of any Part hinders 
Vcylpiration or delired Siveat\ or that of the Vene- 
real Farts i\o^i ihQ Men fes^ or Lochia^ In all 
which Cafes h\s^ and muft in all Reafon be of ex- 
cellent, and (if duly managed) of almoft ( if not 
altogether) infallible EffeBy by taking away the 
Pain which caufes the Part to contrad, and make 
the StGp^ &;c. 

5 . where the Caufe of the Tain cannot he removed 
hut by V erjptration^ Siveat^ Menfes^ Lochia^ or Urine y 
as in Tains in the Habit of the Body^ Limbs^ &a 
From Cetd^ TVmd^ or Vapours^ Gout, Rheumatifms^ 
S^itck(\y Vlcurifies^ Inflammations^ and many of the 
aforementioned, it is excellent : As it is 
4 . Where the Pain^ Irritation, or grievous ,Se?2piW 
cn, caufe < Nature io work irregularly, as in Iliack Paf 
fi ni, hy/L. rick Fits, Fruitlefl Convulfions, canine Ap^ 
pitirc, In w'hich Cafe it excells all other 
Means Ibr many Reafbns. 

5 '. Whtre the Tam u not likely to have a timely Ef- 
feB for good, till People may be too ?nuch worn mt^ 

6. In all Pains that have not any material Caufe from . 
the Humc-urs, &c. of the Body, as fuch as happen 
from P^fflons, Wounds, Tricks of Nerves, Tendons,^ 
'Frattures, Diflocations, Amputations, fevere Chirur- 
gic4 Operations, Bcc. 

7 . In all Pain fl'cm Inflammations fluppurations^A b- 
feeffes. Tumors where Keptdfion is not convenient or 

p^fllbk _ 

8 . In Ad Pams that are more likely to caufe Fevers 
than any Beruflt^ as in many of the former. 

To he flort, it is good and iifeful in 'all Pain and' 
grievos/s Sesifatlrms. , ' 

1. Eecept all fuch as tend to the Ipeedy and 
timely Benefit of Perfons^ as thof^a Womens La- 
bour I 

(f Opium KeveatJ. 33! 

■hotir 5 Grievances at Stomach, that caufe Vomiting 
bpon over.RepIetion^ or by, Reafbn of fomewhac 
chat grieves , and is not convenient to Ihy at 
Stomach • or Irritations to expec^lorate, when 
much wanted, as happens fomedmes in V vmicas.^ 
’Pleurifies, PeripneumomaSy 8CC. Or (uch as irritate, , 
and (oiicite to make Water, go to Srco: &c. When 
Evacuation of Urine ^ Ordure^ ill Humours; 6^c. is 

2. Except when grievous'Senfations ire tiCQeiTtLvy 
Calls or Intimations for Supply ^ Rejrejkment , &c. as 
Hunger^ Thirfi.^ &c which fliould be taken off 
only by the Pleallue of good Meat^ and ErinI: ^ 
left Nature be defrauded: Where you itiay ob- 
ierve an Inconvenience, that may happen by the 
frequent Ufi ol Opium taking away Hppetite with- 
out Nutriment, Tho’ this is muCh compenfated 
by the Relaxation^ and Recruit^ that Opiates give, 
and their moderating the Expence of Spirits by 
taking of Cont'raHms\ and may more ( if noc 
wholly ) by a regular and cohftant way of Eat^ 
ing and Drinking temperately at ufual Times ^ tho^ 
the Hunger may not, by Realbn of the Opiates^ be 
fo great as at other Times, 

I. The Eorm is indifferentj and to' be Ordered 
only according to the general Rules ^ r emembring 
diat the Liquid is beft for Speed, 

II. The mull be proportioned- to the 

ov grievous Senfation^ and alwavs rather roore thari 
When there is no P^i??,becaule its CcntraBion 
fes the Relaxation to be induced by the Opiate, 

Ohferve this Method. Firfl give a good Dofe,^ theri 
llay about 2 or Hours ^ and if the Pain be not at 
all lelTen^d, you may fafely then give half the 
^^antitj/ again, and afterward about a tkird Part of 
Zi Khe 

§ 4 ® 7he MyflerieS 

the Dofe every 2 or 3 Hours till it begins to abater 
but upon the leaft fcnfiblt Abatement ;you miift for- 
bear to give any more, becaufe that which did in 
fbme Measure abate the does in the lamePr^?- 
farthn abate the CofstraHion^ and con(equentiy it 
has lefs to conteft with, therefore will be luie to 
conquer it ; for the iame To-wer^ that could fubdue 
ten in ibme Meafure, will fubdue in a greater 
Meafure^ and eight more eafily than nine. See till 
the Fain quite ceafes ; whereas if you add more 
Fower tothcOpiatey it may be too much, efpecial- 
ly when the Fain is thereby conquered, and that 
it has no ContraBion to conteft with 5 tof then it 
will be as if a. great Dofe were given to one that 
had no Pain j but if the Pain increafes again, you 
may fafely repeat the Half Dofe ^ S^c. every 2 or 3 
Hoursy till it again begins to abate, and no longer ^ 
v;hich you had better obferve to do as (bon as ever 
the Pain begins to return, becaufe it takes fome 
Tfsne to operate; it follows then, that the licjuid 
Form\^moi\ convenient in this Cafe for Exfedmom 

Aiy particular and (ffcBnal manner of ujing it in the 
Gouty will he fomewbat too tedious to he jet down : 
Therefore Jince it may he obvious enough to the fagacious^ 
that conjider what has been jaid^ a?:d the Hature of 
ihe DiftemfeYy 1 will faf that by at this Ttrne^ 

III. The Vehicle in cold Stomachs^ and Ccnftituii- 
sns, may be a Glafi of MBney or fome temperate 
Cordial i but ih hot Cafes ^ or where a Fever is feared, 
Emulfionsy Milk and kVater^ or Water alone, or 
other acceptable cooling Things, or fiich as are 
dired:ed in the Cafe of procuring Relaxation in the 
lajl^ Chapter* becaufe it is Relaxation that takes a- 
w-ay PaWy as has been mechanically demonftrated. But 
here there is no need of being fcrupulous as to the 
Vehicle y unlefs it be inreiped of Hf/7/and as 
the Cafe happens. IV. The 

of Opium Reveal J. 341 

IV. The Time may be any Hour^ as the Cafe 
requires; only remember, that Slee^ conduces 
much to Rdsxationy and therefore tp the taking 
away of Pain. 

V. The Regimen to be u(ed in the Cafe of 
laxing in the lart Chafer will fuffice, but ’cis con- 
venient ( as was faid ) to regard the Stomachy and 
hot and cold Conjiitutiom' elpecially where there 
is any Fearo{ Fevers ; by giving cooling Liquids, 
as Ermlfians^ Scc. and avoiding. hoc oe [olid Things^ 
efpecially fuch as are hard of Dlgefiion^ as Fl(\h^ 

I. Note, ThaC^t is very adviiable, not to defer 
the Ufe of Opiates too long, till People are very 
weak, tho’ it may feem that they would hinder 
Ibme due Evacuation 5 tor i cannot (ee what Hai m 
a Refreshment by them may do, any niore chan by 
Sleep,^ both depencfing upon the fame Caule, viz.- 
Relaxation: ft is true, that by Reafono^ Sleep, or 
an Opiate, the Evacuation may be a little defer’d. 
What then ? would any Mari deny Sleep for that 
Reafonl Why then fhould a Phjfictan an 0 /?;- 
ate to caufe ic, refjDice Nature^ ■ and enable k to 
bear its Burthen, or engage with Dlfficidties siie 

-2. Remember always that Si rp is a great Help 
to take away Pain, and fb are all Things chat corv 
duce to Relaxation, or plealant Diver fion, 

3. U le Means in Pain of the Hemorrhoids, Fai 
dament, or Intedinum reSlum^ and indeed in any 
Pam within the Guts funlefs it proceeds from a 
Loofenels) that Opiates may noc bind Men too 
much ; as Lemtivei internally , or emollient Cljfiers,^ 
f*r which of them may be molt eaiily and conve*. 
riently done, and molko the PunpoG. 

Z. 3 C|IAI\ 

542 The Myfierks 


Of the Z)fe of the Panacea of Opium, See 
to caufe Sleep, 

I T tinmarlly caules Sleep by relaxing and cora- 
pofirig, quieting, foothing;, pleafiag, and lul- 
ling iht jefjfi lve Soul and Spirts - it always re^ 
'laxes^ bur does not always fuliiciently compofe or 
quiet the Spirits to caufe Sleeps to which both are , 
requifice : Secundarily^ by taking away grk^vsvss 
VpJJlon or Senfation^ when they happen to hinder 
it. ... 

I. As Sopor if erouSy it is of incom far able TJfein all 
trouble fem TVatebings^ whether they be from grie- 
vous Tfijjion or Se?fa:lon^ or trrequiete Motion of 
the Spirits^ tho’ not fb certain in this laO: Cafe as 
in the former; and therefore proves fbmetimes 
iinfeccelsful in feme Verfons^ and in feme fort of 
Madnejfes^ as the Merry or Furious^ tho’ it is ef 
feclual in Melmicholy and flov/ (as.h.'js 
been intimated J Relaxation th^ 

Two' firfi Cafes^ v/here Sleep is hinder’d by Con- 
iraSliony which it never fails to take off, given 
in a due Quantity^ as has been dii e^^^red. 

2. Jo recruit the Spirits^ as when People are 
tired with Labour^ Journey Difeaje:^ Conflith of 
Nature^ as. by Co'nvi'dfions^ Vomit Purgings^ 
Hyjieric Fits^ and the like. 

Jq relaXy compofe^ take away Fainy moderate. that depend upon gn'ievous Senfation^ (or Irri- 
tarion) and its confequent Contraction ; or from 
' Motion or Segregation of, 

of Opium ReveaP d. 3 4 3 

* 4. To promote Fluxes that depend upon 'R.tLxatim^ 
as Ferfpirotion^ Sweat • as al(c> thQ Men fes tiiv} Lochia 
-in .Tome Cafes ^ of all which you have pardcular 
Chapters^ which fee. 

1 . The Form may be indifferently^ either fjlid 
or liquid, as ’cis befl liked^ and moil fuicable to 
Feople*s Minds ^ Vdate^ &‘c. 

IL The moderate^ except it be^ s. Where 
fbme by Jccidefst require orb'erwlfey as 
Loofene^h^ Vomitings^ 3.nd .to ticinate the Venereal 
Membranes becaufe remote ; which fee in the re« 
JpeSiiTje Chapters of the Ufij of Opiates in tiiore 
Cafes. 2. Where the general Rules dire^l other- 
wife, as in th^ foft flf he d People,' Children^ PVh- 
men^ &c. v«/here the Dole muft be lell • 

III. The Vehicle miift be the fame as is di reeled 
to Compofe ; but in old Feople ’tis obisrved, ,thac 
fmooth Spirituous Things^ as good Ale, ^c. con- 
duce very mucli to caufe. Sleep, becaufe 

do qualine the Volatile Salt of the Opium (as was 

IV. The Time in general is at the due diftance 
before Bed-timej that is direSled in the general 
Rules but Opiates may be given at any 71 w^.wr!ea 
the Cafe requires, as in iht SmdLFcx ?hmt \ 2 ^ 
I, or 2 in the Afternoon.^ according as the Exoicc-t 
tions ( which happen in the Afternoon^ or towards 
the Evenings') do feife them ^ and in Agues ^ at the 
due difiance before the Paroxjfn invp.d^s ihcwi ^ fa 
that the Operation thereof may be fuli and com- 
pleat before the Time that the F;Vi, are to begin ^ 
and fo in all other Cafes of the. like Kind. 

V. The, Regmen in this Cafe muff have a 
Twofold Afpecl •, i* To promote Relaxaticn^^ 
a. To compofe and qu-iec Motions and Perturba^ 
tions ot the Spirits^ Blou/f &c. Relax tkn an.d 

being the Two Cauicrs of Sleep. 

Z 4 As 

344 Myjierie& 

As to the/r/^ t\\Q Regimen muft be the fime 
as is direded in the Chaper of the life of the 
Tanacea^ d^c, to relax ; but as to comfofing an4 
quieting the Spirits^ I lhall add fomcwhat, tho’ Re- 
Jaxers are generally good for^is Purpofe, unlefi 
join'd with fome agitating Accidents ^ as Heaty or 
the like; ■ . ^ - 

I As to Dkt^ it fliould Gonfill of coolings in- 
crajjhtrrfg^ invipyating XhingSy that arc not aroma- 
tick^ actd^ or faline fuch are Milk-Meats^ Emul- 
Jpnsy Almond Milksy Chicken Brothy with cooling 
Hei b% Water-grmly frejls and _yoi{ng foft Flejhy Let. 
iticcy Parjlane^ SpinagCy Herb Mercury^ M allow Sy^nd 
fuch like'; Mucilages of OginceyFleabaney^ C. The 
hrink may be Milk and IL^atery Whey^ or fuch 
unfei merited Liquors, or fmooth Small Beer not 
too old, for all ftale Drink is naught ; Water 
where it agrees, &c, 

2. Rcfi of Body and spirits rpuft be contrived 
by all means, as by leanlngy lyings or fitting fill 
without any motion after it is taken, till Bed- 
time, and therefore let the Perfon fif the Seafon 
permits) be as much undreffed as may be, in a 
ioofe Garment^ or Morning^Gowny all that Timed 
and be help’d off with his Cloaths, that he may 
not agitate his Body : when fleepy, (and not be- 
lore) let him go into a cold Bed in Summer, and 
but a little warm’d in Winter, and only have 
what Bed; cloaths fuffices, and pleales him bell, 
and then lie abfdutely Bill without Noifiy LighLj 
or Fire in the Room. 

Re (I and Tranquility of Mind is very necet 
fary, which Ihould be not only free from grk'vous^ 
Vaffio7ssy but fiom all Excels of Joyous ones, which 
too much agitate' the Spirits. 

4. The A/r ihould be moifi: and moderate, and 
if not tiich by the Weather ^ render'd fo by Arty 
eipecially in Ft^jers, ' ■ ■ ' 

^ ' j. All 

of Opium Reveatd. 345 

All Evacmtons fhould be made, that may 
any way difturb his Skep^ before he betakes bifli* 
felf to it ; nor fhould the Stomach be overfull or 
empty, left any Grievance may be thereby created^ 

6. Emollient tepid Baths ^ Fomentations^ FeeU 
wajhes^ &c. do finely difpofe People to Sleep, but 
take care they be not too hoc, for heat caufos a 
filr of Blotfd and Spirits^ which is an Enemy to. 

I, Note^ That lon^ Sleeps after great Fatigues^ 
or long Watchings ought not to be very frightful, 
if the Dofe was moderate, and chat the Perfon 
takes Su[tenanc€, 

2 old or dry Perfons, or fiich as 

are very unapt to Sleep after Opiates^ are often 
Catifed to Sleep by fmooth Wine^ Cowjlip Wme^ 
or the like, becaufe the gentle OlUmfs of Inch Li- 
quors correct the Acrimony their Volatile Salts^ 
and at the fame time caafe a Senfo of Flzfifnrf^ 
which relaxes and caufes Sleep. It has been ob- 
ferved, that even Ambergrlfe and Musk (which 
exagicace the Bloud and Spirits j ciule old Men to 
Sleep, which happens by their fine Sulphur readily 
faftening upon the acrimonious Volatile Salts ^ as 
Sjplrit of Wine does upon Sal Ammoniac^ Whfoll 
being mixed do foon coagulate : Therefore I am 
apt CO think, that Camphire would be of excdlent 
Ufe to corre(ft the Opium, and the volatile Salts of 
the Body in fuch Cafes, becaufe it is Experimen- 
tally certain, that it qorreds the Acrimony of 
Urine, of Semen Virile, Cantharides.,0"c. 

That the drier the Body is, the more 
unapt are Opiates to caufe Sleep • therefore dry 
Bodies, as of old Men, HeElical Ferjons, ^c. fhould 
be well moiftened by incrajjktive Moi^cners, as 
Emulfions, and fuch Things as are above- mention-^ 
ed and ordered in the Ctorer of the relaxing 
bf Opiates. ^ ' ’ '' . Eroi^, 

54 ^ The Myfteries 

" Prom what is faid, i do conclude^ that Opiates 
do caufe Sleep very , readily where the Oi^ Parts 
abound ; and that Things, that have a fine Okous 
Sulphur, 2LtQ VQty good Corre^ors of it^ where 
acrhn^mous r<f^olat He Saits abound, in order to 
caufe Sleep ; and that hence it is, chat fome ancient 
Peop’e will often Sleep better by the Ufe of the 
aforementioned Smooth fermented fulphureous Li- 
qiiors, than by the Vfe of Opium • from all which 
it appears, that Sleep is not fuch a Property of 
Opium as People make it to be, becaufe, that be- 
lides relaxing. Sleep alfb requires a great Refi of the 
Spirits, and the fenfitive Soul. 

It (eems very probable from the Premifes, that 
Anodyne Sulphur of Vitriol would be excellent to 
caufe old' Men to Sleep ; for it doubtlefs caufes 
Sleep only by obtunding and qualifying our Vola- 
tile Salts, as White Rofin, and other Balfamieks, 
will often da 


cf Opium ReveaPd. 347 


Of the Vfe of the Panacea of Opium, &c. 
to Jiop Muxes^ 

I T palliates y moderates , and jhps Fluxes \ i. By 
taking away the fenJe of the Irritation of 
HumpurSj which caufe CcntraVtmi to Iqueefe them 
out, and promote their motion. 2. Becaufe k 
compofes and Hills the motion of Humours by 
the Rdaxatim and the Sleep that it caufes^, which 
quiets motions^ 3. Becaufe thereby, and by its 
combining A^eeahknefs Texture^ ic congregates 
the di/grcgated Humours, 4,. Becaufe the Relaxa^ 
tion fuq^ends the Himours. 5*. Becaufe ic difcujjes 
ill Humours. 6. Becaufe the Fores being opened 
by the Relaxation^ the Flumours that caufed the 
Tluxes are gradually perfpired by that moft na- 
tural and univerfal fort of Evacuation ; for ’ds 
plain Reafin and common Ghfervation^ that a 
plentiful Evacuation at Fores Hops Fluxes per Anumy 
and if it continues, perfeiHiy cures them. 
5^ Hence it is, that the life of Opiates continued, 
does happily not only palliate, but perfectly cure 
Diarrheas y DyfenterieSy Defluxions ^ Catarrhsy&'c. 

It therefore follows, that it is of great Ufe^ 

1. To palliate y moderate y or cure all Fluxes that 
proceed from Irritation of Elurnours^ as Vomitings ^ 
Loofeneffesy caufed by the Humours of the Body, 
or Things given, as DiarrheaSy Dyflnterksy Artu 
facial Furgingy lliack Fafflons^ Cholera AiorhuSy (after 
the Humour is fbmewhat fpenc) Defluxhm, Ca- 
tarrhs ^ immoderate Spitting y Gonorrhea Notha^ (that 

34 ^ The Myftmes 

isj, of flimy Humours by Reafbn of Acrtmony} 
l^uor alhus from the like Caufe, or any other Flm 
of that Kind. 

2. To moderate or cure FluxQf that proceed from too 
mtfoh motion of the Bloud^ Humours^ 0‘c, as 
morrhages at i^ofe^ Lungs^ Stomachy by the He- 
morrhoids^ Fijfing of Btoudy immoderate Flux of 
Bloud by the Menfes^ Lochia^ Stool^ &c, when 
they proceed from that Caufe, as may alfo (bnie 

3. To flop Fluxes that proceed (as Hippocrates fay s) 
from Segregation of Humours^ bycompofing and 
combining them ; from which Caufe many fuch 
Fluxes^ as 1 have mentioned, do happen. 

But it is not advifable to ufe them in Fluxes^ 
that are apparently^ or very probably, for fpeedy 
and- ready Benefit ; otherwife (as was faid of 
Fain') ufe them to refpite Nature^ which they do 
as Sleep does, nay, in many Cafes^ the Conti- 
nuance of their Ufe may quite Cure them, for 
the feveral Reafons given in the beginning of this 
Chapter ; What a pleafant Cure then do feme re* 
fufe that reject them ? leaving their Patients to be 
worn out with difmal Pains^ tedious and profufe 
E*uacuations^ 'want of Appetite and Di^efiion^ the 
common Confequences of Diarrheas^ Vifente- 
rks^ &c, 

I. The Form of Opiates in this Cafe fhould ge- 
nerally be folid^ becaufe it fticks better to its 
Work ; whereas the fluid is more fiibje(5^ to be 
evacuated in Diarrheas^ Dyfenteries^ and FemitingSy 
tho’ fometimes the Liquid may be convenient in 
Vomitings^ as when that Form is mors agreeable 
to the Stomachy Or that you would have a more 
fpeedy In other F luxes y where the 

Opiate is not liable to be evacuated too foon, it is 
iadifFerent what Form you ufe, II. The 

of Opium Reveard. 34^ 

il. The Dofe in Fluxes^ where ’tis probable 
iome Part of the OpUte may be carried off with* 
out Effe^y as in Vomitings, Diarrheas, Dyfenteries, 
Choleras, &c. the Dofe muft be (generally fpeak- 
ing) pretty large^ otherwife a moderate Dofe may 
ferve *, In luch Cafes due Confideration is to be 
had of what is loft by the Evacuation, at which 
you may eahly guefi in Vomiting, by what comes 
up, if its Colour, Smell, Ta^e, be obferved, as 
alio by the Frequency and Violence of the Vomiting, 
and noting how the Stomach clears it felf of what 
is ingefted by the Quantity j and laftly, by the 
Effe5l • of which, if what was given fails, more 
oi the Opiate muft be given by degrees, iiil it (tops 
the Vomiting ip^me mealure. 

In Loofenejfes give Half the firft Dofe every Four 
Hours till the Flux begins to be moderated, then 
be more wary in giving it, for what is afterward 
given may have its full EffeB • therefore be very 
cautious, by giving but liiiall Quantities both in 
this Gafe and in Vomitings when they are modc- 
, rated in fome degree, becaufe Opiates then have 
their full Effect without any Diminution or Oppof. 
tion thereof 

In other Fluxes sl moderate Dofe may lerve, as 
in Defluxions, Catarrhs, &c, however let the 
Dofe rather incline to the higheft than the loweft^ 
and fuffice (if poffible) to caufe Sleep, which is 
a great Effed in thefe Cafes, 

III. The Vehicle in Vomiting fliould be fmall in 
Quantity, pleafant, comfortable, and wafming, 
left you ftiould by either Quantity or Quality give 
any offence to the Stomach •, pleafing it anfwers 
the fame Intent with the Opiate ic felf, and has 
often good EflsB without Opium | for, indeed, 


The Myft'eries 

evjery Pleafer is proportiooably an Opkte^ arid 
"Offum is only fach in an and permanens 
mdnnsr\ therefore the Veiokle muft be agreeable, 
as Hippocras, or fV:ne burnt' with Spices^ 

Rofei^iry.^ Or the bc'ft Cordials^ or M^lne v;ith 
forcit Ketchup^ Ca^j'iarey ox Anchouis^ or a Ikde 
old Chzfje diiTblved in it upon the Fire, accord- 
ing as the Perfon likes om or the other ^ Avhich 
kii ho’ net ukd in common PraTfke) ,avQoi' 
ver^'-.grea: Eenft^ where they. are piealing and 
well Hkca c£ 

fn LocfeneJJes^ liich Wines and Cordials as are 
fuki/irin^ent ihould Fe afforded (after the peccant 
Matter is evacuated J to comfort the Bovsels • but 
the r/ientiQY^id Salt Things are not convenient in 
this cvye. 

In Dtfl’Axions^ incralTative Co?npofers are the beff 
Vehicksy as EmAjionSy &c. See the Wkicles for 
Compofing, for they are all proper in this Cafe 


IV. The Time is at any Flour when there is 
OccajiGTT^ but Sleep conducing, the proper Time 
will be (unlefs Need otherwife requires^ at the 
due and direfed diilance before Bed-time. 

V. The Regimen, 

I. hs to Diet in Vomitings^ offer nothing to 
the Stomach but fuch Things^ and in fuch Quan^ 
tities^ as was directed for Vehicles only in 
miting^ before the grieving' Matter is difcharged, 
it will be often convenient, before the Opiate is 
given^ to give good ^antities of innocent DL 
luters^ as luke-warm Water, plain or Carduus- 
Tojfet^ between the Vomits^ to dilate and render 

of O^inm Revear d. 351 

the Vomiting more eahe ; but when you would 
ftop che Fomnmg^uiQbuz ^antities of liich 
Things as are above dired:ed for V Sides. 

Diluters \n great Quantity do alfb fucceed very 
well in Lcofenejfis, to walh off the ill Humours 
before the Opiate is given/ and it is the beff 
'Fr. dke that can be; but the Chaljhefte Waters slyq 
the very belt for that Purpoie, ( tho’ 'PcJJet, or 
v* j y thin Chhken^ or Mutton Broth ^ are ufeful) 

; it anfwers all good hnt?itivm^ it dilutes and 

lifits the peccant Humours.^ lirengthereS ' the 
. oii>et ^.^ leaves ^ innding Quality after the Oilu- 
1 -n is made ieitores Appetite and Digefiion^ 
vivid are much amiis in fuch Cafes.^ and 
aarh nioil.i rv -o the Blcud^ which is under a 
Ff’ci ior want thereof^ becaufe all 

Liquids are ca r ied off by Stool*, but much of 
this goe^ to the Blcud^ where it aifo wafhes off 
ill j aline ; lo that . (believe me) it is of 

it fe f a moil com pleat and adequate Remedy 
in (iich Cajes^ if taken to 3 or 4 Quarts for i, 
2, or 3 Days. - 

1. Solid Meats^ or Things hard of Digeftion.^ 
muft be a^^oided, becaufe the Digefiion is' infirm, 
but Milks thicken’d widi Rice or Flowtr^ Rice 
Gruels^ a light Bread or Rice Pudding.^ Gellies^ 
Marmdet y a Tofi out of CLiret with Nutmeg.^ 
Cinnamon.^ and fome Loaf Sugar ^ Emulfions, AL 
motid Milk., Cheeje-CakeSy Cujtardsy and all fub^- 
’aftringent Incraffatives are beff, as alib in all De^ 

2. As CO Sleeping^ and Waking:^ that’s good^ and 
this had, 

3. As to Rcfi^ and Motion'^ that is convenient^ 
this not. 

3$ 2 The Myfieriei 

4. As to TaJJlonsy the joyous arc convenient, 
the grievous not. 

f. As to the dry and temperate is beft. 

6. As to Excretion and Retention^ what is laid 
above is lufficient, faving that Vomits are very 
often convenient (elpecially if the Loofenefs is oc- 
cafioned by the StomaeU) to moderate it before 
the Opiate is givem 


of O^mmRevedtd. 553 


Of the Z)fe of the Panacea of Opium, Sea 
to caufe Fluxes or EvAcuations ^ as PerJ^i^ 
ratiofty Sweaty &C; 

I T (as was fhewn) promotes fbme iFlu^eSy or 
Evacmtlons , by relaxing and opening the 
tores. Therefore, 

I. It is of except Ufe to carrf away noxious Va» 
pours y or Effluvia^ s , hy the Fores of the Shiny td 
prevent FutrefaBiom ^ and cure them; to carry 
CW 'venomeUs Particles in ihz Plague y infeBhus Du 
fiemfers , Citings of Serpents y mad Dogs, ill 
Fumes, fpind in the Bloudf or Habit of the Body^ 
chat caules Stitches, Tumors , d^c, 

2. To carry off nokious Huniours the fame way\ 
elpeeially fuch as fl-agnate or offend in the Ha^ 
hit of the Body • as in Colds, inter cut a^seous Water, 

^ Leucophlegmatia y and fomettmes id Dropfies , (as 
Dr. iVillts obferves) in Decimations of Dif cafes, to 
carry off the conco<fted morbid Matter in Rheu^ 
mattfms and Gouts, particularly that which is calfd 
the Wind- Gout. 

3. f^hen Perjpiration is any way hindred, as by 
grievous VaJJions , Senfations, (or Pain ) acid, au- 
it^re, or cold Humour, by which*' many Difeafes 
. are caufed. Thus 'tis very ufcful in Grief, Sors^ 
roiis. Anxieties, Solicitude, Melancholy, Panick Fears, 
Cachexies, Scurvies. Hypochondriacal Cafes, where* 
in it performs wonderfully when all things fail, as 
ydU find in Chagi 24, 


4 . To promote the Menles or Lochia, when ^opp^d 
hy reafin of the conjhiBion.s>f the Pores by iiich grie- 
vous Faffijns or Senfatlonsy or by acid^ aufiere^ or 
cold Hmnours^ external Cold^ &c. by its relaxing 
and opening the Pores and PPays, and foiicicing 
the Parts by a gentle agreeable TdiUation: Hence 
some C 2 \\\t dvcL^^ommdv Tav (phi^dvy that is-, 
Opener of the Mouth of -the Veins ^ for Bloud^Vef. 
fels) by which means (as has been Ihewn) Puberty^ 
Coition^ &c. do kindly and naturally caufe the 
Menfcs to flow, while the farne Relaxation caiifes 
an hcreafe of Bloudy as it does of Milk^ by wide- 
ning the Vtjjels. This is all Mechanical Truth^ that] anfwer, upon Experience, as the mofi: Inge- 
nious Dr. Edw, Brown can wicnefi , who is the 
only Man (as far as I know) that feems to have 
this PraPplce. 

It promotes Urine^hy the like opening, or re- 
laxing oi the Pores of the Kidneys by itstitillating 
Volatile Sah^ Cantharides^ Bees^ PifmireSy Mille- 
pedes ^ &c. do. 

G. It may probably he of great ufe in cutaneous Du 
fempersy either by taking large Quantities of pro- 
per Liquids, and fvveating them out again by its 
help, to warh of ill Particles^ or to open the Pores 
for the admiffion external Medicaments, 

Note^ That they are natural Fluxes it promotes, 
rnd unnatural ones chat it flops * which proves its- 
operating as an entire Friend to Nature both ways. 

I The Form « may be wTich you pleafe, or is. 
moil agreeable to the Patlmt, 

11. The Dofe moderate, except it be when ex- 
traordinary Relaxation or opetting of the Pores is de- 

I; I The Vehicle fhould be fuch as is proper to 
pi er are the Htmours to paS by Sweaty or infen- 

qf Opium 355 

fihU Verjpiratm^ or the Bloudhy the Jide7t_fes and 
Lochia *, therefore fhould ( generally fpeaking) con- 
fift: of attenuating Things, as Folatik Spirits j and 
in the ^enemom contagmts Csfes^of Ak’*^ 

xipharmacks • of Diurcticks to promote Urine i 
and fo in all Cafes of what is proper in the refpe- 
<5tive Humours for their Exit or Bafjage, 

IV. The (becaufe Sleep condnett^ to opei> 
the Tores) may be at the due difiance before Bed^ 
time\ but that hinders not but it may be given, 
when there is bccafion, at any other time. 

In the TUguexi fhould be fo often given as to 
keep the Tores always open. Mayern gives an />v- 
ftance of a Fhjfefeaj^ that had all Signs of Deaths Fe^ 
techla, a Carbuncle^ &c. who recovered by taking 
Laudanum 6 times a dajy (I fuppofe 24 Hours^ or 
the natural Day is meant thereby.) 

V. The Regimen iTwifi be fuch as is proper, con^ 
venient;, and ufual in the refeeBi-ve Cafes y fo^ Ms 
endlels to mention all ^ it requires a Volume. 

To caufe Sweaty much temperate Liquids mud 
be. always given, elpecially in Ethers or dry Bodies^ 
as the Hypochondriacal^ &c. MofI part of the Li° 
quids ftould be given before Opiate^ that they 
may have time to get into the Bloud by that time 
the Opiate operates, which does fo fas wasfhewn) 
while Tis at Stomach. . ^ 

To mo^e the Me^fesy^ proper means iliould be 
u(ed for a due time before the Vfee thereof^ becaufe 
the EjfeB expected in this Gale from Qptatesy is; 
only to open the lVays_ or Pores. : So Humours \u 
Leucophlegmatid* Sy &c. Ihould be duly prepared for 
the like Reafeon, 

. To caufe Perfpiration ^ k is convenient in cold. 
CenfeitiitionSy and old People^ gently to warm the 
A a 2 

35 ^ The’Myfteriei 

Blond with 2 or 3 Giafles of generous Wms^ i littlo 
Garlicky Onions, Selery^ or the like, to attenuate and 
caufe Evaporation^ which Heat promotes; butYf 
you over-heat the Blond, it hinders Ver^iration by 
its growing grievous ; for what' is fo, caufes Con* 
iratllon oi\\\Q?ores» 

Note, That nothing can be lb good to caufe 
Terjviration ox Sweat, becaufeit not only opens tho 
Vtsres, but takes away any grievous Tajfwn or Sen^ 
fation that may clofe them, and atenuates, re^ 
fblves, &c. by its FolatileSalt. 


(?/ Opium 357 

L— , 

CHAP, xxxvm. 

Of the Vfe of the Panacea, See. as a Ti- 

T His it does (as was fhewq) by ks Vulatik 
Salt^ as Cantbarldes^ Bees^ Plfmire^ Sem, Viril> 
&c. Therefore, 

I. It is rf great ufe to excite to Vcfiery, caafe Ere- 
Bions^ to adiiat^ dull Semen for the fake of law^ 
ftll Propagation?, ^ 

zTo increafe the Semen ; i.By the Titillation qt the 
Venereal Parts ^ whicli invites it thither by the Agi^ 
tation thereof, as Fricatlon of the Breafis, and thofq 
Parts, caufe Increafe of Milk and the Semen* 2. By 
the Pleafure thereof relaxing the Parts ^ which 
caufes a greater Flir^ of it , (as of Milk to the 
Breafs^ and Nourilhiqent to any Pare.j 

It is obfervable how defirous Rachel^ being Bar- 
ren, Was of the Opiate call’d Mansdrake, fo that Ihe 
parted with her Beb'vcd Httsland to iier SiRer 
LeahioT a Night to purchafe it: Whether it was 
any means to caafe her to Conceive, which RIjc; 
did afterwards^ is not to be det^mine^^ tho’ ic 
feems not altogether unlikely. 

3. Its Ufe to increafe M'dk is fpoken of in the 
Chapter of its Ufe to Relax , only it does, it here 
SLiTisillatlng^ and there as Rdaxmg. 

4. It conduces to move the Adenfes by ii^'I’iliU 


' Aa I 5. The 

the Mjifieries 

5. The TitiUatioTi af its: Volatile Salt^ (as Oantha^ 
rides j Cp^c. do) moves m to TJrine, 

I. -The Form is wholly indifferent. 

II. The Bofe muft be large ^ and generally grea- 
ter than any I have mentioned^ and poffibly re- 
quires a Repetition 'thereof to excite to Venery 
tho’ I (hall not prelcribe any more than I have 
in the Table of Dofes , but leave it to Jadt- 
clow Vhyficians to do as ^ they think fir, where 
there is a jujl Caufe for ks Ufe, which I will not 
expole to every lufiiui 

It is not unlikely but one great Caufe of the 
Ignorance of its Ufe to excite Venery in thefe We^ 
flern Parts of the World, may be the fmallnefi 
of the Dofes that we ufe, befides the Reafons men- 
iioned in Chap^ 8. and that fuch Circumftances 
might occafion the Dijfutes and Contradi^ions that 
have been about the Ef edt of Opium ; whereas 
there is nothing more fure than that it has fuch 
an (if the Dofe be large enough) and that 

mofl of the Eafiern Nations ufe it for that end 
With infallible Effect, 

III. The Time ihould be 5' or 6 hours before 
the EffiTt is expe&d, " or at Bed-time, to caufe 
its EffeUs towards tht Morning^ particularly in the 
Cafe of exciting to Venery. 
y iV-,The Regimen, 

As to Diet ^ it mufl be Nourishing , Warm- 
ing, Comforting, and Titillating, with realiff. 
ing and high Sauces , Offers , Anchovy , Caviare,^ 
Cockles^ Ketchup Mangoes Garlicky Onions ^ L^ks^ 
Bears Garlicky Rocket p Sives ^ S helot ^ Ginger^ Aro^ 
maticks , Roots of Satjrion^ Feaverfew^ Goats^heard^ 
Silver-^Tveed ^ Shrrsts ^ Farfnips ^ and Artichoaks. 

, ' The* ' - 

of Opium RevearJ. 35^ 

The .life of AmhergriCe ^ Afmk Clvs$.^ is 

commended ; but good Stoinach-Wlnes^ and the 
iike^ are certainly pf Ufe 5- Sim Baccho friget Ve~ 
rm : Blit it is certain, Th^t Car/7phire md Julphureo^i^ 
things unferme'nted , as 0/7/, Rojins^ and frt Things^ 
oppoltTitillatioTi^ as do alfb (limy, mueilagiapus, 
and cooling Things. ' 

A a 4’^ ChM 

The Myftems 



Of the Z)fe of the Panacea of OpiuJi% to 
caufe Watching. 

I Have (hewn how Opiates caufe thatching in 
fome, Perfons, by reafon of the ovcr-agitatiflg 
and aduating the Spirits^ and Titillating by its Vo~ 
latile Salt ; yet do they, by caufing Fleafure and 
Relaxationfupport the Spirits^ while the extraordi- 
nary Qvation of them hinders Sleep, 

Therefore it is of Ufe to fech as it caufes JVatch- 
ing to, when 'lis requifice for them to watch about 
any Bujinefs^ Labour^ Journeys^ &c. 

I. The Form may be either SoliJ or Liquid, 

II. The Dofe moderate. 

III. The Vehicle Ihould be Acids^ or other Li- 
quids with Volatile, Salts. 

I V . The Time rrfay be at any Hour when wanted, 
V- The Regimen^ qatte contrary to that of 
Sleep and Relaxation^ vix,. to ufe voluntary Mo* 
tion^ &c. 



of Opium ReveaF d. i 

C H A P. XL. 

Of the Alterative ZJfe of the Panacea 
of Opium, 


Y O U fee the mighty Exrevt and gmsrai ITfi of 
the Panacea of Opium as a Pleafer of 
which takes up the Nine laft Chapters^ to mention 
the Heads of its Performances without dei^nding in- 
to all particiiiars, hecaufe their Nwtnber is inde- 

How univerfal then muft its Ufi be,' when we 
add thereto its Effet^ls as a confiimmate Aherative 
which, I. Invigorates Nature by comforting the Ihb’ 
Umefi Principles thereof, vi^, the fenjuhve Soul 
and that are the Original of all Motion and 
Action. 2. Furnijhes them with an indefatigable £«- 
phory in the great Bufinefs of our Prefervation. 
3, Puts the bef Means into the Hands of invigorated 
Nature for that End, that is, mofi agreeable Princk 
flesy even more powerful, and of a greater Energy 
than our own; which muft (as agreeable and 
exalted do) refolve ail Humours, 

congregating the good, and homogeneous, and fe. 
paratingthQQ&tQ and heterogeneous Parts^ which 
it, 4. Difcujfes and dijfipates^ by it§ brisk and adive 
Volatile Salt ^ and at laft ^ conveys out of the Body 
by a liberal ferjpiration^ the mofi natural^ univerfal^ 
and copious Way of Evacuation. 

All which being confidered, it is (I think ) 
nifett, that it muff excel all other Panaceas. 

I, Becau^ 

3<?s The Myfteries 

X. Becaufe it takes away the Grienjafica or Form 
of Difeafes upon the 'very firfi Adminifiration thereof^ 
whereas other Medicaments do that but gradually 
as they alter or fubdue the Matter. 

2. Becaufe it highly comforts Nature ( or the fen^ 
fitive^Bouly and Spirits) fom the 'very Commence^ 
mcnt^fthe Cure^ and through the whole Procefi 
thereof^ if duly repeated ; which other Medica-^ 
ments' do only by infenfible Degrees^ as they gain 
upon the Difeafes, 

3. Becaufe it procures Sleeps the fWeet and chief 
Refrefhment of, and firft Cure in Nature^ fo that 
I cannot fee what can bedefired in a Medicament 
that it is not accompliftied with ; whereas other 
Tanaceas are deficient, or atleaft come very lliort 
of ours in thefe extraordinary Qualifications^ which 
(eem to make it ahfolutely compleat and confum- 

4. Becaufe it from the very firfl: compofes all Ter. 
turhations and enormous Motions of thQ fenfiti'Ofe Soul 
or Spirits • which Helmont attributes to the Arcba- 
us^ placing all Difeales therein, and therefore fays 
^ Ort. Imag, Morh. Se{5l. 1 2. TJniverfale epuoddam ar. 

canum confofoU'vum^&' fedativum Archai efiadhi. ' 
bendum^ that is, An univerfal Remedy^ that appeafes 
^ the Archaus^ Jhould be ufed. And what appeafes or 
compofes it more than^ or as much as Opiates ? There, 
fore I cannot wonder that Taracelfm fhould declare 
that it Icrved his Purpofe when all his^rc^^^/ fail’d; or 
that Helmont fhould be in a Rapture upon the Ap- 
prehen^on of the Excellency of Opium if the noxi- 
ous Quality were feparated from it, tho’ he had a 
very wrong Notion of its Operation as appears, 
Votefi. \Medkam. 5 e 6 l. 4. where he rays,that Opium 
Archaum abigity &fugaty that is, Opium chafes and 
puts the Archeeus to fil^ty which on the contrary it 
highly pleales, and comforts. 

of Of iuna Mevea^J. ^6^ 

It Is endieis^ and a Kind of Imfemmfmy to de- 
fcend into V articular s in the Ufs of a Pasiai^a, • 
Therefore having Ihown how k by impi» 

gorating Natfdre, caufing Eupborjj Eafe^ 

Jolvmg all Humours, ( as a .geneiT^l or 

'Alkabefi ) congregating the good, fcfar.aSmgyJifcf-0^^ 
and carrying off the bad Vartkhs^ ^Q. It remains 
Only, that I Ihow you bow to ufe as to 
Dofe, 8cc. leaving the Adminiftfadoo fhereof.ia 
pardcuiar Cafes to Fhyficians, thereia co-ocenpd. 

L The Form, that I rmainly approve of to ^ker, 
3s the Liquid, becaufe the [olid is ie Ibeie 
( tho’ not rpuch ) impair’d by the Evspmim to. 
the due Confifimce, and does not coelill: of tbc 
fineft Parts, as the liquid does. 

li. Ti^cDofe may beat firtt about 20 
ding a Drop to every Dofe, till the Diftemper is in 
good nieafure abated ; then let the fame Number 
of Drops be continued till the Perfon is well, and 
afterward abated by a Drop every Pay tjll you 
come to ten, or l^fs, or to fuch an inconlidergblo. 
that you can find no Effect at all 

Note, That tho’ I am cautious in the pts^mg dll 
truft.y Experience gives more Affdrmce,, yet du I 
believe that no Inconvenience Will be found byfer 
greater Doles, if by any, unlefs very exceffive, as 
I or 2 Gallons of IVine is in relpe^l: of a F/svr^wiueb 
in {\iQhDofis may be, and is injurious* 

Such as have Fain to be taken mull ufe it as 
is dire( 5 i:ed in the Chapter of ks to take away 
gradually encreafingro as to keep it 0W3 and 
when the Cure is in great Mealure perfbrni’d, mult 
continue and decreafe as is aforefiid 5 the likeis tO; 
fie faid asto Fluxes, . i' \ 


3^4 Myf terns 

III. The l^ehicle maybe in general plain Water^ 
or rather altered, and made bitter by an Infuilon of 
the Ingredients of the bitter DccoBion, or Agrimo^ 
ny^ IVood-fage^ Bean Trefoil^ or the like good bitter 
Things, that are known by Experience to caufe a 
good Digeflton. 

In particular Cafes the l^ehicle maybe appropria- 
ted to the Difeafei yet always fo ordering it, that 
it may be fiomachicaL 

IV. The Time Ihould generally be in the Mor- 
ning, unlefs .S/f ep at Nights is to be procured there- 
by » iffo,you muft order Things as in the Cbap^^ 
r^rofits Ufe to caufe Sleep, 

V* The Regimen muft be exa( 5 i: Temperance and 
Moderation in all Things, and, 

1. As to Diet, let it be appropriated to the Du 
feafes^ and always of fuch Things as the Stomach 
digelts without any Difficulty or Difiurbance, > 

2. As to Sleep, it Ihould be moderate, yet fo 
much as fully recruits and refrefties. 

3. As to Re/l and Motion, the like Moderation 
muft be ufed ; for Motion muft not be 'violent, or 
over- wafting of the Spirits in any RffieB* yet muft 
gentle Motion and Exercife he ufed ; Riding on 
Horfeback (to fuch as can do it ) is a very whol- 
fbm Exercife, 

4. As to Excretion ^nARetQnfon,yo\x ihowld ne- 
ver Burge, or Vomit, during its Ufe, unlefs there be 
a very fecial Caufe ; and then I would have the 
Vomit to be only carduated Water, and for Stools, 
only fo much ’of the Scots Bill, or Stomach Pill, as 
will ferve to open the Body, to be taken at Bed^ 
Time, or at .fuch Time of the Night as to caufe no 
Difturbance before you are up in the Morning •, but 
( generally fpeaking Jcaulingno Evacuation is beft, 
hut what is the Confequence of the Panacea it felf, 
which caufes thQbefi, moft mtft^al, umver/al, and 
conjiderahk Evacuation by the Botes 

of opium Reveal’if. 

5. As to the Air the dry, and temperate as 
m Heat and CoU^ but rather inclining to Coldnefi 
is the beft ^ for you cannot fo well err on this 
Hand, becaufe the fores will be kept open, and 
Colds prevented in a high manner by the Ufe of 
the Panacea^ befides chat CoolmJSis moft agreeable 
to Dtgefiion, 

6. As to Pafiomo^ the Mind, all the grievoui 
ones fliould be avoided, and a fine even Chearful- 

maintaind as much as may be; it will be ve- 
ry eafily continued by the Help of the Panacea ^ 
which caufes it above all Things. 

t. Notey Th^thefe DireBions do generally 
concern its Ufe^n Chronical Cafes ; for as to acute 
Difeafes, and particular Cafes *, it muft be left to the 
Management oit\\Q prefent Phffician^ 

2. Note^ That its Ufe as an Evacuative has been 
fufficiently treated of in the Chapter of its Ufe to - 
caufe Fluxes and Evacuations, 

3. Note^ That notwithftanding all I have (aid 
of the moft excellent Qualif cations of the Panacea of 
Opium, Ifubmitall to farther Experience, atthe/«- 
troduBion of which I mainly aim, by endeavou- 
ring to take o(F Peoples Fears and Jealoufest, 
which have ever been the greateft Hinderers of 
Improvement in Cure, more elpecially in Refe. 

totheUfe of Opiates, (which without Doubt j 
will cure many Difeafes more chan ever they were 
u(ed (or, ( at leaft as Alteratives') which if my 
Difeourfe does Occafion, I fhall thank and praife 
the Author bfall Good, for making me inftrumen- 
tal thereto. 


^66 The Myjieries 

' of the Exferml Vfe of OpiumI 

I TS Exterml Ufe is ( as the Internal ) ei- 

L As a Plea/er cf Senfation ( or an Opiate (pe- 
cialiy fo call’d. J OTy 
f fc As an Alterative. 

Fkrfi; as a Fleafer of Senfation^ ( or afl Opiate^ 
properly and fpeciaily fo called ) it is fcarce 
woich While to treat of it ( becaufe of the TJneer^ 
taznty^ and fdmetimes Dnn^^er there- 

of) onlcfi it be to caution Men concerning it ; for 
my part» 1 feldom or. never uled it externally, un- 
IdE it Was in Venice-Treack , Diafeordiurn, or Mi- 
thuda:t.e, which have but little Qmntitks thereof; 
nor can 1 lee it ftould be at all 'ufed' external- 
ly 2.% 2sx Opiate^ except it be when Opiates cannot 
be x&dittternallj, where they have more even;, cer- 
tain, and better Efeci^ or in very few Cafes wTiich 
wih be mentioned : The main therefore that 1 
can do in this Cafefs to acquaint you what others 
have found by Experience concerning its external 

I. It has been found dangerous to apply Opiates^ 
tothe Sutures of the Head* it has kilPd Ibme, and 
Gakft is againif it L. 2. de Comp, Med. I have 
Ibmewhere read of a Man who, after a certain 
Conceft for ViUory, beiog very hot, took off his. 
Helmet to refrefn himlelf after the ViBory he had 
obtain’d ; which Helmet his Emulators finearM on 
the infide with Opium : He afterward put it on, 
^d fifon died. * a. It 

of Opium ReveaPd. 3^7 

2. It Is applied more lafely to the Forehead ox 
Temples^ but the Quantity of half a Scruple fhould 
not be exceeded in this Cafe ; Fernelim commends 
the Application of it to the Forehead in Head-- 
Aches y Phrenfiesy &c. mixed with Ointments^ PTe- 
delius did alfo ufe Femce Treacle and Extracl of 
Opium to the Temples with good Succefs in Pain of 
the Head he alfo found the like Succels in apply- 
ing it behind the Ears. 

Note, That the Continuance and Conftancy of 
its Operation^ where it takes Effe^ applied exter* 
rially, may be very beneficial in fbme Cafes ; but 
even that may be anfwered by internal Ufe, if it be 

3. All, or moft, do agree that it is too acrimo-^ 
nious to be applied to the Eyes. 

4. Geiger sfs, Fer?ielius, Heurnius, &C. do com- 
mend its Ufe to feiell tOjbeing made into a Ball 8cc» 
with odoriferous Things * and I have ao Opinion that 
this Way of ufing it may be excellent, conditio- 
ned, that not above Half a Scruple of Opium be 
ufed. I. Bccaufebuta fmall Quantity, and that 
of its fineft Parts, is thus received into the Body. 
2. Becaufe it may be removed at Pleafiire, and 
then, ( as fome fay /the EjfeB immediately eea- 
fes. This is very well worth the experimenting \ 
for it would be very neat to be able to caufe Sleep, 
and its other EffeQs with Safety, as long, oras fliorc 
a Time, as we pleafe, and no longer*, for this 
cannot be done, when it is internally given, but 
its Operation will have its Courfe, without extraor•^ 
dinary Means and Trouble ; but when externally 
ufed, the very Caufe of the Danger ( if any fhould 
happen ) can be immediately removed, by ta- 
king of the Opiates from the Nofe. 

y, 'I'hat of Geigerus, and Langius^vSin^^ only one- 
Grain of Opium to the FUnBure, or Uttle Wound _ 


The My/ieries 

ni^de by a Leech behind the Ear to caule Sleep , 
and that with feems to me to he attributed 
more to the Bkcdlng^ which always inclines Meri 
to flscp, than to the Opium. 

6. Crude Opium has killed People by jjuttirig it 
in hollow Teeihy as (bme Obfervers aver. 

7 . AppU^ to the Earjy it relaxes^ and / as it 
Were J refblves the Tympan and other delicate 
Memhranes concern’d, and thereby offends the 

9. Galen feems to be againft the Application of 
it to the Nape of the NeCk, becaufe lb near the 
Original of the Nerves, 

Nacy That it is not convenient to ufeit, where 
Ref&lutkVy and Relaxation^ may d 6 any Harm, as 
Was faid ofche Tympan of the Ear^ &c. 

10. Venice Treacle j Mithridate^ ^nd Diafeordiumy 
ere fafely applied externally to ihp Region of the 
Stomachy to appeafe Vomiting and Hiccoughs^ mo- 
derate LcofeneJlcSy 8cc. 

1 1. Savanarola and OElavlus Horatianus iifed it 
lOtheNaveltocaiife Sleep • and with Rue^ Myrrh y 
Frankincenfcy and WaXy to move CO Stool • ^hich it 
perform’d ( as the laft mentioned Author fseys.) 

12. Sylvius ufes it in his carminative Vlaifier to 
difeufe Wind, which is rational. 

I J. Some of the Ancients applied it to the Perk 
ruiumy KidneySy Region of the PubtSy &C. to chill 
Venus by cold Quality they attributed CO it, which 
is all Stuff grounded upon that moft abfutd'^^Hypo^^ 

14. They alfo attributed \ts Pfdothrkk Q^sWt^ 
to Cold 'y than which nothing does more fallen, 
and caufe the Hair to growj as you foe in Winter^ 
Timcy when all Furrs are longer, and fallned bet- 
ter to the Skin. Into what Fooleries a falfe Opinion 
will lead People. 

ly. It 

of O'^ma.ReveaPJ. 3 ^^ 

If* It has been uled by Hkron Mercurialu \nUl- 
ee^rs of the Womb withSuccels, and without dar^r, 
as he fays, L. 4, de Morb, MuU c. 7. />. 281. 

1 5 . It has kill’d People in Clyfiers by flicking to 
the Inteftinum reBum^ which was doubtlefs by 
Reafonof its Rofin^ for it has nothing in itbefides 
the Ropn that can flick to do any manner of 
Harm ; which is a moft demotifirati^e Reafonohhc 
Fermcioufnef^ of its Rojtn^ for if it can kill therC| 
much more where there is fuch exquifite Senfation^ 
as is at Stomach. 

However, ’tis known by Experience that Few/^s 
Treacle and Diafyrdium are, becaufe of the Dif* 
femination x>f fhe Opium, and Imallnefs of the 
Quantity, fafe in Clyfiers, and very ufeful in Dy- 
fenteries and Diarrheas, as our Panacea muft be, 
that has no Rofin in it, and diflblvable in Water, 
or any Humours oEtheBody. 

17. It may be ufed in Suppofitories whendie R&fin 
is feparated from it, but I would not advife the 
Ufe of above 4 Grains \n this Cafe ^ or if 8 or tents 
iiied, the Suppofitory fhould not remain long in the 
Body, This I fay for Caution’s fake. 

18. It has been ufed reduced to mOointment or 
Balfam with Oil of Rofes, &c. to the Seals of the 

tp. caufe Sleep, with good Succefs. Valent im 
PoUdamus^L, de DohribusCapitis, p.y/S, 

‘ 19.' D. Francife, Hildefieim afferts, that it takes ' 
away Pain in Cauteries y but feys it is apt to caufe 

20. CroUius in his Bafil, Chym. f, 13, f. fays, That 
2 Pills of Opium, each containing 8 Grains, being 
put up into the Nofirih^ flopt a defperate Hamor- 
rhage ^Lt Noje; but I fhould hardly trufticin this 
Cafe. Poffibly the Bloud might flop by feme 
other Caufe, a fmall Deliquium not obferv^ed, or 
the like *, for DeUquiums flill all Motion by a fed- 
den Relaxation which fas has been laid J fufends 

B b al| 

370 ' the ‘Myjiwles 

all Humours, and weakens the Motion of 
Heart, (if it does not fometiriles quite take it oif^) 
for die Time. 

Secondly^ as an Alterative tLmplafiicky &c. tC (as 
fhown ) incides^ refolves^ difctijfeSy moUefieSy ma^ 
turates^ fappurates,^ and is pfilothrtck and titilldiive i 
Therefore is of Ufe^ 

I. In Vhkgmatick and Oedematous Tumours,^ 

2 In windy Tumour Pains ^ Stitches ^ 8CC, 

To ripen Boils ^ Buboes ^ AbfceJ^es, add the like. 

4. In all hard Tumot^s of the Spleen^ Breads ^ Can^ 
cers,^ TophoufneJI^ &c. in which Cafes it is ( as other 
Opiates are ) of excellent Ufey by their powerful 
refolving and relaxing Faculties, 

5'. To caufe Nourt foment of Farts, Idcre^le of 
Milk, by Relaxation j as Sleep, Puberty, Plea» 
fure^ &:c. do ( as has been fhown. ) 

6. To caufe the fhedding of Hair by Refolution df 

the Parts^ as by a Caufiick, Veficatory, with 
which it agrees in its exulcerating Faculty, when it 
is very ftrong, as the true Mafiach(^6t onos ) which 
we have not. . 

7. To excite to Fenery by its titillating VolaHltSatt^ 
if apply’d tO the Pefin^um, 

Y B hlejfed Minds ! who in an inftattt ktibW ’ 
What in five Thoufand Years none herebeldW 
Could learn ! How mean arc we ? how great are yoti 
O, for your happy State ! while dull Mankind 
Oft*/ee and feel the Things they cannot fnd. 


of Opium ReveaTd. 

Who did noi^fee the Bloud xmve to and fro} 

Yet could none its Circulation know, 

Till enlighten’d Harvey ^ then did he 
Perceive what others feeing could not fee. 

So till God was to my, Enquiries kind, 

Millions fought and felt what they nere could 
What is vain Man, without th’ all knowing Mind ^ 
7b whom all Glory he, all Thankty and Idra^e^ 

As waSi is now, and fit to be always. 

Amen. Amen. Amen. 



37 *